Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis

Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis

3rd Edition - August 16, 2012

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  • Editor: Michael L'Annunziata
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123848734
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123848741

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Description

The updated and much expanded 3e of the Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis is an authoritative reference providing the principles, practical techniques, and procedures for the accurate measurement of radioactivity from the very low levels encountered in the environment to higher levels measured in radioisotope research, clinical laboratories, biological sciences, radionuclide standardization, nuclear medicine, nuclear power, and fuel cycle facilities and in the implementation of nuclear forensic analysis and nuclear safeguards. The book describes the basic principles of radiation detection and measurement and the preparation of samples from a wide variety of matrices, assists the investigator or technician in the selection and use of appropriate radiation detectors, and presents state-of-the-art methods of analysis. Fundamentals of radiation properties, radionuclide decay, the calculations involved, and methods of detection provide the basis for a thorough understanding of the analytical procedures. The Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis, 3e, is suitable as a teaching text for university and professional training courses.

Key Features

  • The only comprehensive reference that describes the principles of detection and practical applications of every type of radioactivity detector currently used. The new 3e is broader in scope, with revised and expanded chapters, new authors, and seven new chapters on Alpha Spectrometry, Radionuclide Standardization, Radioactive Aerosol Measurements, Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring, Marine Radioactivity Analysis, Nuclear Forensic Analysis and Analytical Techniques in Nuclear Safeguards
  • Discusses in detail the principles, theory and practice applied to all types of radiation detection and measurement, making it useful for both teaching and research

Readership

University students and laboratory researchers in the chemical and biological sciences. Scientists in research institutions in the pharmaceutical, chemical, and biological sciences. Nuclear power plants. Departments of Health Physics. Environment and waste management organzations. Atomic energy organizations.

Table of Contents

  • Acronyms

    Acronyms, Abbreviations and Symbols

    Foreword

    Foreword to the Third Edition

    Preface

    Preface to the Third Edition

    Chapter 1. Radiation Physics and Radionuclide Decay

    I Introduction

    II Discovery and Early Characterization of Radioactivity

    III Basic Units and Definitions

    IV Properties of the Nucleus

    V Naturally Occurring Radionuclides

    VI Artificially Produced Radionuclides

    VII Nuclear Reactions

    VIII Particulate Radiation

    IX Electromagnetic Radiation – Photons

    X Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiation with Matter

    XI Radioactive Nuclear Recoil

    XII Cosmic Radiation

    XIII Radiation Dose

    XIV Stopping Power and Linear Energy Transfer

    XV Radionuclide Decay, Ingrowth, and Equilibrium

    XVI Radioactivity Units and Radionuclide Mass

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 2. Radioactivity Counting Statistics

    I Introduction

    II Statistical Distributions

    III Analysis of a Sample of Results

    IV Statistical Inference

    V Regression

    VI Detection Limits

    VII Metrology Applications

    REFERENCES

    Relevant Statistical References Tables

    Chapter 3. Gas Ionization Detectors

    I Introduction: Principles of Radiation Detection by Gas Ionization

    II Characterization of Gas Ionization Detectors

    III Definition of Operating Characteristics of Gas Ionization Detectors

    IV Ion Chambers

    V Proportional Gas Ionization Detectors

    VI Geiger–Müller Counters

    VII Special Types of Ionization Detectors

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 4. Solid-State Nuclear Track Detectors

    Part 1 Elements

    II Detector Materials and Classification of Solid-State Nuclear Track Detectors

    III Recordable Particles with Solid-State Nuclear Track Detectors

    IV Track Formation Mechanisms and Criteria

    V Track Revelation

    VI Particle Identification

    VII Track Fading and Annealing

    VIII Instrumentation

    Part 2 Applications

    II Physical Sciences and Nuclear Technology

    III Earth and Planetary Sciences

    IV Life and Environmental Sciences

    V NanoTechnology and Radiation Induced Material Modifications

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 5. Semiconductor Detectors

    I Introduction

    II Ge Detectors

    III Si Detectors

    IV Spectroscopic Analyses with Semiconductor Detectors

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 6. Alpha Spectrometry

    I Introduction

    II Alpha Decay and Alpha-Emitting Nuclides

    III Detection Systems

    IV Characteristics of the Alpha Spectrum

    V Radiochemical Processing

    VI Determination of Alpha Activity and Recovery

    VII Quality Control

    VIII Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 7. Liquid Scintillation Analysis: Principles and Practice

    I Introduction

    II Basic Theory

    III Liquid Scintillation Counter (Lsc) or Analyzer (LSA)

    IV Quench in Liquid Scintillation Counting

    V Methods of Quench Correction in Liquid Scintillation Counting

    VI Analysis of X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, Atomic Electron and Positron Emitters

    VII Common Interferences in Liquid Scintillation Counting

    VIII Multiple Radionuclide Analysis

    IX Radionuclide Standardization

    X Neutron/Gamma-Ray Measurement and Discrimination

    XI Double Beta (ββ) Decay Detection and Measurement

    XII Detection and Measurement of Neutrinos

    XIII Microplate Scintillation and Luminescence Counting

    XIV PERALS and LS Alpha-Spectrometry with LAAPDs

    XV Simultaneous α/β Analysis

    XVI Plastic Scintillators in LSC

    XVII Scintillation in Noble Liquids

    XVIII Radionuclide Identification

    XIX Air Luminescence Counting

    XX Liquid Scintillation Counter Performance

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 8. Sample Preparation Techniques for Liquid Scintillation Analysis

    I Introduction

    II LSC Cocktail Components1

    III Dissolution

    IV Solubilization2

    V Combustion

    VI Comparison of Sample Oxidation and Solubilization Techniques3

    VII Carbon Dioxide Trapping and Counting4

    VIII Biological Samples Encountered in Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion

    IX Filter and Membrane Counting5

    X Sample Stability Troubleshooting

    XI Swipe Assays

    XII Preparation and Use of Quench Curves in Liquid Scintillation Counting6

    XIII Environmental Sample Preparation7

    XIV Waste Cocktails – Environmental Consequences

    Acknowledgment

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 9. Environmental Liquid Scintillation Analysis

    I Introduction

    II Low-Level Liquid Scintillation Counting Theory

    III α/β Discrimination

    IV Analysis of /β-Emitting Radionuclides

    V Analysis of Radionuclides from Natural Decay Series

    VI Analysis of Transuranium Elements

    VII Analysis of 14C in Fuels Containing Biogenic Materials

    VIII Spectrum Deconvolution Methods in Environmental Analysis

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 10. Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring

    I Introduction: Objective of Environmental Monitoring

    II Types of Monitoring Programs

    III Fundamentals of Environmental Monitoring

    IV Monitoring for Internal Exposure

    V Monitoring for External Exposure

    VI Mobile Monitoring

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 11. Radioactive Aerosol Analysis

    I Introduction

    II Radioactive Aerosol Sampling and Measurement

    III Radioactive Aerosols in Ambient Air

    IV Residence Time of Radioactive Aerosols

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 12. Marine Radioactivity Analysis

    I Introduction

    II Sampling Techniques

    III Underwater Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    IV Analysis of Natural Radionuclides

    V Analysis of Anthropogenic Radionuclides

    VI Activity Measurement Techniques

    VII Analysis of Radioactive Particles

    VIII Management of Data Quality

    IX Marine Radioactivity Databases

    X Marine Radioactivity Studies – Examples

    XI Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 13. Inorganic Mass Spectrometry of Radionuclides

    I Introduction

    II Principles of Mass Spectrometric Techniques and Instrumentation

    III Analytical Considerations and Special Requirements

    IV Applications

    V Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 14. Radionuclide Standardization

    I Introduction

    II Absolute Direct Methods

    III Solid-Angle Primary Methods

    IV Relative Methods

    V Reference Systems

    VI Preparation of Radioactive Samples

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 15. Cherenkov Counting

    I Introduction

    II Discovery of Cherenkov Radiation

    III Theory and Properties of Cherenkov Radiation

    IV Quenching and Quench Correction

    V Cherenkov Counting Parameters

    VI Cherenkov Counting in the Dry State

    VII Radionuclide Analysis with Silica Aerogels

    VIII Cherenkov Counting in Microplate Format

    IX Multiple Radionuclide Analysis

    X Radionuclide Standardization

    XI Gamma-Ray Detection

    XII Particle Identification

    XIII Neutrino Detection and Measurement

    XIV Applications in Radionuclide Analysis

    XV Advantages and Disadvantages in Radionuclide Analysis

    XVI Recommendations in Radionuclide Analysis

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 16. Solid Scintillation Analysis

    I Introduction

    II Principles of Solid Scintillation

    III Solid Scintillation Analyzer

    IV Concepts and Principles of Solid Scintillation Analysis

    V Automated Solid Scintillation Analyzers

    VI Detection of Neutrons

    VII Scintillation In Plastic Media

    VIII n/γ Pulse Shape Discrimination

    IX Bonner Sphere Neutron Spectrometry

    X Lucas Cell

    XI Phoswich Detectors

    XII Neutrino Interactions

    XIII Double Beta (ββ) Decay Measurements

    XIV Scintillating Bolometers

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 17. Flow-Cell Analysis

    I Introduction

    II HPLC Flow Scintillation Analyzers

    III Principles of Flow Scintillation Counting

    IV Flow Scintillator Selection

    V Dual-Functionality Flow-Cell Detectors

    VI Flow-cell Radionuclide Analysis Sequential to Separation

    VII Stopped-Flow Detection

    VIII Flow-Cell Effluent Water Monitors

    IX Single-Radionuclide Analysis in HPLC

    X Dual-Radionuclide Analysis

    XI On-Line HPLC-FSA and Mass Spectrometry (MS)1

    XII On-Line FSA and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)2

    XIII On-Line HPLC-FSA-MS-NMR

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 18. Automated Radiochemical Separation, Analysis, and Sensing

    I Introduction

    II Radiochemical Separations

    III Automation of Radiochemical Analysis using Flow Injection or Sequential Injection Fluidics

    IV Selected Radiochemical Analysis Examples

    V Automation using Robotics

    VI Automated Monitors for Industrial-Scale Nuclear Processes

    VII Radionuclide Sensors and Systems for Water Monitoring

    VIII Medical Isotope Generation

    IX Discussion

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 19. High-Resolution Beta Imaging

    I Introduction

    II Autoradiography Principles

    III Energy-storage Latent Imaging

    IV Particle-counting Imaging Systems

    V Comparative Use of the Different Techniques

    VI Other Applications

    VII Perspectives and Future Developments

    VIII Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 20. Analytical Techniques in Nuclear Safeguards

    I Introduction

    II Photon-based Assay for Safeguards

    III Neutron-based Assay for Safeguards

    IV Calorimetric Assay

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 21. Nuclear Forensics

    I Introduction

    II The Origins of Nuclear Forensics

    III National Objectives

    IV Nuclear Attribution

    V Nuclear Forensic Interpretation

    VI Validated Signatures

    VII Analytical Results

    VIII Validated Methods

    IX Quality Assurance

    X Sampling

    XI Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    APPENDIX A: Table of Radioactive Isotopes

    APPENDIX B: Particle Range–energy Correlations

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1418
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2012
  • Published: August 16, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123848734
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123848741

About the Editor

Michael L'Annunziata

Michael L'Annunziata
Michael F. L'Annunziata earned his PhD degree in 1970 at the University of Arizona. His thesis research in the 1960s under contract with the then-US Atomic Energy Commission dealt with the analysis of radionuclides and chemical remediation of the environment in the event of fission product fallout from nuclear war. L'Annunziata was formerly Head of Fellowships and Training at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria; and he has served as a representative and lecturer for the IAEA on peaceful applications of nuclear energy for development in over 40 countries of the world from 1976-2007 and currently a private consultant in radioactivity analysis.

Affiliations and Expertise

Former Head, IAEA Fellowships and Training, Vienna, Austria; Current office: Oceanside, CA, USA

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