Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780123848734, 9780123848741

Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis

3rd Edition

Editors: Michael L'Annunziata
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123848734
eBook ISBN: 9780123848741
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 16th August 2012
Page Count: 1418
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The updated and much expanded 3e of the Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis is an authoritative reference providing the principles, practical techniques, and procedures for the accurate measurement of radioactivity from the very low levels encountered in the environment to higher levels measured in radioisotope research, clinical laboratories, biological sciences, radionuclide standardization, nuclear medicine, nuclear power, and fuel cycle facilities and in the implementation of nuclear forensic analysis and nuclear safeguards. The book describes the basic principles of radiation detection and measurement and the preparation of samples from a wide variety of matrices, assists the investigator or technician in the selection and use of appropriate radiation detectors, and presents state-of-the-art methods of analysis. Fundamentals of radiation properties, radionuclide decay, the calculations involved, and methods of detection provide the basis for a thorough understanding of the analytical procedures. The Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis, 3e, is suitable as a teaching text for university and professional training courses.

Key Features

  • The only comprehensive reference that describes the principles of detection and practical applications of every type of radioactivity detector currently used. The new 3e is broader in scope, with revised and expanded chapters, new authors, and seven new chapters on Alpha Spectrometry, Radionuclide Standardization, Radioactive Aerosol Measurements, Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring, Marine Radioactivity Analysis, Nuclear Forensic Analysis and Analytical Techniques in Nuclear Safeguards
  • Discusses in detail the principles, theory and practice applied to all types of radiation detection and measurement, making it useful for both teaching and research


University students and laboratory researchers in the chemical and biological sciences. Scientists in research institutions in the pharmaceutical, chemical, and biological sciences. Nuclear power plants. Departments of Health Physics. Environment and waste management organzations. Atomic energy organizations.

Table of Contents


Acronyms, Abbreviations and Symbols


Foreword to the Third Edition


Preface to the Third Edition

Chapter 1. Radiation Physics and Radionuclide Decay

I Introduction

II Discovery and Early Characterization of Radioactivity

III Basic Units and Definitions

IV Properties of the Nucleus

V Naturally Occurring Radionuclides

VI Artificially Produced Radionuclides

VII Nuclear Reactions

VIII Particulate Radiation

IX Electromagnetic Radiation – Photons

X Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiation with Matter

XI Radioactive Nuclear Recoil

XII Cosmic Radiation

XIII Radiation Dose

XIV Stopping Power and Linear Energy Transfer

XV Radionuclide Decay, Ingrowth, and Equilibrium

XVI Radioactivity Units and Radionuclide Mass


Chapter 2. Radioactivity Counting Statistics

I Introduction

II Statistical Distributions

III Analysis of a Sample of Results

IV Statistical Inference

V Regression

VI Detection Limits

VII Metrology Applications


Relevant Statistical References Tables

Chapter 3. Gas Ionization Detectors

I Introduction: Principles of Radiation Detection by Gas Ionization

II Characterization of Gas Ionization Detectors

III Definition of Operating Characteristics of Gas Ionization Detectors

IV Ion Chambers

V Proportional Gas Ionization Detectors

VI Geiger–Müller Counters

VII Special Types of Ionization Detectors


Chapter 4. Solid-State Nuclear Track Detectors

Part 1 Elements

II Detector Materials and Classification of Solid-State Nuclear Track Detectors

III Recordable Particles with Solid-State Nuclear Track Detectors

IV Track Formation Mechanisms and Criteria

V Track Revelation

VI Particle Identification

VII Track Fading and Annealing

VIII Instrumentation

Part 2 Applications

II Physical Sciences and Nuclear Technology

III Earth and Planetary Sciences

IV Life and Environmental Sciences

V NanoTechnology and Radiation Induced Material Modifications



Chapter 5. Semiconductor Detectors

I Introduction

II Ge Detectors

III Si Detectors

IV Spectroscopic Analyses with Semiconductor Detectors


Chapter 6. Alpha Spectrometry

I Introduction

II Alpha Decay and Alpha-Emitting Nuclides

III Detection Systems

IV Characteristics of the Alpha Spectrum

V Radiochemical Processing

VI Determination of Alpha Activity and Recovery

VII Quality Control

VIII Conclusions


Chapter 7. Liquid Scintillation Analysis: Principles and Practice

I Introduction

II Basic Theory

III Liquid Scintillation Counter (Lsc) or Analyzer (LSA)

IV Quench in Liquid Scintillation Counting

V Methods of Quench Correction in Liquid Scintillation Counting

VI Analysis of X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, Atomic Electron and Positron Emitters

VII Common Interferences in Liquid Scintillation Counting

VIII Multiple Radionuclide Analysis

IX Radionuclide Standardization

X Neutron/Gamma-Ray Measurement and Discrimination

XI Double Beta (ββ) Decay Detection and Measurement

XII Detection and Measurement of Neutrinos

XIII Microplate Scintillation and Luminescence Counting

XIV PERALS and LS Alpha-Spectrometry with LAAPDs

XV Simultaneous α/β Analysis

XVI Plastic Scintillators in LSC

XVII Scintillation in Noble Liquids

XVIII Radionuclide Identification

XIX Air Luminescence Counting

XX Liquid Scintillation Counter Performance


Chapter 8. Sample Preparation Techniques for Liquid Scintillation Analysis

I Introduction

II LSC Cocktail Components1

III Dissolution

IV Solubilization2

V Combustion

VI Comparison of Sample Oxidation and Solubilization Techniques3

VII Carbon Dioxide Trapping and Counting4

VIII Biological Samples Encountered in Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion

IX Filter and Membrane Counting5

X Sample Stability Troubleshooting

XI Swipe Assays

XII Preparation and Use of Quench Curves in Liquid Scintillation Counting6

XIII Environmental Sample Preparation7

XIV Waste Cocktails – Environmental Consequences



Chapter 9. Environmental Liquid Scintillation Analysis

I Introduction

II Low-Level Liquid Scintillation Counting Theory

III α/β Discrimination

IV Analysis of /β-Emitting Radionuclides

V Analysis of Radionuclides from Natural Decay Series

VI Analysis of Transuranium Elements

VII Analysis of 14C in Fuels Containing Biogenic Materials

VIII Spectrum Deconvolution Methods in Environmental Analysis


Chapter 10. Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring

I Introduction: Objective of Environmental Monitoring

II Types of Monitoring Programs

III Fundamentals of Environmental Monitoring

IV Monitoring for Internal Exposure

V Monitoring for External Exposure

VI Mobile Monitoring


Chapter 11. Radioactive Aerosol Analysis

I Introduction

II Radioactive Aerosol Sampling and Measurement

III Radioactive Aerosols in Ambient Air

IV Residence Time of Radioactive Aerosols


Chapter 12. Marine Radioactivity Analysis

I Introduction

II Sampling Techniques

III Underwater Gamma-ray Spectrometry

IV Analysis of Natural Radionuclides

V Analysis of Anthropogenic Radionuclides

VI Activity Measurement Techniques

VII Analysis of Radioactive Particles

VIII Management of Data Quality

IX Marine Radioactivity Databases

X Marine Radioactivity Studies – Examples

XI Conclusions



Chapter 13. Inorganic Mass Spectrometry of Radionuclides

I Introduction

II Principles of Mass Spectrometric Techniques and Instrumentation

III Analytical Considerations and Special Requirements

IV Applications

V Conclusion


Chapter 14. Radionuclide Standardization

I Introduction

II Absolute Direct Methods

III Solid-Angle Primary Methods

IV Relative Methods

V Reference Systems

VI Preparation of Radioactive Samples


Chapter 15. Cherenkov Counting

I Introduction

II Discovery of Cherenkov Radiation

III Theory and Properties of Cherenkov Radiation

IV Quenching and Quench Correction

V Cherenkov Counting Parameters

VI Cherenkov Counting in the Dry State

VII Radionuclide Analysis with Silica Aerogels

VIII Cherenkov Counting in Microplate Format

IX Multiple Radionuclide Analysis

X Radionuclide Standardization

XI Gamma-Ray Detection

XII Particle Identification

XIII Neutrino Detection and Measurement

XIV Applications in Radionuclide Analysis

XV Advantages and Disadvantages in Radionuclide Analysis

XVI Recommendations in Radionuclide Analysis


Chapter 16. Solid Scintillation Analysis

I Introduction

II Principles of Solid Scintillation

III Solid Scintillation Analyzer

IV Concepts and Principles of Solid Scintillation Analysis

V Automated Solid Scintillation Analyzers

VI Detection of Neutrons

VII Scintillation In Plastic Media

VIII n/γ Pulse Shape Discrimination

IX Bonner Sphere Neutron Spectrometry

X Lucas Cell

XI Phoswich Detectors

XII Neutrino Interactions

XIII Double Beta (ββ) Decay Measurements

XIV Scintillating Bolometers


Chapter 17. Flow-Cell Analysis

I Introduction

II HPLC Flow Scintillation Analyzers

III Principles of Flow Scintillation Counting

IV Flow Scintillator Selection

V Dual-Functionality Flow-Cell Detectors

VI Flow-cell Radionuclide Analysis Sequential to Separation

VII Stopped-Flow Detection

VIII Flow-Cell Effluent Water Monitors

IX Single-Radionuclide Analysis in HPLC

X Dual-Radionuclide Analysis

XI On-Line HPLC-FSA and Mass Spectrometry (MS)1

XII On-Line FSA and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)2



Chapter 18. Automated Radiochemical Separation, Analysis, and Sensing

I Introduction

II Radiochemical Separations

III Automation of Radiochemical Analysis using Flow Injection or Sequential Injection Fluidics

IV Selected Radiochemical Analysis Examples

V Automation using Robotics

VI Automated Monitors for Industrial-Scale Nuclear Processes

VII Radionuclide Sensors and Systems for Water Monitoring

VIII Medical Isotope Generation

IX Discussion


Chapter 19. High-Resolution Beta Imaging

I Introduction

II Autoradiography Principles

III Energy-storage Latent Imaging

IV Particle-counting Imaging Systems

V Comparative Use of the Different Techniques

VI Other Applications

VII Perspectives and Future Developments

VIII Conclusions


Chapter 20. Analytical Techniques in Nuclear Safeguards

I Introduction

II Photon-based Assay for Safeguards

III Neutron-based Assay for Safeguards

IV Calorimetric Assay


Chapter 21. Nuclear Forensics

I Introduction

II The Origins of Nuclear Forensics

III National Objectives

IV Nuclear Attribution

V Nuclear Forensic Interpretation

VI Validated Signatures

VII Analytical Results

VIII Validated Methods

IX Quality Assurance

X Sampling

XI Conclusions



APPENDIX A: Table of Radioactive Isotopes

APPENDIX B: Particle Range–energy Correlations



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About the Editor

Michael L'Annunziata

Michael F. L’Annunziata, Ph.D. appears with a detailed biography in the annual editions of Who’s Who in the World from 1987 to 2016 and Who’s Who in America from 2000 to 2016. He majored in chemistry with a BSc degree from St. Edward's University in 1965; and he was awarded MSc and PhD degrees from the University of Arizona, Tucson in 1967 and 1970, respectively, and an Honorary Teaching Degree from the Central University of Ecuador in 1978. His graduate thesis research in the 1960s, financed by the then U.S. Atomic Energy Commission directed by Nobel laureate Glenn T. Seaborg, dealt with the analysis of radioactive strontium-89 and strontium-90 in the environment and the remediation of soils contaminated with strontium-90 in the event of nuclear fallout. L’Annunziata was a member of the Board of Governors, International Science Programs at Uppsala University between 1988 and 1991. He was Head of Fellowships and Training at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria from 1987-1991 and has served as IAEA Expert on peaceful applications of nuclear energy for development to over 50 countries of the world from 1976 to 2007. His main research interests have been focused on the development of chemical and instrumental methods for the detection and measurement of radioactive nuclides in the environment and the application of radioactive tracers in biological research. L'Annunziata was first to demonstrate in 1971 the separation of strontium-90 from its daughter nuclide yttrium-90 by electrophoresis as a potential method for strontium-90 analysis (J. Chem. Educ. 48, 700-703). He was the first to postulate in 1970 and 1975 the soil microbial epimerization of myo-inositol to other inositol isomers as a source of inositol phosphate isomers in soils (University of Arizona, Ph.D. dissertation, 1970 (http://dissexpress.umi.com/dxweb/search.html) and SSSA Journal 30(2), 377-379) and to demonstrate in 1977, with the use of radioactive carbon-14, the soil microbial epimerization of myo-inositol to D-chiro-inositol as a mechanism for the origin of the unique inositol phosphate isomers in soils (SSSA Journal 41(4), 733-736). Michael F. L’Annunziata was Honorary Professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou, China in 1992. He has authored several books among which his recent book entitled "Radioactivity: Introduction and History" published by Elsevier was on the LibraryJournal’s Best Sellers List in Physics..

Affiliations and Expertise

Oceanside, CA, USA


"This mighty hardback of almost 1400 US letter-sized pages is the third edition of this handbook to appear, 24 years after the first edition. It has been enlarged by 7 chapters over its predecessor – now a total of 21 – and all the other chapters have been updated in what has surely become one of the standard reference works for those working in both academia and industry in detection, measurement and analysis in the area of radioactivity."--Synthesis 44 (2012)