Handbook of Psychobiology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122786563, 9780323143868

Handbook of Psychobiology

1st Edition

Editors: Michael S. Gazzaniga
eBook ISBN: 9780323143868
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1975
Page Count: 655
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Description

Handbook of Psychobiology presents an integrative overview of psychobiology and covers topics ranging from pathways in the central nervous system to principles of neuronal development; chemical pathways in the brain; the role of neurotransmitters in the regulation of behavior; and the biological basis of memory. Vertebrate sensory and motor systems are also discussed, along with the psychobiology of attention and neurological aspects of learning.
This handbook consists of 21 chapters divided into four sections and opens with an introduction to neural mechanisms underlying the behavior of invertebrates, followed by a comparison of the visual behavior of humans and arthropods. The next sections explore the chemistry of behavior, the sensory and motor systems of vertebrates, and integration and regulation in the brain. Visual perception and visual coding, central auditory processing, and auditory localization are considered, together with motor coordination, neurophysiological aspects of dreaming, cognition, and language. The final chapter is devoted to some of the philosophical issues surrounding perception. This monograph will be of value to psychologists, biologists, physiologists, and others in fields ranging from biochemistry and linguistics to invertebrate neurophysiology and perceptual phenomenology.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Part I. Foundations of Psychobiology

Chapter 1 Neural Mechanisms Underlying Behavior of Invertebrates

Introduction

Strategies

Neuronal Machinery Controlling Behavior

Conclusions

References

Chapter 2 Similarities in the Visual Behavior of Arthropods and Men

Introduction

Keeping Still

Looking Around

Locating Targets

Tracking

Conclusions

References

Chapter 3 Anatomical Methods for Tracing Connections in the Central Nervous System

Introduction

Preparation of the Material

Study of Pathways in Normal Brains

Experimental Methods for the Tracing of Pathways

Operative Procedures

Stereotaxic Atlases

References

Chapter 4 The Perfectible Brain: Principles of Neuronal Development

Introduction: Invariant and Variable

Components of the Nervous System

Two Neuronal Archetypes: Macroneurons and Microneurons

Determinants of Neuronal Invariance

Determinants of Neuronal Variability

References

Part II. The Chemistry of Behavior

Chapter 5 Chemical Pathways in the Brain

Introduction

Distribution of NA, DA, and 5-HT

Distribution of ACh Esterase

Distribution of GAB A and Glycine

References

Chapter 6 Central Neurotransmitters and the Regulation of Behavior

Introduction

Dopamine

Noradrenaline

Acetylcholine

Transmitter Interactions

Problems for Future Studies

References

Chapter 7 Biochemical Approaches to the Biological Basis of Memory

Introduction

Current Status of Knowledge

Tentative Guidelines for Recognizing Learning- Related Cerebral Neurochemical Events

Future Directions for Research in this Area

References

Part III. Vertebrate Sensory and Motor Systems

Chapter 8 Central Visual Processing

The Trigger Feature Hypothesis

The Visual Pathway

Patterns of Synthesis

References

Chapter 9 What Does Visual Perception Tell Us about Visual Coding

Introduction

Simultaneous and Successive Contrast

Adaptation during Very Steady Fixation Contingent Aftereffects

Neurophysiological Models of Simple Aftereffects

Spatial Frequency Response: Luminance Gratings

Spatial Frequency Analysis

Feature Detection

Higher Perceptual Processes

References

Chapter 10 Central Auditory Processing

Introduction

Cochlear Nucleus

Inferior Colliculus

Medial Geniculate Body

Auditory Cortex

Central Auditory Processing: Conclusion References

Chapter 11 Auditory Localization

Introduction

Classic Experiments

Role of Orientation

References

Chapter 12 The Somatosensory System

Models of the Brain

The Dorsal Column-Medial Lemniscal System

References

Chapter 13 The Chemical Senses: A Systematic Approach

The Parameters: Two Approaches

Related Problem Areas

General Summary

References

Chapter 14 Motor Coordination: Central and Peripheral Control during Eye-Head Movement

Introduction

Structure of Eye-Head Motor Coordination

Triggered Eye-Head Movements

Central Programming of Eye-Head Movements: Electromyographic Findings

Interactions between the Central Program and Afferent Reflex Activity

Compensatory Eye Movements

Strategies of Motor Coordination

References

Part IV. Integration and Regulation in the Brain

Chapter 15 Psychobiology of Attention

Introduction

Alertness

Selective Attention

Conscious Processing

Summary

References

Chapter 16 Some Trends in the Neurological Study of Learning

Introduction

Approaches to the Study of the Neural Basis of Learning

Learning after Removal of Nervous Tissue

Environment, Learning, and the Brain

Sleep as a Pattern of Brain Organization Necessary for Fixation of Learning

Conclusion

References

Chapter 17 The Function of Dreaming: A Neurophysiologists Point of View

A Neurophysiological Dissection of Dreaming and Its Priming Mechanism

The Evolution of Dreaming

The Function of Dreaming

References

Chapter 18 Cognition and Peripheralist-Centralist Controversies in Motivation and Emotion

Introduction

The Experiment

The Effects of the Manipulations on Emotional State

Peripheral and Central Theories of Emotion and Motivation

A Reexamination of Cannon’s Critique of Visceral Formulation of Emotion

References

Chapter 19 Brain Mechanisms and Behavior

Brain Bisection: A General Review

Partial Commissurotomy and Cerebral Localization of Function

Mapping the Flow of Cognitive Information with Commissurotomy

Cerebral Dynamics and Mental Functions

Recovery of Function

Cortical Mass and Cognitive Capability

References

Chapter 20 On the Origins of Language

Introduction

Iconic and Symbolic Communication

Experimental Anthropology

Laboratory-Field Combination

Words

Invented Words

Aesthetics and the Discovery of Basic Causal Relations

Conclusion

References

Chapter 21 Do We Need Cognitive Concepts

Introduction

Some Theory-Laden Terms

Evidence for Cognitive Processes

Cognitive Theories of Perception

Computer Analogies—The Artificial Intelligence (AI) Approach

What Is Cognition

Conclusion

References

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
655
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1975
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323143868

About the Editor

Michael S. Gazzaniga