Handbook of Process Integration (PI)

Handbook of Process Integration (PI)

Minimisation of Energy and Water Use, Waste and Emissions

1st Edition - July 31, 2013

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  • Editor: Jiri Klemes
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857097255
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857095930

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Since its first development in the 1970s, Process Integration (PI) has become an important methodology in achieving more energy efficient processes. This pioneering handbook brings together the leading scientists and researchers currently contributing to PI development, pooling their expertise and specialist knowledge to provide readers with a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the latest PI research and applications.After an introduction to the principles of PI, the book reviews a wide range of process design and integration topics ranging from heat and utility systems to water, recycling, waste and hydrogen systems. The book considers Heat Integration, Mass Integration and Extended PI as well as a series of applications and case studies. Chapters address not just operating and capital costs but also equipment design and operability issues, through to buildings and supply chains.With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Handbook of Process Integration (PI) is a standard reference work for managers and researchers in all energy-intensive industries, as well as academics with an interest in them, including those designing and managing oil refineries, petrochemical and power plants, as well as paper/pulp, steel, waste, food and drink processors.

Key Features

  • This pioneering handbook provides a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the latest process integration research and applications
  • Reviews a wide range of process design and integration topics ranging from heat and utility systems to water, recycling, waste and hydrogen systems
  • Chapters also address equipment design and operability issues, through to buildings and supply chains


Chemical and industrial process engineers and manufacturers; Energy and environmental consultants and managers

Table of Contents

  • Contributor contact details

    Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy


    Part I: Overview of Process Integration and Analysis

    Chapter 1: Process Integration (PI): An Introduction


    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 A Short History of Process Integration (PI)

    1.3 Current Centres of Expertise in PI

    1.4 Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 2: Basic Process Integration Terminology


    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Process Integration Terms: The Importance of Context

    2.3 Fundamental Process Integration Terms

    2.4 Conventions: Symbols for Heaters and Coolers

    2.6 Appendix: Nomenclature

    Chapter 3: Process Design, Integration and Optimisation: Advantages, Challenges and Drivers


    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Grassroots Design versus Retrofit Design

    3.3 Process Integration

    3.4 Integration versus Intensification

    3.5 Process Integration Techniques

    3.6 Optimisation of Integrated Processes

    3.7 Controllability of Integrated Processes

    3.8 Process Integration under Disturbances

    Part II: Heat Integration

    Chapter 4: Heat Integration: Targets and Heat Exchanger Network Design


    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Stages in the Design of Heat Recovery Systems

    4.3 Data Extraction

    4.4 Performance Targets

    4.5 Process Modifications

    4.6 Network Design

    4.7 Design Evolution

    4.8 Conclusion

    4.9 Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 5: Application of Process Integration to the Synthesis of Heat and Power Utility Systems Including Combined Heat and Power (CHP) and Industrial Heat Pumps


    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Targeting Utility Loads and Temperature Levels

    5.3 Integration of Advanced Energy Conversion Cycles as Process Utilities: Basic Concepts

    5.4 Process Integration of Heat Engines

    5.5 Process Integration of Heat Pumps

    5.6 Sources of Further Information and Advice

    Chapter 6: Total Site Methodology


    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Data Extraction for Total Sites

    6.3 Total Site Profiles and Total Site Composite Curves

    6.4 Site Utility Grand Composite Curve (SUGCC)

    6.5 Conclusion

    6.6 Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 7: Extending Total Site Methodology to Address Varying Energy Supply and Demand


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Characteristics of Energy Supply and Demand

    7.3 Thermal Energy Storage and Integrated Architecture

    7.4 Terminology for Process Streams and Utilities

    7.5 Identification of Time Slices

    7.6 Heat Cascades for the Evaluation of Total Site Targets When There Is Variation in Supply and Demand

    7.7 Case Study: Integration of Solar Thermal Energy into a Locally Integrated Energy Sector (LIES)

    7.8 Conclusion

    7.9 Sources of Further Information

    7.11 Appendix: Nomenclature

    Chapter 8: Analysis and Design of Heat Recovery Systems for Grassroots and Retrofit Situations


    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Extended Procedures for Grassroots Analysis

    8.3 Extended Procedures for Grassroots Design

    8.4 Retrofit Analysis and Design

    8.5 Use of Optimisation for Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis

    8.6 Conclusion

    8.7 Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 9: Heat Integration in Batch Processes


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Graphical Technique for Heat Integration in Batch Process

    9.3 Mathematical Technique for Heat Integration of Batch Plants

    9.4 Case Study of a Multipurpose Batch Facility

    9.5 Industrial Case Study

    9.6 Conclusion

    9.7 Sources of Further Information

    9.9 Appendix: Glover Transformation (Glover, 1975)

    Part III: Mass Integration

    Chapter 10: Water Pinch Analysis for Water Management and Minimisation: An Introduction


    10.1 Approaches for Water Management and Minimisation

    10.2 Water Integration and Water Pinch Analysis

    10.3 Water Pinch Analysis Steps

    10.4 Examples of Successful Case Studies

    10.7 Appendix: Nomenclature

    Chapter 11: Using Systematic Design Methods to Minimise Water Use in Process Industries


    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Water Use in Process Industries

    11.3 Process Integration for Water Systems

    11.4 Conclusions and Future Trends

    11.5 Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 12: Synthesis of Water Networks with Water Loss and Gain via an Extended Pinch Analysis Technique


    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Targeting a Single Water-Using Process

    12.3 Process-based Graphical Approach (PGA) for Synthesis of Direct Reuse Water Networks

    12.4 Conclusion

    12.5 Sources of Further Information and Advice

    12.6 Acknowledgements

    12.8 Appendix: Nomenclature

    Chapter 13: Conserving Material Resources through Process Integration: Material Conservation Networks


    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Overall Targeting of Material Conservation Networks

    13.3 Mass Exchange Networks

    13.4 Water-Pinch Analysis

    13.5 Direct Recycle and Material Recycle Pinch Diagram

    13.6 Property-Based Material Recycle Pinch Diagram

    13.8 Appendix: Nomenclature

    Part IV: Extended Process Integration

    Chapter 14: Process Integration for Cleaner Process Design


    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 A Revised ‘Onion Diagram’

    14.3 Different Models for Total Material Network (TMN)

    14.4 Case Study: Water Minimisation in a Water Fabrication Plant

    14.5 Conclusion

    14.6 Sources of Further Information

    14.8 Appendix: Nomenclature

    Chapter 15: Process Integration Concepts for Combined Energy and Water Integration


    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Water–Energy Specifics and Challenges

    15.3 Water Path Concept

    15.4 State-of-the-Art Methodology for Combined Energy and Water Integration

    15.5 Sequential, Simultaneous, Mathematical Programming

    15.6 Conclusion

    15.7 Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 16: Process Integration Techniques for Cogeneration and Trigeneration Systems


    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Combined Heat and Power

    16.3 Heat Integration of Trigeneration Systems

    16.4 Conclusions

    16.5 Sources of Further Information

    16.7 Appendix: Nomenclature

    Chapter 17: Pinch Analysis for Sustainable Energy Planning Using Diverse Quality Measures


    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Generalised Problem Statement

    17.3 Graphical Targeting Procedure

    17.4 Case Studies

    17.5 Conclusion

    17.6 Sources of Further Information

    17.8 Appendix

    Chapter 18: A Unified Targeting Algorithm for Diverse Process Integration Problems


    18.1 Introduction to Targeting Algorithms

    18.2 Unified Approach to Diverse Resource Optimisation Problems

    18.3 Basis for Unification

    18.4 Unified Targeting Algorithm (UTA)

    18.5 Heat Exchange Networks (HENs) and Mass Exchange Networks (MENs)

    18.6 Water Networks: Case Study of a Specialty Chemical Plant

    18.7 Hydrogen and Other Gas Networks

    18.8 Property-Based Material Reuse Networks

    18.9 Alternative Approaches to Targeting

    18.10 Conclusion

    18.11 Sources of Further Information

    18.13 Appendix: Nomenclature

    Chapter 19: A Process Integration Approach for Supply Chain Development


    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Supply Chain Characteristics and Performance Measurement

    19.3 Supply Chain Development with Process Integration

    19.4 Case Studies

    19.5 Future Trends

    19.6 Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 20: Application of Heat Recovery Loops to Semi-continuous Processes for Process Integration


    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Indirect Heat Recovery Systems

    20.3 Application of Heat Recovery Loops to Semi-continuous Plants

    20.4 A More Complex Example of a Heat Recovery Loop (HRL)

    20.5 Case Study: Semi-continuous Multi-plant Dairy Factory

    20.6 Conclusions and Future Trends

    20.7 Sources of Further Information

    Part V: Applications and Case Studies

    Chapter 21: Applications of Energy and Water Process Integration Methodologies in Oil Refineries and Petrochemical Complexes


    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Heat and Power Integration

    21.3 Water and Wastewater Minimisation

    Results and Discussion

    Results and Discussion

    21.4 Effluent Treatment and Regeneration

    Results and Discussion

    Results and Discussion

    21.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 22: Process Integration of an Oil Refinery Hydrogen Network


    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Technology Review

    22.3 An Industrial Case Study

    22.4 Hydrogen Management in the Wider Context of Process Integration: Future Trends

    22.5 Conclusion

    22.6 Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 23: Retrofit Mass Integration of Acid Gas Removal Systems in Petrochemical Plants


    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Review of Previous Work on Mass Exchanger Network Synthesis (MENS) and Retrofit of Existing Systems

    23.3 Systems Studied: Venturi Scrubber System and Ethanolamine Absorber System

    23.4 Pinch Approach

    23.5 Hybrid Approach

    23.6 Solution Equilibria

    23.7 Results and Discussion

    23.8 Conclusions and Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 24: Applications of Pinch Technology to Total Sites: A Heavy Chemical Industrial Complex and a Steel Plant


    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Case Study of a Heavy Chemical Complex

    24.3 Case Study of a Steel Plant

    24.4 Conclusion

    24.5 Sources of Further Information

    24.6 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 25: Applications of Process Integration Methodologies in the Pulp and Paper Industry


    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 Energy Demands and Sources in the Kraft Pulping Process

    25.3 Relations between the Heat Exchanger and Water Networks

    25.4 Increasing Energy Efficiency in Existing Mills

    25.5 Methodological Developments for Heat Integration in Existing Mills

    25.6 Evolution of Pulp and Paper Mills

    25.7 Conclusion

    25.8 Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 26: Application of Process Integration Methodologies to the Thermal Processing of Waste


    26.1 Introduction

    26.2 Types of Waste Thermal Processing Plants

    26.3 Analysis of Energy Efficiency in the TERMIZO Plant

    26.4 Application of Heat Integration Technology

    26.5 Conclusion

    26.6 Sources of Further Information and Advice

    Chapter 27: Application of Process Integration Methodologies in the Brewing Industry


    27.1 Introduction

    27.2 Process Flowsheet Analysis

    27.3 Calculating Maximum Heat Recovery in the System

    27.4 Defining the Energy Conversion System

    27.5 Conclusion

    27.6 Sources of Further Information

    27.8 Appendix A: Complementary Tables

    27.9 Appendix B: Nomenclature

    Chapter 28: Applications of Process Integration Methodologies in Dairy and Cheese Production


    28.1 Introduction

    28.2 Application of Process Integration Methodologies

    28.3 Selected Case Studies

    28.4 Future Trends

    28.5 Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 29: Applications of Process Integration Methodologies in Beet Sugar Plants


    29.1 Introduction

    29.2 Sugar Production from Sugar Beet

    29.3 Identification of Opportunities to Improve Energy and Water Use in Sugar Plants

    29.4 Reduction of Energy Consumption

    29.5 Reduction of Water Consumption

    29.6 Energy and Water Use in Sugar Production Directly from Raw Beet Juice

    29.7 Future Trends

    29.8 Sources of Further Information and Advice

    Chapter 30: Application of Process Integration Techniques for the Efficient Use of Energy in a Urea Fertiliser Plant: A Case Study


    30.1 Introduction

    30.2 Process Description

    30.3 Opportunities for the Reduction of Energy Consumption

    30.4 Conclusion

    30.5 Sources of Further Information

    30.7 Appendix: Nomenclature

    Chapter 31: Process Integration for Energy Saving in Buildings and Building Complexes


    31.1 Introduction

    31.2 Buildings as Consumers and Producers of Energy

    31.3 Commercial and Public Buildings and Building Complexes

    31.4 District Energy (DE) Systems and Total Site Analysis (TSA)

    31.5 The Use of Industrial Waste Heat

    31.6 Renewable Energy for Buildings

    31.7 Conclusion

    31.8 Sources of Further Information and Advice

    Chapter 32: Heat Transfer Enhancement in Heat Exchanger Networks


    32.1 Introduction to Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers

    32.2 Heat Transfer Enhancement Techniques

    32.3 Heat Transfer Enhancement in Heat Exchanger Network Retrofit

    32.4 Heat Transfer Enhancement in Heat Exchanger Network Retrofit with Fouling Consideration

    32.5 Sources of Further Information

    32.6 Nomenclature

    Chapter 33: Applications of Pinch Analysis in the Design of Isolated Energy Systems


    33.1 Introduction

    33.2 Isolated Energy Systems: Descriptions and Models

    33.3 Grand Composite Curve and Storage Sizing

    33.4 Design Space

    33.5 Illustrative Applications

    33.6 Sources of Further Information and Advice

    Part VI: Software Tools and Epilogue

    Chapter 34: Software Tools for Heat Integration


    34.1 Heat Integration Software Tools

    34.2 Sources of Further Information and Advice

    Chapter 35: Mass and Water Integration Software Tools


    35.1 Mass and Water Integration Software Tools

    35.2 Sources of Further Information and Advice

    Chapter 36: Epilogue: The Importance of Problem Formulation and Data Extraction in Process Integration


    36.1 Introduction: Process Integration – from its Roots to its Present Strong Position

    36.2 Successful Applications of Process Integration

    36.3 Methods of Obtaining Credible High Integration HI Solutions

    36.4 Data Extraction

    36.5 Integration of Renewables – Fluctuating Demand and Supply

    36.6 Results Interpretation

    36.7 Conclusion: Making It Happen

    36.8 Sources of Further Information

    36.9 Acknowledgements


Product details

  • No. of pages: 1184
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2013
  • Published: July 31, 2013
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857097255
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857095930

About the Editor

Jiri Klemes

Jiri Klemes
Prof Dr-Hab Jiří Jaromír KLEMEŠ, DSc, Dr h c (mult) and George Pólya Professor. Head of a Centre of Excellence “Sustainable Process Integration Laboratory – SPIL”, NETME Centre, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology - VUT Brno, Czech Republic. Previously the Project Director, Senior Project Officer and Hon Reader at Department of Process Integration at UMIST, The University of Manchester and the University of Edinburgh, UK Founder and a long-term Head of the Centre for Process Integration and Intensification – CPI2, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary. Awarded by the EC with Marie Curie Chair of Excellence (EXC). Track record of managing and coordinating 97 major EC, NATO, bilateral and UK Know-How projects. Research funding attracted over 46 M€. Co-Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Cleaner Production (IF 2020 = 9.297) and Chemical Engineering Transactions, Editor in Chief Cleaner Technologies and Engineering and Cleaner Chemical Engineering (Elsevier); Subject Editor of Energy (IF 2020 = 7.147) Managing Guest Editor of Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (IF 2020 = 14.982). The founder and President of 25 y of PRES (Process Integration for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction) conferences. Seven years Chairperson of CAPE Working Party of European Federation of Chemical Engineering, a member of WP on Process Intensification. A Member of the IChemE, UK, Sargent Medal International Committee on CAPE. Awarded by the Web of Science and Publons as a Highly Cited Researcher, Top Peer Reviewer and Top Handling Editor. He authored and co-authored 792 papers (WoS) in 106 scientific journals, h-index in Google Scholar 78, Scopus 67, PUBLONS (WoS) 61. His Publons profile (Web of Science) has 2,552 reviews for 186 scientific journals and 17,020 Editor Merits for 24 Editorial boards. Invited lecturer at 68 universities, 14 Distinguished Visiting Professor, 6 Doctor Honoris causa, 36 PhD students, 44 Expert Evaluator. Invited lecturer at 52 universities world-wide including Cornell, Ithaca, and North-West University Chicago, USA; Fudan University and SINOPEC Shanghai Research Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Shanghai; Tsinghua and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Xi’an Jiaotong University, China; Hong-Kong Polytechnic University; National Chengchi University and National Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan; Hanyang University, and Korea Universities, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich, Imperial College, London, UK; Norwegian University of Science and Technology – NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; Tomsk Technological University, Tomsk, Russian Federation; S. Amanzholov East Kazakhstan State University, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan; University of Paderborn and Bayer Technology Services GmbH, Leverkusen and BASF Board of Directors Forum on Process Technology, Ludwigshafen, Germany; VTT Energy, Finland; VITO MOL, Belgium: MOL Hungarian Oil Company, DUSLO Šala, Slovakia, TNO Leiden, Groningen, Zeist and Eindhoven; Utrecht and Delft University, the Netherlands; University Politechnica Leonardo da Vinci, Milano, Università degli studi di Genova and Sapienza, Rome, Italy; Universidad Industrial de Santander, Colombia; King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Oporto, Portugal, CEA Grenoble, France; Charmers and Stockholm University, Sweden. Several times Distinguished Visiting Professor incl Universiti Teknologi Malaysia and University Technology Petronas, Malaysia; Xi’an Jiaotong University; the South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University Suzhou, JiangSu, and Tianjin University in China; University of Maribor, Slovenia; the Brno University of Technology, the Russian Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, Moscow and Cracow University of Technology, Poland. Doctor Honoris Causa of Kharkiv National University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”, Ukraine, the University of Maribor, Slovenia, University POLITEHNICA Bucharest, Romania, Széchenyi István University Györ, Hungary and “Honorary Doctor of Engineering” Universiti Teknologi Malaysia”. Awarded with “Honorary Membership of Czech Society of Chemical Engineering”, “European Federation of Chemical Engineering (EFCE) Life-Time Achievements Award” and “Pro Universitaire Pannonica” Gold Medal.

Affiliations and Expertise

Head of Sustainable Process Integration Laboratory (SPIL) NETME CENTRE, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering BRNO UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY - VUT Brno Czech Republic

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