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Handbook of Process Integration (PI) - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857095930, 9780857097255

Handbook of Process Integration (PI)

1st Edition

Minimisation of Energy and Water Use, Waste and Emissions

Editor: Jiri Klemes
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857095930
eBook ISBN: 9780857097255
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 31st July 2013
Page Count: 1184
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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy


Part I: Overview of Process Integration and Analysis

Chapter 1: Process Integration (PI): An Introduction


1.1 Introduction

1.2 A Short History of Process Integration (PI)

1.3 Current Centres of Expertise in PI

1.4 Sources of Further Information

Chapter 2: Basic Process Integration Terminology


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Process Integration Terms: The Importance of Context

2.3 Fundamental Process Integration Terms

2.4 Conventions: Symbols for Heaters and Coolers

2.6 Appendix: Nomenclature

Chapter 3: Process Design, Integration and Optimisation: Advantages, Challenges and Drivers


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Grassroots Design versus Retrofit Design

3.3 Process Integration

3.4 Integration versus Intensification

3.5 Process Integration Techniques

3.6 Optimisation of Integrated Processes

3.7 Controllability of Integrated Processes

3.8 Process Integration under Disturbances

Part II: Heat Integration

Chapter 4: Heat Integration: Targets and Heat Exchanger Network Design


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Stages in the Design of Heat Recovery Systems

4.3 Data Extraction

4.4 Performance Targets

4.5 Process Modifications

4.6 Network Design

4.7 Design Evolution

4.8 Conclusion

4.9 Sources of Further Information

Chapter 5: Application of Process Integration to the Synthesis of Heat and Power Utility Systems Including Combined Heat and Power (CHP) and Industrial Heat Pumps


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Targeting Utility Loads and Temperature Levels

5.3 Integration of Advanced Energy Conversion Cycles as Process Utilities: Basic Concepts

5.4 Process Integration of Heat Engines

5.5 Process Integration of Heat Pumps

5.6 Sources of Further Information and Advice

Chapter 6: Total Site Methodology


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Data Extraction for Total Sites

6.3 Total Site Profiles and Total Site Composite Curves

6.4 Site Utility Grand Composite Curve (SUGCC)

6.5 Conclusion

6.6 Sources of Further Information

Chapter 7: Extending Total Site Methodology to Address Varying Energy Supply and Demand


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Characteristics of Energy Supply and Demand

7.3 Thermal Energy Storage and Integrated Architecture

7.4 Terminology for Process Streams and Utilities

7.5 Identification of Time Slices

7.6 Heat Cascades for the Evaluation of Total Site Targets When There Is Variation in Supply and Demand

7.7 Case Study: Integration of Solar Thermal Energy into a Locally Integrated Energy Sector (LIES)

7.8 Conclusion

7.9 Sources of Further Information

7.11 Appendix: Nomenclature

Chapter 8: Analysis and Design of Heat Recovery Systems for Grassroots and Retrofit Situations


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Extended Procedures for Grassroots Analysis

8.3 Extended Procedures for Grassroots Design

8.4 Retrofit Analysis and Design

8.5 Use of Optimisation for Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis

8.6 Conclusion

8.7 Sources of Further Information

Chapter 9: Heat Integration in Batch Processes


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Graphical Technique for Heat Integration in Batch Process

9.3 Mathematical Technique for Heat Integration of Batch Plants

9.4 Case Study of a Multipurpose Batch Facility

9.5 Industrial Case Study

9.6 Conclusion

9.7 Sources of Further Information

9.9 Appendix: Glover Transformation (Glover, 1975)

Part III: Mass Integration

Chapter 10: Water Pinch Analysis for Water Management and Minimisation: An Introduction


10.1 Approaches for Water Management and Minimisation

10.2 Water Integration and Water Pinch Analysis

10.3 Water Pinch Analysis Steps

10.4 Examples of Successful Case Studies

10.7 Appendix: Nomenclature

Chapter 11: Using Systematic Design Methods to Minimise Water Use in Process Industries


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Water Use in Process Industries

11.3 Process Integration for Water Systems

11.4 Conclusions and Future Trends

11.5 Sources of Further Information

Chapter 12: Synthesis of Water Networks with Water Loss and Gain via an Extended Pinch Analysis Technique


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Targeting a Single Water-Using Process

12.3 Process-based Graphical Approach (PGA) for Synthesis of Direct Reuse Water Networks

12.4 Conclusion

12.5 Sources of Further Information and Advice

12.6 Acknowledgements

12.8 Appendix: Nomenclature

Chapter 13: Conserving Material Resources through Process Integration: Material Conservation Networks


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Overall Targeting of Material Conservation Networks

13.3 Mass Exchange Networks

13.4 Water-Pinch Analysis

13.5 Direct Recycle and Material Recycle Pinch Diagram

13.6 Property-Based Material Recycle Pinch Diagram

13.8 Appendix: Nomenclature

Part IV: Extended Process Integration

Chapter 14: Process Integration for Cleaner Process Design


14.1 Introduction

14.2 A Revised ‘Onion Diagram’

14.3 Different Models for Total Material Network (TMN)

14.4 Case Study: Water Minimisation in a Water Fabrication Plant

14.5 Conclusion

14.6 Sources of Further Information

14.8 Appendix: Nomenclature

Chapter 15: Process Integration Concepts for Combined Energy and Water Integration


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Water–Energy Specifics and Challenges

15.3 Water Path Concept

15.4 State-of-the-Art Methodology for Combined Energy and Water Integration

15.5 Sequential, Simultaneous, Mathematical Programming

15.6 Conclusion

15.7 Sources of Further Information

Chapter 16: Process Integration Techniques for Cogeneration and Trigeneration Systems


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Combined Heat and Power

16.3 Heat Integration of Trigeneration Systems

16.4 Conclusions

16.5 Sources of Further Information

16.7 Appendix: Nomenclature

Chapter 17: Pinch Analysis for Sustainable Energy Planning Using Diverse Quality Measures


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Generalised Problem Statement

17.3 Graphical Targeting Procedure

17.4 Case Studies

17.5 Conclusion

17.6 Sources of Further Information

17.8 Appendix

Chapter 18: A Unified Targeting Algorithm for Diverse Process Integration Problems


18.1 Introduction to Targeting Algorithms

18.2 Unified Approach to Diverse Resource Optimisation Problems

18.3 Basis for Unification

18.4 Unified Targeting Algorithm (UTA)

18.5 Heat Exchange Networks (HENs) and Mass Exchange Networks (MENs)

18.6 Water Networks: Case Study of a Specialty Chemical Plant

18.7 Hydrogen and Other Gas Networks

18.8 Property-Based Material Reuse Networks

18.9 Alternative Approaches to Targeting

18.10 Conclusion

18.11 Sources of Further Information

18.13 Appendix: Nomenclature

Chapter 19: A Process Integration Approach for Supply Chain Development


19.1 Introduction

19.2 Supply Chain Characteristics and Performance Measurement

19.3 Supply Chain Development with Process Integration

19.4 Case Studies

19.5 Future Trends

19.6 Sources of Further Information

Chapter 20: Application of Heat Recovery Loops to Semi-continuous Processes for Process Integration


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Indirect Heat Recovery Systems

20.3 Application of Heat Recovery Loops to Semi-continuous Plants

20.4 A More Complex Example of a Heat Recovery Loop (HRL)

20.5 Case Study: Semi-continuous Multi-plant Dairy Factory

20.6 Conclusions and Future Trends

20.7 Sources of Further Information

Part V: Applications and Case Studies

Chapter 21: Applications of Energy and Water Process Integration Methodologies in Oil Refineries and Petrochemical Complexes


21.1 Introduction

21.2 Heat and Power Integration

21.3 Water and Wastewater Minimisation

Results and Discussion

Results and Discussion

21.4 Effluent Treatment and Regeneration

Results and Discussion

Results and Discussion

21.5 Conclusion

Chapter 22: Process Integration of an Oil Refinery Hydrogen Network


22.1 Introduction

22.2 Technology Review

22.3 An Industrial Case Study

22.4 Hydrogen Management in the Wider Context of Process Integration: Future Trends

22.5 Conclusion

22.6 Sources of Further Information

Chapter 23: Retrofit Mass Integration of Acid Gas Removal Systems in Petrochemical Plants


23.1 Introduction

23.2 Review of Previous Work on Mass Exchanger Network Synthesis (MENS) and Retrofit of Existing Systems

23.3 Systems Studied: Venturi Scrubber System and Ethanolamine Absorber System

23.4 Pinch Approach

23.5 Hybrid Approach

23.6 Solution Equilibria

23.7 Results and Discussion

23.8 Conclusions and Sources of Further Information

Chapter 24: Applications of Pinch Technology to Total Sites: A Heavy Chemical Industrial Complex and a Steel Plant


24.1 Introduction

24.2 Case Study of a Heavy Chemical Complex

24.3 Case Study of a Steel Plant

24.4 Conclusion

24.5 Sources of Further Information

24.6 Acknowledgements

Chapter 25: Applications of Process Integration Methodologies in the Pulp and Paper Industry


25.1 Introduction

25.2 Energy Demands and Sources in the Kraft Pulping Process

25.3 Relations between the Heat Exchanger and Water Networks

25.4 Increasing Energy Efficiency in Existing Mills

25.5 Methodological Developments for Heat Integration in Existing Mills

25.6 Evolution of Pulp and Paper Mills

25.7 Conclusion

25.8 Sources of Further Information

Chapter 26: Application of Process Integration Methodologies to the Thermal Processing of Waste


26.1 Introduction

26.2 Types of Waste Thermal Processing Plants

26.3 Analysis of Energy Efficiency in the TERMIZO Plant

26.4 Application of Heat Integration Technology

26.5 Conclusion

26.6 Sources of Further Information and Advice

Chapter 27: Application of Process Integration Methodologies in the Brewing Industry


27.1 Introduction

27.2 Process Flowsheet Analysis

27.3 Calculating Maximum Heat Recovery in the System

27.4 Defining the Energy Conversion System

27.5 Conclusion

27.6 Sources of Further Information

27.8 Appendix A: Complementary Tables

27.9 Appendix B: Nomenclature

Chapter 28: Applications of Process Integration Methodologies in Dairy and Cheese Production


28.1 Introduction

28.2 Application of Process Integration Methodologies

28.3 Selected Case Studies

28.4 Future Trends

28.5 Sources of Further Information

Chapter 29: Applications of Process Integration Methodologies in Beet Sugar Plants


29.1 Introduction

29.2 Sugar Production from Sugar Beet

29.3 Identification of Opportunities to Improve Energy and Water Use in Sugar Plants

29.4 Reduction of Energy Consumption

29.5 Reduction of Water Consumption

29.6 Energy and Water Use in Sugar Production Directly from Raw Beet Juice

29.7 Future Trends

29.8 Sources of Further Information and Advice

Chapter 30: Application of Process Integration Techniques for the Efficient Use of Energy in a Urea Fertiliser Plant: A Case Study


30.1 Introduction

30.2 Process Description

30.3 Opportunities for the Reduction of Energy Consumption

30.4 Conclusion

30.5 Sources of Further Information

30.7 Appendix: Nomenclature

Chapter 31: Process Integration for Energy Saving in Buildings and Building Complexes


31.1 Introduction

31.2 Buildings as Consumers and Producers of Energy

31.3 Commercial and Public Buildings and Building Complexes

31.4 District Energy (DE) Systems and Total Site Analysis (TSA)

31.5 The Use of Industrial Waste Heat

31.6 Renewable Energy for Buildings

31.7 Conclusion

31.8 Sources of Further Information and Advice

Chapter 32: Heat Transfer Enhancement in Heat Exchanger Networks


32.1 Introduction to Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers

32.2 Heat Transfer Enhancement Techniques

32.3 Heat Transfer Enhancement in Heat Exchanger Network Retrofit

32.4 Heat Transfer Enhancement in Heat Exchanger Network Retrofit with Fouling Consideration

32.5 Sources of Further Information

32.6 Nomenclature

Chapter 33: Applications of Pinch Analysis in the Design of Isolated Energy Systems


33.1 Introduction

33.2 Isolated Energy Systems: Descriptions and Models

33.3 Grand Composite Curve and Storage Sizing

33.4 Design Space

33.5 Illustrative Applications

33.6 Sources of Further Information and Advice

Part VI: Software Tools and Epilogue

Chapter 34: Software Tools for Heat Integration


34.1 Heat Integration Software Tools

34.2 Sources of Further Information and Advice

Chapter 35: Mass and Water Integration Software Tools


35.1 Mass and Water Integration Software Tools

35.2 Sources of Further Information and Advice

Chapter 36: Epilogue: The Importance of Problem Formulation and Data Extraction in Process Integration


36.1 Introduction: Process Integration – from its Roots to its Present Strong Position

36.2 Successful Applications of Process Integration

36.3 Methods of Obtaining Credible High Integration HI Solutions

36.4 Data Extraction

36.5 Integration of Renewables – Fluctuating Demand and Supply

36.6 Results Interpretation

36.7 Conclusion: Making It Happen

36.8 Sources of Further Information

36.9 Acknowledgements



Since its first development in the 1970s, Process Integration (PI) has become an important methodology in achieving more energy efficient processes. This pioneering handbook brings together the leading scientists and researchers currently contributing to PI development, pooling their expertise and specialist knowledge to provide readers with a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the latest PI research and applications.

After an introduction to the principles of PI, the book reviews a wide range of process design and integration topics ranging from heat and utility systems to water, recycling, waste and hydrogen systems. The book considers Heat Integration, Mass Integration and Extended PI as well as a series of applications and case studies. Chapters address not just operating and capital costs but also equipment design and operability issues, through to buildings and supply chains.

With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Handbook of Process Integration (PI) is a standard reference work for managers and researchers in all energy-intensive industries, as well as academics with an interest in them, including those designing and managing oil refineries, petrochemical and power plants, as well as paper/pulp, steel, waste, food and drink processors.

Key Features

  • This pioneering handbook provides a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the latest process integration research and applications
  • Reviews a wide range of process design and integration topics ranging from heat and utility systems to water, recycling, waste and hydrogen systems
  • Chapters also address equipment design and operability issues, through to buildings and supply chains


Chemical and industrial process engineers and manufacturers; Energy and environmental consultants and managers


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2013
31st July 2013
Woodhead Publishing
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:


"The 34 chapters solicited for this dense volume describe the basic steps of pinch analysis for heat recovery that started the process integration movement, and review current methods for combining operations within several processes to reduce consumption of resources and harmful emissions...Topics include total site targeting, total material network, trigeneration systems, targeting algorithms, supply chain development, heat recovery loops, and software tools.", February 2014

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editor

Jiri Klemes

Jiri Klemes

Prof Dr-Hab Jiří Jaromír KLEMEŠ, DSc, Dr h c (mult) George Pólya Professor Head of a Centre of Excellence “Sustainable Process Integration Laboratory – SPIL”, NETME Centre, FME, Brno University of Technology - VUT Brno, Czech Republic and Emeritus Professor at “Centre for Process Systems Engineering and Sustainability”, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Budapest, Hungary. Previously the Project Director, Senior Project Officer and Hon Reader at Department of Process Integration at UMIST, The University of Manchester and the University of Edinburgh, UK. Founder and a long-term Head of the Centre for Process Integration and Intensification – CPI2, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary. Awarded by the EC with Marie Curie Chair of Excellence (EXC). Track record of managing and coordinating 94 major EC, NATO, bilateral and UK Know-How projects. Research funding attracted over 43 M€. Co-Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Cleaner Production (IF 6.315) and Chemical Engineering Transactions, Editor in Chief of Cleaner Engineering and Technology - CLET (Elsevier Golden Access), Subject Editor of Energy and Emeritus Executive Editor of Applied Thermal Engineering. The founder and President for 23 y of PRES (Process Integration for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction) conferences. Seven years Chairperson of CAPE Working Party of EFCE (European Federation of Chemical Engineering), a member of WP on Process Intensification and of the EFCE Sustainability platform. A Member of the IChemE Sargent Medal International Committee on CAPE. He has been awarded by the Web of Science and Publons a Highly Cited Researcher, Top Peer Reviewer and Top Handling Editor. He authored and co-authored 556 papers, 13,789 citations, h-index in Google Scholar 60, in Scopus 53 His Publons profile (Web of Science) shows 1,832 reviews for 121 scientific journals and 7,960 Editors Merits for 21 Editorial boards. A number of books published by Elsevier, De Gruyter, Woodhead, McGraw-Hill; Ashgate Pub. Cambridge; Springer; WILEY-VCH; Taylor & Francis). Invited lecturer at 56 universities and Distinquished Visiting Professor world-wide including Cornell, Ithaca, New York and North-West University Chicago, Fudan University and SINOPEC Shanghai Research Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Shanghai; Tsinghua and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China University of Petrochemistry Beijing, Xi'an Jiaotong University, China; Hong-Kong Polytechnic University; National Chengchi University, National University of Taiwan., National University Singapore. Hanyang University, and Korea Universities, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich, Imperial College, London, UK; Norwegian University of Science and Technology – NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; Tomsk Technological University, Tomsk, Russian Federation; S. Amanzholov East Kazakhstan State University, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan; University of Paderborn and Bayer Technology Services GmbH, Leverkusen and BASF Board of Directors Forum on Process Technology, Ludwigshafen, Germany; VTT Energy, Finland; VITO MOL, Belgium; MOL Hungarian Oil Company, DUSLO Šala, Slovakia, TNO Leiden, Groningen, Zeist and Eindhoven; Utrecht and Delft University, the Netherlands; University Politechnica Leonardo da Vinci, Milano, Università degli studi di Genova and Sapienza, Rome, Italy; Universidad Industrial de Santander, Colombia; King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Oporto, Portugal, CEA Grenoble, France; Charmers and Stockholm University, Sweden, Taiwan Association of Environmental and Resource Economics (TAERE), Taiwan Chemical Industry Forum, Technical University Cracow, Poland, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA. Several times Distinguished Visiting Professor at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia and University Technology Petronas, Malaysia; Xi’an Jiaotong University; the South China University of Technology, Guangzhou and Tianjin University in China; University of Maribor, Slovenia; the Brno University of Technology, the Russian Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, Moscow and Cracow University of Technology, Poland. Doctor Honoris Causa of Kharkiv National University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute” in Ukraine, the University of Maribor in Slovenia, University POLITEHNICA Bucharest, Romania “Honorary Doctor of Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia”. Awarded with “Honorary Membership of Czech Society of Chemical Engineering", "European Federation of Chemical Engineering (EFCE) Life-Time Achievements Award" and "Pro Universitaire Pannonica" Gold Medal. He has been a supervisor and co-supervisor of 27 PhD students at UMIST; The University of Manchester, UK; Prague University of Chemical Technology, Universiti Technologi Malaysia, Universiti Technologi Petronas, Malaysia, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China, University of Pannonia, Hungary, University of Maribor, Slovenia; D. Serikbayev East Kazakhstan State Technical University, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan, and Brno University of Technology, VUT Brno. Most PhD graduated as “Suma Cum laude” and “Cum laude”. He has many years of research and industrial experience, including research in process integration, sustainable technologies and renewable energy, which has resulted in extensive successful industrial case studies and applications. He consulted on energy saving and pollution reduction 37 major clients. Research results have been applied by world-leading industrial companies and universities as ICI (Imperial Chemical Industries) Plc, Runcorn, UK; Dow Chemical Canada Inc, Sarnia, Ontario; BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Germany; COPENE – Petroquimica Do Nordeste S.A., Camacari/Bajia, Brazil, SLOVNAFT Bratislava, Slovakia; CHEMOPROJEKT Praha, Czechoslovakia; DUSLO Sala, Slovakia; NORSK HYDRO, Porsgrunn, Norway; ZVU Hradec Kralova; Czechoslovakia, Critical Fluid Systems Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA; United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA; SHELL Global Solution, Amsterdam and ECOPETROL Colombia; MOL Group The Duna Refinery at Százhalombatta; PETROBRAS Brazil, ALDARIS Brewery Riga, Latvia; KREMENCHUG REFINERY and SODRUGESTVO-T Kharkiv, Ukraine; Sumy Khimprom TiO2 plant, Ukraine, EVECO Brno; CHEMOPETROL Litvínov, ACHEMA JONAVA Lithuania, PPRI Bratislava and Chemical Works NOVAKY Slovakia; BUTiH Poland, MARCH Consulting Group UK, LINNHOFF MARCH UK, Firth Executive Ltd Wales, UK, PETROM Romania; Libyan Petroleum Institute, Tripoli, Libya. A very high profile application was an invited FPD Course for a prestigious von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics in Brussels and CSIR - Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Pretoria, South Africa.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Pannonia, Hungary