Handbook of Plasticizers - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9781895198973, 9781927885161

Handbook of Plasticizers

3rd Edition

Authors: George Wypych
eBook ISBN: 9781927885161
Hardcover ISBN: 9781895198973
Imprint: ChemTec Publishing
Published Date: 20th February 2017
Page Count: 870
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Description

Handbook of Plasticizers, Third Edition, is an essential professional reference, providing information that enables R&D scientists, production chemists, and engineers the information they need to use plasticizers more effectively, and to avoid certain plasticizers in applications where they may cause health or material durability problems. Plasticizers are vital to the plastics industry, particularly in improving the properties of materials such as PVC. Plasticizers are commonly added to complex mixtures containing a variety of materials, so successful incorporation requires a broad understanding of the mechanisms of plasticizer action, and compatibility with different materials and blends. There is a large selection of commercial plasticizers, and various environmental issues which impact on selection decisions.

The book discusses new and historical approaches to the use of plasticizers, explaining mechanisms of plasticizers' action and their behavior in plasticized systems. It goes into detail on the use of plasticizers in a range of specific polymers, polymer blends, and other industrial products. This includes coverage of the impact of plasticizers on processing. George Wypych provides the data and know-how from the most recent sources and updated information required by engineers and scientists working in the plastics industry and the many industry sectors that use plastics in their products. The book covers the uses, advantages, and disadvantages of plasticizers, historical and theoretical background, their effects on process conditions, and health, safety, and environmental issues.

Key Features

  • Enables materials scientists, chemists and engineers to use plasticizers more effectively, and avoid health and safety or performance risks
  • Includes detailed coverage of the impact of plasticizers on polymers, and processing methods
  • Provides the broad background of information required to select the correct plasticizer for any application
  • Covers the uses, advantages, and disadvantages of plasticizers, including historical and theoretical background

Readership

Engineers, researchers and technicians in the plastics industry

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION

  • 1.1 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS
  • 1.2 EXPECTATIONS FROM PLASTICIZERS
  • 1.3 DEFINITIONS
  • 1.4 CLASSIFICATION

Chapter 2: PLASTICIZER TYPES

  • 2.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 2.2 CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES OF INDUSTRIAL PLASTICIZERS
  • 2.3 METHODS OF SYNTHESIS AND THEIR EFFECT ON PROPERTIES OF PLASTICIZERS
  • 2.4 REACTIVE PLASTICIZERS AND INTERNAL PLASTICIZATION

Chapter 3: TYPICAL METHODS OF QUALITY CONTROL OF PLASTICIZERS

  • 3.1 ABBREVIATIONS, TERMINOLOGY, AND VOCABULARY
  • 3.2 ACID NUMBER
  • 3.3 AGING STUDIES
  • 3.4 ASH
  • 3.5 BRITTLENESS TEMPERATURE
  • 3.6 BROOKFIELD VISCOSITY
  • 3.7 CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
  • 3.8 COLOR
  • 3.9 COMPATIBILITY
  • 3.10 COMPRESSION SET
  • 3.11 CONCRETE ADDITIVES
  • 3.12 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
  • 3.13 EXTRACTABLE MATTER
  • 3.14 FLASH AND FIRE POINT
  • 3.15 FOGGING
  • 3.16 FUSION
  • 3.17 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY
  • 3.18 HARDNESS
  • 3.19 INFRARED ANALYSIS OF PLASTICIZERS
  • 3.20 KINEMATIC VISCOSITY
  • 3.21 MARKING (CLASSIFICATION)
  • 3.22 MELT RHEOLOGY
  • 3.23 MIGRATION
  • 3.24 POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) – STANDARD SPECIFICATION
  • 3.25 POWDER-MIX TIME
  • 3.26 PURITY
  • 3.27 REFRACTIVE INDEX
  • 3.28 RESIDUAL CONTAMINATION
  • 3.29 SAMPLING
  • 3.30 SAPONIFICATION VALUE
  • 3.31 SAYBOLT VISCOSITY
  • 3.32 SORPTION OF PLASTICIZER
  • 3.33 SPECIFIC GRAVITY
  • 3.34 SPECIFICATION
  • 3.35 STAINING
  • 3.36 STIFFNESS
  • 3.37 TENSILE PROPERTIES
  • 3.38 THERMAL EXPANSION COEFFICIENT
  • 3.39 UNSAPONIFIABLE CONTENTS
  • 3.40 VISCOSITY OF PLASTISOLS AND ORGANOSOLS
  • 3.41 WATER CONCENTRATION
  • 3.42 WEIGHT LOSS

Chapter 4: TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE

  • 4.1 TRANSPORTATION
  • 4.2 STORAGE

Chapter 5: MECHANISMS OF PLASTICIZERS ACTION

  • 5.1 CLASSICAL THEORIES
  • 5.2 THE FREE VOLUME THEORY

Chapter 6: THEORIES OF COMPATIBILITY

  • 6.1 COMPATIBILITY CONCEPTS
  • 6.2 SOLUBILITY PARAMETER AND THE COHESIVE ENERGY DENSITY
  • 6.3 METHODS OF PLASTICIZER SELECTION BASED ON PRINCIPLES OF COMPATIBILITY
  • 6.4 PRACTICAL APPROACHES IN USING THEORY OF COMPATIBILITY FOR PLASTICIZERS SELECTION
  • 6.5 EXPERIMENTAL DATA ILLUSTRATING EFFECT OF COMPATIBILITY ON PLASTICIZED SYSTEMS

Chapter 7: PLASTICIZER MOTION AND DIFFUSION

  • 7.1 PLASTICIZER DIFFUSION RATE AND THE METHODS OF STUDY
  • 7.2 PLASTICIZER MOTION AND DISTRIBUTION IN MATRIX
  • 7.3 PLASTICIZER MIGRATION
  • 7.5 ANTIPLASTICIZATION
  • 7.6 EFFECT OF DIFFUSION AND MOBILITY OF PLASTICIZERS ON THEIR SUITABILITY

Chapter 8: EFFECT OF PLASTICIZERS ON OTHER COMPONENTS OF FORMULATION

  • 8.1 PLASTICIZER CONSUMPTION BY FILLERS
  • 8.2 SOLUBILITY OF ADDITIVES IN PLASTICIZERS
  • 8.3 ADDITIVE MOLECULAR MOBILITY AND TRANSPORT IN THE PRESENCE OF PLASTICIZERS
  • 8.4 EFFECT OF PLASTICIZERS ON POLYMERIZATION AND CURING REACTIONS

Chapter 9: PLASTICIZATION STEPS

  • 9.1 PLASTICIZATION STEPS
  • 9.2 STUDIES OF PLASTISOL’S BEHAVIOR DURING GELATION AND FUSION

Chapter 10: EFFECT OF PLASTICIZERS ON PROPERTIES OF PLASTICIZED MATERIALS

  • 10.1 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
  • 10.2 OPTICAL PROPERTIES
  • 10.3 SPECTRAL PROPERTIES
  • 10.4 GLOSS
  • 10.5 SOUND
  • 10.6 RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
  • 10.7 MAGNETORHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
  • 10.8 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
  • 10.9 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICIZERS ON THE GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE OF POLYMERS
  • 10.10 FLAMMABILITY AND SMOKE FORMATION IN THE PRESENCE OF PLASTICIZERS
  • 10.11 THERMAL DEGRADATION
  • 10.12 EFFECT OF UV AND IONIZED RADIATION ON PLASTICIZED MATERIALS
  • 10.13 HYDROLYSIS
  • 10.14 BIODEGRADATION IN THE PRESENCE OF PLASTICIZERS
  • 10.15 CRYSTALLIZATION, STRUCTURE, AND ORIENTATION OF MACROMOLECULES
  • 10.16 MORPHOLOGY
  • 10.17 PLASTICIZER EFFECT ON CONTACT WITH OTHER MATERIALS
  • 10.18 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICIZERS ON SWELLING OF CROSSLINKED ELASTOMERS
  • 10.19 THE SWELLING OF NANO-HETEROGENEOUS COATINGS IN PLASTICIZERS
  • 10.20 PECULIARITIES OF PLASTICIZATION OF POLYURETHANES BY BINARY PLASTICIZERS
  • 10.21 STABILITY OF PHYSICO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PLASTICIZED POLYETHERURETHANE IN A HUMID MEDIUM
  • 10.22 FUSIBLE DIURETHANE PLASTICIZERS FOR THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANE COMPOSITES
  • 10.23 DETERMINATION OF OSMOTIC PRESSURE OF PLASTICIZER IN POLYMER
  • 10.24 SELF-HEALING
  • 10.25 SHRINKAGE
  • 10.26 SOILING
  • 10.27 FREE VOLUME
  • 10.28 EFFECT OF PLASTICIZERS ON OTHER PROPERTIES

Chapter 11: PLASTICIZERS USE AND SELECTION FOR SPECIFIC POLYMERS

  • 11.1 ABS
  • 11.2 ACRYLICS
  • 11.3 BROMOBUTYL RUBBER
  • 11.4 BUTYL TERPOLYMER
  • 11.5 CELLULOSE ACETATE
  • 11.6 CELLULOSE BUTYRATES AND PROPIONATES
  • 11.7 CELLULOSE NITRATE
  • 11.8 CHITOSAN
  • 11.9 CHLORINATED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE
  • 11.10 CHLOROSULFONATED POLYETHYLENE
  • 11.11 COPOLYMERS
  • 11.12 CYANOACRYLATES
  • 11.13 ETHYLCELLULOSE
  • 11.14 EPOXY RESIN
  • 11.15 ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE-DIENE COPOLYMER, EPDM
  • 11.16 ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER, EVA
  • 11.17 IONOMERS
  • 11.18 NITRILE RUBBER
  • 11.19 PERFLUOROPOLYMERS
  • 11.20 POLYACRYLONITRILE
  • 11.21 POLYAMIDE
  • 11.22 POLYAMINE
  • 11.23 POLYANILINE
  • 11.24 POLYBUTADIENE
  • 11.25 POLYBUTYLENE
  • 11.26 POLY(BUTYL METHACRYLATE)
  • 11.27 POLYCARBONATE
  • 11.28 POLYESTER
  • 11.29 POLYETHERIMIDE
  • 11.30 POLYETHYLACRYLATE
  • 11.31 POLYETHYLENE
  • 11.32 POLY(ETHYLENE OXIDE)
  • 11.33 POLY(3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE)
  • 11.34 POLYISOBUTYLENE
  • 11.35 POLYISOPRENE
  • 11.36 POLYIMIDE
  • 11.37 POLYLACTIDE
  • 11.38 POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE
  • 11.39 POLYPROPYLENE
  • 11.40 POLY(PROPYLENE CARBONATE)
  • 11.41 POLY(N-VINYLCARBAZOLE)
  • 11.42 POLY(N-VINYLPYRROLIDONE)
  • 11.43 POLY(PHENYLENE ETHER)
  • 11.44 POLY(PHENYLENE SULFIDE)
  • 11.45 POLYSTYRENE
  • 11.46 POLYSULFIDE
  • 11.47 POLYSULFONE
  • 11.49 POLYVINYLACETATE
  • 11.50 POLYVINYLALCOHOL
  • 11.51 POLYVINYLBUTYRAL
  • 11.52 POLYVINYLCHLORIDE
  • 11.53 POLYVINYLFLUORIDE
  • 11.54 POLYVINYLIDENEFLUORIDE
  • 11.55 POLYVINYLIDENECHLORIDE
  • 11.56 PROTEINS
  • 11.57 RUBBER, NATURAL
  • 11.58 SILICONE
  • 11.59 STYRENE-BUTADIENE RUBBER
  • 11.60 STYRENE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE RUBBER
  • 11.61 STARCH

Chapter 12: PLASTICIZERS IN POLYMER BLENDS

  • 12.1 PLASTICIZER PARTITION BETWEEN COMPONENT POLYMERS
  • 12.2 INTERACTION OF PLASTICIZERS WITH BLEND COMPONENTS
  • 12.3 EFFECT OF PLASTICIZERS ON BLEND PROPERTIES
  • 12.4 BLENDING TO REDUCE OR TO REPLACE PLASTICIZERS

Chapter 13: PLASTICIZERS IN VARIOUS INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS

  • 13.1 ADHESIVES AND SEALANTS
  • 13.2 AEROSPACE
  • 13.3 AGRICULTURE
  • 13.4 AUTOMOTIVE
  • 13.5 CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS
  • 13.6 COATED FABRICS
  • 13.7 COMPOSITES
  • 13.8 COSMETICS
  • 13.9 CULTURAL HERITAGE
  • 13.10 DENTAL MATERIALS
  • 13.11 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS
  • 13.12 FIBERS
  • 13.13 FILM
  • 13.14 FOOD
  • 13.15 FLOORING
  • 13.16 FOAMS
  • 13.17 FOOTWEAR
  • 13.18 FUEL CELLS
  • 13.19 GASKETS
  • 13.20 HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS
  • 13.21 INKS, VARNISHES, AND LACQUERS
  • 13.22 MEDICAL APPLICATIONS
  • 13.23 MEMBRANES
  • 13.24 MICROSPHERES
  • 13.25 PAINTS AND COATINGS
  • 13.26 PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS
  • 13.27 PHOTOGRAPHIC MATERIALS
  • 13.28 PIPES
  • 13.29 ROOFING MATERIALS
  • 13.30 TIRES
  • 13.32 TUBING
  • 13.33 WIRE AND CABLE

Chapter 14: PLASTICIZERS IN VARIOUS PROCESSING METHODS

  • 14.1 BLOW MOLDING
  • 14.2 CALENDERING
  • 14.3 COIL COATING
  • 14.4 COMPRESSION MOLDING
  • 14.5 COMPOUNDING (MIXING)
  • 14.6 DIP COATING
  • 14.7 DRY BLENDING
  • 14.8 EXTRUSION
  • 14.9 INJECTION MOLDING
  • 14.10 POLYMER SYNTHESIS
  • 14.12 RUBBER PROCESSING
  • 14.13 THERMOFORMING
  • 14.14 WEB COATING
  • 14.15 WIRE COATING

Chapter 15: SPECIALIZED ANALYTICAL METHODS IN PLASTICIZER TESTING

  • 15.1 PLASTICIZER IDENTIFICATION
  • 15.2 METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF PLASTICIZER CONCENTRATION
  • 15.3 DETERMINATION OF VOLATILITY, MOLECULAR MOTION, DIFFUSION, AND MIGRATION
  • 15.4 METHODS OF STUDY OF PLASTICIZED MATERIALS

Chapter 16: MATHEMATICAL MODELLING IN APPLICATION TO PLASTICIZERS

  • 16.1 PVC-PLASTICIZER INTERACTION MODEL
  • 16.2 GAS PERMEATION
  • 16.3 MIGRATION
  • 16.4 DRY-BLENDING TIME
  • 16.5 GELATION AND FUSION
  • 16.6 THERMAL DECOMPOSITION
  • 16.7 POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK OF EXPOSURE TO DEHP FROM GLOVES

Chapter 17: HEALTH AND SAFETY ISSUES WITH PLASTICIZERS AND PLASTICIZED MATERIALS

  • ADDENDUM

Chapter 18: THE ENVIRONMENTAL FATE OF PLASTICIZERS

  • 18.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 18.2 PLASTICIZERS IN WATER
  • 18.3 SOIL AND SEDIMENT
  • 18.4 ORGANISMS
  • 18.5 AIR
  • SUMMARY AND CONCLUDING REMARKS

Chapter 19: REGULATIONS AND DATA

  • 19.1 TOXIC SUBSTANCE CONTROL
  • 19.2 CARCINOGENIC EFFECT
  • 19.3 TERATOGENIC AND MUTAGENIC EFFECT
  • 19.4 WORKPLACE EXPOSURE LIMITS
  • 19.5 EXPOSURE FROM CONSUMER PRODUCTS
  • 19.6 PLASTICIZERS IN DRINKING WATER
  • 19.7 FOOD REGULATORY ACTS
  • 19.8 MEDICAL AND OTHER APPLICATIONS

Chapter 20: PERSONAL PROTECTION

  • 20.1 CLOTHING
  • 20.2 GLOVES
  • 20.3 EYE PROTECTION
  • 20.4 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION

Chapter 21: PLASTICIZER RECOVERY & RECYCLING

Details

No. of pages:
870
Language:
English
Copyright:
© ChemTec Publishing 2017
Published:
Imprint:
ChemTec Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9781927885161
Hardcover ISBN:
9781895198973

About the Author

George Wypych

George Wypych has a Ph.D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research and development. He has published 18 books, 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability and the development of sealants and coatings.

Affiliations and Expertise

ChemTec Publishing, Ontario, Canada