Handbook of Plasticizers

Handbook of Plasticizers

2nd Edition - August 15, 2012

Write a review

  • Author: George Wypych
  • eBook ISBN: 9781455730025

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (EPub, Mobi)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order

Description

The second edition of the Handbook of Plasticizers thoroughly reviews information currently available in open literature, such as published scientific papers, information from plasticizer manufacturers, and patent literature. Plasticizers are used in so many products that every library should have this reference source of information on plasticizers readily available for its readers. This book should be used in conjunction with Plasticizer Database, which gives information on the present status and properties of industrial and research plasticizers. The book covers the uses, advantages, and disadvantages of plasticizers, historical and theoretical background, their effects on process conditions, and health, safety, and environmental issues.

Key Features

  • The most comprehensive reference work available, covering the properties and applications of plasticizers
  • Combine scientific background with extensive data and practical engineering techniques
  • Contains information from the most recent sources and updated information

Readership

R&D scientists, production chemists and engineers, environmental engineers,environmental professionals, Industrial hygienists, Legislators, Medical professionals, Civil engineers, University professors and students; Main industries having interest in the book: Adhesives and sealants, Aerospace, Agriculture, Asphalt compounding, Automotive and aftermarket, Coil coating, Concrete, Coated fabrics,Cosmetics and personal care products, Dental materials, Electrical and electronic industry, Fibers, Film, Food, Flooring, Foams, Footwear, Gaskets, Inks, varnishes, and lacquers, Lumber, wood, furniture , Medical, Membranes, Paints and coatings, Pharmaceutical, Photographic materials, Pipes, Polymers, rubber, plastics, Roofing materials, Ship building and repair, Textile, Tires, Toys, Tubing, Wire and cable

Table of Contents

  • 1 Introduction
    1.1 Historical developments
    1.2 Expectations from plasticizers
    1.3 Definitions
    1.4 Classification
    References

    2 Plasticizer Types
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Characteristic properties of industrial plasticizers
    2.2.1 Abietates
    2.2.2 Adipates
    2.2.3 Alkyl sulfonates
    2.2.4 Azelates
    2.2.5 Benzoates
    2.2.6 Chlorinated paraffins
    2.2.7 Citrates
    2.2.8 Energetic plasticizers
    2.2.9 Epoxides
    2.2.10 Glycol ethers and their esters
    2.2.11 Glutarates
    2.2.12 Hydrocarbon oils
    2.2.13 Isobutyrates
    2.2.14 Oleates
    2.2.15 Pentaerythritol derivatives
    2.2.16 Phosphates
    2.2.17 Phthalates
    2.2.18 Polymeric plasticizers
    2.2.18.1 Esters
    2.2.18.2 Polybutenes
    2.2.19 Ricinoleates
    2.2.20 Sebacates
    2.2.21 Sulfonamides
    2.2.22 Superplasticizers and plasticizers for concrete
    2.2.23 Tri- and pyromellitates
    2.2.24 Other plasticizers
    2.2.24.1 Biphenyl derivatives
    2.2.24.2 Calcium stearate
    2.2.24.3 Carbon dioxide
    2.2.24.4 Difuran diesters
    2.2.24.5 Fluorine-containing plasticizers
    2.2.24.6 Hydroxybenzoic acid esters
    2.2.24.7 Isocyanate adducts
    2.2.24.8 Multi-ring aromatic compounds
    2.2.24.9 Natural product derivatives
    2.2.24.10 Nitriles
    2.2.24.11 Siloxane-based plasticizers
    2.2.24.12 Tar-based products
    2.2.24.13 Thioeters
    2.2.24.14 Blends
    2.3 Methods of synthesis and their effect on properties of plasticizers
    2.4 Reactive plasticizers and internal plasticization
    References


    3 Methods of Quality Control of Plasticizers
    3.1 Abbreviations, terminology, and vocabulary
    3.2 Acid number
    3.3 Aging studies
    3.4 Ash
    3.5 Brittleness temperature
    3.6 Brookfield viscosity
    3.7 Chemical resistance
    3.8 Color
    3.9 Compatibility
    3.10 Compression set
    3.11 Concrete additives
    3.12 Electrical properties
    3.13 Extractable matter
    3.14 Flash and fire point
    3.15 Fogging
    3.16 Fusion
    3.17 Gas chromatography
    3.18 Hardness
    3.19 Infrared analysis of plasticizers
    3.20 Kinematic viscosity
    3.21 Marking (classification)
    3.22 Melt rheology
    3.23 Migration
    3.24 Poly(vinyl chloride) - standard specification
    3.25 Powder-mix time
    3.26 Purity
    3.27 Refractive index
    3.28 Residual contamination
    3.29 Sampling
    3.30 Saponification value
    3.31 Saybolt viscosity
    3.32 Sorption of plasticizer
    3.33 Specific gravity
    3.34 Specification
    3.35 Staining
    3.36 Stiffness
    3.37 Tensile properties
    3.38 Thermal expansion coefficient
    3.39 Unsaponifiable contents
    3.40 Viscosity of plastisols and organosols
    3.41 Water concentration
    3.42 Weight loss
    References

    4 Transportation and Storage
    4.1 Transportation
    4.2 Storage
    References

    5 Mechanisms of Plasticizers Action
    A. Marcilla and M. Beltrán
    Chemical Engineering Department, Alicante University, Spain
    5.1 Classical theories
    5.1.1 The lubricity theory
    5.1.2 The gel theory
    5.1.3 Moorshead's empirical approach
    5.2 The free volume theory
    5.2.1 Mathematical models
    References

    6 Theories of Compatibility
    Valery Yu. Senichev and Vasiliy V. Tereshatov
    Institute of Technical Chemistry of
    Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia
    6.1 Compatibility concepts
    6.1. 1 Thermodynamic treatment
    6.1.2 Interaction parameter
    6.1.3 Effect of chemical structure of plasticizers and matrix
    6.2 Solubility parameter and the cohesive energy density
    6.2.1 Solubility parameter concept
    6.2.2 Experimental evaluation of solubility parameters of plasticizers
    6.2.3 Methods of experimental evaluation and calculation of solubility parameters
    of polymers
    6.2.3 The methods of calculation of solubility parameters
    6.2.4 Multi-dimensional approaches
    6.3 Methods of plasticizer selection based on principles of compatibility
    6.3.1 How much plasticizer is necessary for a polymer composition?
    6.3.2 Initial experimental estimation of compatibility
    6.3.3 Thermodynamic compatibility
    6.4 Practical approaches in using theory of compatibility for plasticizers selection
    6.5 Experimental data illustrating effect of compatibility on plasticized systems
    6.5.1 Influence of compatibility on the physical stability of the plasticized polymer
    6.5.2 Influence of compatibility on viscosity of the plasticized composition
    6.5.3 Influence of compatibility on mechanical properties and physical properties of
    plasticized polymer
    References

    7 Plasticizer Motion and Diffusion
    7.1 Plasticizer diffusion rate and the methods of study
    7.2 Plasticizer motion and distribution in matrix
    7.3 Plasticizer migration
    7.4 Plasticizer distribution in materials in contact
    Vasiliy V Tereshatov and Valery Yu Senichev
    Institute of Technical Chemistry of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia
    7.5 Antiplasticization
    7.6 Effect of diffusion and mobility of plasticizers on their suitability
    References

    8 Effect of Plasticizers on Other Components of Formulation
    8.1 Plasticizer consumption by fillers
    8.2 Solubility of additives in plasticizers
    8.3 Additive molecular mobility and transport in the presence of plasticizers
    8.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymerization and curing reactions
    References

    9 Plasticization Steps
    A. Marcilla, J.C. García and M. Beltrán
    Chemical Engineering Department, Alicante University, Spain
    9.1 Plasticization steps
    9.2 Studies of plastisol's behavior during gelation and fusion
    9.2.1 Rheological characterization
    9.2.2 Studies by scanning electron microscopy
    9.2.3 Study of polymer-plasticizer interactions by DSC
    9.2.4 Study of polymer-plasticizer interactions by SALS
    9.2.5 Study of polymer-plasticizer interactions by FTIR
    9.2.6 Study of polymer-plasticizer interactions by Tg
    References

    10 Effect of Plasticizers on Properties of Plasticized Materials
    10.1 Mechanical properties
    10.1.1 Tensile strength
    10.1.2 Elongation
    10.1.3 Hardness
    10.1.4 Toughness, stiffness, ductility, modulus
    10.1.5 Other mechanical properties
    10.2 Optical properties
    10.3 Spectral properties
    10.4 Rheological properties
    Juan Carlos Garcia and Antonio Francisco Marcilla
    Chemical Engineering Department, Alicante University, Spain

    10.4.1 Torque measurement in mixers
    10.4.2 Capillary viscometers
    10.4.3 Dynamic experiments
    10.4.4 Rheology of PVC plastisols
    10.4.4.1 Flow properties
    10.4.4.2 Gelation and fusion
    10.4.4.3 Recycling of PVC plastisols
    10.5 Electrical properties
    10.6 Influence of plasticizers on glass transition temperature of polymers
    Valery Yu Senichev and Vasiliy V Tereshatov
    Institute of Technical Chemistry of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia
    10.7 Flammability and smoke formation in the presence of plasticizers
    10.8 Thermal degradation
    10.8.1 Thermal degradation of plasticizer
    10.8.2 Effect of polymer degradation products on plasticizers
    10.8.3 Effect of plasticizer degradation products on polymer degradation
    10.8.4 Loss of plasticizer from material due to the chemical decomposition reactions
    and evaporation
    10.8.5 Effect of plasticizers on the thermal degradation of material
    10.9 Effect of UV and ionized radiation on plasticized materials
    10.10. Biodegradation in the presence of plasticizers
    10.11 Crystallization, structure, and orientation of macromolecules with and without
    plasticizers
    10.12 Plasticizer effect on contact with other materials
    10.13 Influence of plasticizers on swelling of crosslinked elastomers
    Vasiliy V. Tereshatov, Valery Yu. Senichev
    Institute of Technical Chemistry, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia
    10.13.1 Change of elastic properties of elastomers on swelling in liquids of
    different polarity
    10.13.2 Influence of swelling on viscoelastic properties of crosslinked amorphous
    elastomers
    10.13.3 Influence of swelling on tensile strength and critical strain of elastic materials
    10.14 Effect of plasticizers on other properties
    References

    11 Plasticizers Use and Selection for Specific Polymers
    11.1 ABS
    11.1.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.1.2 Practical concentrations
    11.1.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.1.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action
    11.1.5 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
    11.1.6 Typical formulations
    11.2 Acrylics
    11.2.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.2.2 Practical concentrations
    11.2.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.2.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action
    11.2.5 Typical formulations
    11.3 Bromobutyl rubber
    11.3.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.3.2 Practical concentrations
    11.3.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.3.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
    11.4 Butyl terpolymer
    11.4.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.4.2 Practical concentrations
    11.5 Cellulose acetate
    11.5.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.5.2 Practical concentrations
    11.5.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.5.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action
    11.5.5 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
    11.6 Cellulose butyrates and propionates
    11.6.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.6.2 Practical concentrations
    11.6.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.6.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
    11.7 Cellulose nitrate
    11.7.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.7.2 Practical concentrations
    11.7.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.7.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
    11.7.5 Typical formulations
    11.8 Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
    11.9 Chlorosulfonated polyethylene
    11.10 Copolymers
    11.10.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.10.2 Practical concentrations
    11.10.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.10.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action
    11.11 Cyanoacrylates
    11.11.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.11.2 Practical concentrations
    11.11.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.12 Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Copolymer, EPDM
    11.12.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.12.2 Practical concentrations
    11.12.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.12.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
    11.13 Epoxy resin
    11.13.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.13.2 Practical concentrations
    11.13.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.13.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
    11.14 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, EVA
    11.15 Ionomers
    11.15.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.15.2 Practical concentrations
    11.15.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.15.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action
    11.15.5 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
    11.16 Nitrile rubber
    11.16.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.16.2 Practical concentrations
    11.16.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.16.4 Typical formulations
    11.17 Polyacrylonitrile
    11.18 Polyamide
    11.18.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.18.2 Practical concentrations
    11.18.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.18.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
    11.19 Polyamine
    11.20 Polyaniline
    11.21 Polybutadiene
    11.21.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.21.2 Practical concentrations
    11.21.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.22 Polybutylene
    11.22.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.22.2 Practical concentrations
    11.22.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.23 Poly(butyl methacrylate)
    11.23.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.23.2 Practical concentrations
    11.23.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.24 Polycarbonate
    11.24.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.24.2 Practical concentrations
    11.24.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.25 Polyester
    11.25.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.25.2 Practical concentrations
    11.25.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.25.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
    11.25.5 Typical formulations
    11.26 Polyetherimide
    11.27 Polyethylacrylate
    11.28 Polyethylene
    11.28.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.28.2 Practical concentrations
    11.28.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.28.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action
    11.28.5 Typical formulations
    11.29 Poly(ethylene oxide)
    11.29.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.29.2 Practical concentrations
    11.29.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.29.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
    11.30 Polyisobutylene
    11.31 Polyisoprene
    11.31.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.31.2 Practical concentrations
    11.31.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.31.4 Typical formulations
    11.32 Polyimide
    11.32.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.32.2 Practical concentrations
    11.32.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.32.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
    11.33 Polylactide
    11.33.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.33.2 Practical concentrations
    11.33.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.33.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
    11.34 Polymethylmethacrylate
    11.34.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.34.2 Practical concentrations
    11.34.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.34.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action
    11.34.5 Typical formulations
    11.35 Polypropylene
    11.35.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.35.2 Practical concentrations
    11.35.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.35.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
    11.36 Poly(n-vinylcarbazole)
    11.37 Poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)
    11.37.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.37.2 Practical concentrations
    11.37.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.37.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action
    11.37.5 Typical formulations
    11.36 Polyphenylene ether
    11.36.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.36.2 Practical concentrations
    11.36.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.37 Polystyrene
    11.37.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.37.2 Practical concentrations
    11.37.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.38 Polysulfone
    11.39 Polysulfide
    11.39.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.39.2 Practical concentrations
    11.39.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.40 Poly(phenylene sulfide)
    11.41 Polyvinylacetate
    11.41.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.41.2 Practical concentrations
    11.41.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.41.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
    11.42 Polyvinylalcohol
    11.42.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.42.2 Practical concentrations
    11.42.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.42.4 Typical formulations
    11.43 Polyvinylbutyral
    11.43.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.43.2 Practical concentrations
    11.43.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.43.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
    11.44 Polyvinylchloride
    11.44.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.44.2 Practical concentrations
    11.44.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.44.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action
    11.44.5 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
    11.44.6 Typical formulations
    11.45 Polyvinylidenefluoride
    11.45.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.45.2 Practical concentrations
    11.45.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.46 Polyvinylidenechloride
    11.47 Polyurethanes
    Vasiliy Tereshatov V., Valery Senichev Yu., Elsa Tereshatova N., Marina Makarova A.
    Institute of Technical Chemistry, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia
    11.47.1 The mechanism of the specific action of plasticizers on polyurethanes properties
    11.47.2 Principles of a plasticizer selection
    11.47.3 Plasticizers in use
    11.48 Proteins
    11.48.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.48.2 Practical concentrations
    11.48.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.48.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
    11.48 Rubber, natural
    11.48.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.48.2 Practical concentrations
    11.48.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.48.4 Typical formulations
    11.49 Silicone
    11.49.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.49.2 Practical concentrations
    11.49.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.49.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
    11.49.5 Typical formulations
    11.50 Styrene-butadiene rubber
    11.50.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.50.2 Practical concentrations
    11.50.3 Typical formulations
    11.51 Styrene-butadiene-styrene
    11.51.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.51.2 Practical concentrations
    11.51.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.52 Starch
    11.52.1 Frequently used plasticizers
    11.52.2 Practical concentrations
    11.52.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
    11.52.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
    11.52.5 Typical formulations
    References

    12 Plasticizers in Polymer Blends
    12.1 Plasticizer partition between component polymers
    12.2 Interaction of plasticizers with blend components
    12.3 Effect of plasticizers on blend properties
    12.4 Blending to reduce or to replace plasticizers
    References

    13 Plasticizers in Various Industrial Products
    13.1 Adhesives and sealants
    13.1.1 Plasticizer types
    13.1.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.1.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.1.4 advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.1.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties
    13.1.6 Examples of formulations
    13.2 Aerospace
    13.3 Agriculture
    13.4 Automotive applications
    13.4.1 Plasticizer types
    13.4.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.4.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.4.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.4.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties
    13.5 Cementitious materials
    13.5.1 Plasticizer types
    13.5.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.5.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.5.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.5.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties
    13.5.6 Examples of formulations
    13.6 Coated fabrics
    13.6.1 Plasticizer types
    13.6.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.6.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.6.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.6.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties
    13.6.6 Examples of formulations
    13.7 Cosmetics
    13.7.1 Plasticizer types
    13.7.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.7.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.7.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.7.6 Examples of formulations
    13.8 Dental materials
    13.8.1 Plasticizer types
    13.8.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.8.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.8.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.9 Electrical and electronics
    13.9.1 Plasticizer types
    13.9.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.9.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.9.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.10 Fibers
    13.10.1 Plasticizer types
    13.10.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.10.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.11 Film
    13.11.1 Plasticizer types
    13.11.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.11.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.11.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.12 Food
    13.12.1 Plasticizer types
    13.12.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.12.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.12.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.12.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties
    13.13 Flooring
    13.13.1 Plasticizer types
    13.13.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.13.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.13.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.13.5 Examples of formulations
    13.14 Foams
    13.14.1 Plasticizer types
    13.14.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.14.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.14.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.14.5 Examples of formulations
    13.15 Footwear
    13.15.1 Plasticizer types
    13.15.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.15.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.15.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.16 Gaskets
    13.16.1 Plasticizer types
    13.16.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.16.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.16.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.16.5 Examples of formulations
    13.17 Inks, varnishes, and lacquers
    13.17.1 Plasticizer types
    13.17.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.17.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.17.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.17.5 Examples of formulations
    13.18 Medical applications
    13.18.1 Plasticizer types
    13.18.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.18.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.18.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.18.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties
    13.18.6 Examples of formulations
    13.19 Membranes
    13.19.1 Plasticizer types
    13.19.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.19.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.19.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.20 Paints and coatings
    13.20.1 Plasticizer types
    13.20.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.20.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.20.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.20.5 Examples of formulations
    13.21 Pharmaceutical products
    13.21.1 Plasticizer types
    13.21.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.21.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.21.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.21.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties
    13.21.6 Examples of formulations
    13.22 Photographic materials
    13.22.1 Plasticizer types
    13.22.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.22.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.23 Pipes
    13.23.1 Plasticizer types
    13.23.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.23.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.23.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.23.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties
    13.23.6 Examples of formulations
    13.24 Roofing materials
    13.24.1 Plasticizer types
    13.24.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.24.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.24.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.24.5 Examples of formulations
    13.25 Tires
    13.25.1 Plasticizer types
    13.25.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.25.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.25.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.25.5 Examples of formulations
    13.26 Toys
    A. Marcilla and J.C. García
    Chemical Engineering Department, Alicante University, Spain
    13.26.1 Migration of plasticizers
    13.26.2 Substitutes to phthalates
    13.27 Tubing
    13.27.1 Plasticizer types
    13.27.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.27.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.27.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.27.5 Examples of formulations
    13.28 Wire and cable
    13.28.1 Plasticizer types
    13.28.2 Plasticizer concentration
    13.28.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
    13.28.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
    13.28.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties
    13.28.6 Examples of formulations
    References

    14 Plasticizers in various processing methods
    14.1 Blow molding
    14.2 Calendering
    14.3 Coil coating
    14.4 Compression molding
    14.5 Compounding (mixing)
    14.6 Dip coating
    14.7 Dry blending
    14.8 Extrusion
    14.9 Injection molding
    14.10 Polymer synthesis
    14.11 Powder molding
    14.12 Rotational molding
    M. Beltran and A Marcilla
    Chemical Engineering Department, Alicante University, Spain
    14.13 Rubber processing
    14.14 Thermoforming
    14.15 Vacuum molding
    14.16 Web coating
    14.17 Wire coating
    References

    15 Specialized Analytical Methods in Plasticizer Testing
    15.1 Plasticizer identification
    15.2 Methods of determination of plasticizer concentration
    15.3 Determination of volatility, molecular motion, diffusion, and migration of
    plasticizers
    15.4 Methods of study of plasticized materials
    References

    16 Mathematical Modelling in Application to Plasticizers
    16.1 PVC-plasticizer interaction model
    16.2 Gas permeation
    16.3 Migration
    16.4 Dry-blending time
    16.5 Gelation and fusion
    16.6 Thermal decomposition
    References

    17 Health and Safety Issues with Plasticizers and Plasticized Materials
    Søren Thor Larsen
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Chemical Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark
    17.1 Adjuvant effect of plasticizers
    17.1.1 Introduction
    17.1.2 Airway allergy
    17.1.3 The immune system
    17.1.4 Immunotoxicology
    17.1.5 Environmental adjuvants
    17.1.6 Epidemiological studies
    17.1.7 Animal studies
    17.1.7.1 A mouse bioassay for the detection of adjuvant effect
    17.1.7.2 Results
    17.1.8 Human exposure and hazard evaluation
    17.1.9 Other effects of plasticizers in relation to allergy and airway effects
    17.1.10 Conclusions and practical applications
    Acknowledgments
    References
    17.2 The rodent hepatocarcinogenic response to phthalate plasticizers: basic biology and human extrapolation
    Ruth A. Roberts
    Aventis Pharma Drug Safety Evaluation, Centre de Recherche de Paris, Vitry sur Seine, France
    17.2.1 Introduction
    17.2.2 Gene Expression and Cancer Toxicology
    17.2.2.1 Gene Expression
    17.2.2.2 Cancer biology: some basic considerations
    17.2.2.3 Chemical carcinogenesis
    17.2.3 Peroxisome proliferators and rodent nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogenesis
    17.2.3.1 The peroxisome proliferators
    17.2.3.2 PPARa
    17.2.4 Species differences in response to PPs
    17.2.5 Summary
    References
    17.3 The influence of maternal nutrition on phthalate teratogenicity
    Janet Y. Uriu-Adams (1) and Carl L. Keen (2)
    Departments of Nutrition (1) and Internal Medicine (2), University of California at Davis, Davis, California, USA
    17.3.1 Introduction
    17.3.2 Reproductive toxicity of BBP and DEHP
    17.3.3 Acute phase response-induced alterations in maternal and conceptus
    nutrient metabolism
    17.3.4 Concluding comments
    References
    17.4 Public health implications of phthalates: A review of findings from the U.S. National Toxicology Program's Expert Panel Reports
    Stephanie R. Miles-Richardson
    LCDR United States Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, USA
    17.4.1 Introduction
    17.4.2 Exposure to adults in the general population
    17.4.3 Exposure of vulnerable sub-populations
    17.4.3.1 Children
    17.4.3.2 Women
    17.4.3.3 Occupational exposure
    17.4.3.4 Medical exposure
    17.4.4 Health effects of phthalate exposure
    17.4.5 Expert Panel conclusions
    17.4.6 Public health implications of Expert Panel conclusions
    References
    17.5 Plasticizers in the indoor environment
    Werner Butte
    Carl von Ossietzky University, Faculty of Chemistry, Oldenburg, Germany
    17.5.1 Introduction
    17.5.2 Sources of indoor plasticizers
    17.5.3 Occurrence of plasticizers indoors
    17.5.3.1 Indoor air
    17.5.3.2 House dust
    17.5.4 Impact of plasticizers in the indoor environment
    17.5.4.1 Indoor plasticizers and health
    17.5.4.2 Human exposure assessment for plasticizers in the indoor environment
    17.5.4.3 Reference and guideline values of plasticizers to assess indoor quality
    17.5.5 Summary
    References
    Addendum
    List of Abbreviations


    18 The Environmental Fate of Plasticizers
    William R. Roy
    Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois, USA
    18.1 Introduction
    18.1.1 Releases to the environment
    18.1.2 Levels in the environment
    18.2 Plasticizers in water
    18.2.1 Solubility 7
    18.2.2 Volatilization from water
    18.2.3 Abiotic degradation in water
    18.2.4 Biodegradation in water
    18.2.5 Adsorption from water
    18.3 Soil and sediment
    18.3.1 Volatilization
    18.3.2 Biodegradation in soil
    18.4. Organisms
    18.5 Air
    Summary and Concluding Remarks
    References

    19 Regulations and Data
    19.1 Toxic substance control
    19.2. Carcinogenic effect
    19.3 Teratogenic and mutagenic effect
    19.4 Workplace exposure limits
    19.5 Exposure from consumer products
    19.6 Plasticizers in drinking water
    19.7 Food regulatory acts
    19.8 Medical and other applications
    References

    20 Personal Protection
    20.1 Clothing
    20.2 Gloves
    20.3 Eye protection
    20.4 Respiratory protection
    References

    21 Plasticizer Recovery & Recycling
    References

Product details

  • No. of pages: 800
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © ChemTec Publishing 2012
  • Published: August 15, 2012
  • Imprint: ChemTec Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9781455730025

About the Author

George Wypych

George Wypych has a Ph.D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research and development. He has published 18 books, 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability and the development of sealants and coatings.

Affiliations and Expertise

ChemTec Publishing, Ontario, Canada

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Handbook of Plasticizers"