Handbook of Pediatric Brain Imaging

Handbook of Pediatric Brain Imaging

Methods and Applications

1st Edition - October 27, 2021

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  • Editors: Hao Huang, Timothy Roberts
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128166420
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128166338

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Description

Handbook of Pediatric Brain Imaging: Methods and Applications presents state-of-the-art research on pediatric brain image acquisition and analysis from a broad range of imaging modalities, including MRI, EEG and MEG. With rapidly developing methods and applications of MRI, this book strongly emphasizes pediatric brain MRI, elaborating on the sub-categories of structure MRI, diffusion MRI, functional MRI, perfusion MRI and other MRI methods. It integrates a pediatric brain imaging perspective into imaging acquisition and analysis methods, covering head motion, small brain sizes, small cerebral blood flow of neonates, dynamic cortical gyrification, white matter tract growth, and much more.

Key Features

  • Presents state-of-the-art pediatric brain imaging methods and applications
  • Shows how to optimize the pediatric neuroimaging acquisition and analysis protocols
  • Illustrates how to obtain quantitative structural, functional and physiological measurements

Readership

Researchers and graduate students in biomedical engineering, engineering, computer science, physics and mathematics studying neuroimaging; technologically oriented scientists and clinicians

Table of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • List of other books in series
  • Contributors
  • Section 1: MRI methods
  • Chapter 1: Special considerations for acquisition of pediatric MRI of high spatial and temporal resolution
  • Abstract
  • 1: Background
  • 2: Challenges in pediatric neuroimaging and approaches to their mitigation
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Frontiers of microstructural imaging with diffusion MRI
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Diffusion weighted MRI sequences
  • 3: Q-space and diffusion displacement probability distribution function
  • 4: Diffusion and kurtosis tensors
  • 5: Diffusion orientation distribution function
  • 6: Fiber orientation density function
  • 7: White matter fiber tractography
  • 8: Other dMRI tissue modeling methods
  • 9: Applications of dMRI to disease and development
  • 10: Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Structural connectomics: Where we are and where we should be?
  • Abstracts
  • 1: What is connectomics?
  • 2: How are structural connectomes generated?
  • 3: Refining connectomes of underlying biases
  • 4: Enhanced connectomes
  • 5: Harmonization of connectomes
  • 6: Communication paradigms in the brain
  • 7: Can structural connectomes be a fingerprint of a group or an individual: Connectomic consistency?
  • 8: Measures derived from connectomes
  • 9: Connectomics in action
  • 10: Future of connectomics
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Resting state functional connectivity in pediatric populations
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Pediatric brain imaging
  • 3: Resting state fMRI
  • 4: Resting state fMRI in pediatrics
  • 5: Discussion
  • 6: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Advanced pCASL pediatric perfusion MRI
  • Abstract
  • 1: Perfusion and brain development
  • 2: ASL perfusion MRI for neurodevelopmental studies
  • 3: Perfusion of typical brain development
  • 4: Perfusion of neurodevelopmental disorders
  • 5: Limitations and future directions
  • 6: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Advanced fetal MRI
  • Abstract
  • 1: Fetal brain MRI
  • 2: Fetal structural MRI
  • 3: Fetal diffusion MRI
  • 4: Fetal functional MRI
  • 5: Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Special MRI (MWI, MTI, G-ratio) methods sensitive to age and development
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Quantitative relaxometry (qT1 & qT2) methods
  • 3: Quantitative relaxometry in pediatric imaging
  • 4: Myelin water and magnetization transfer imaging
  • 5: Multicomponent relaxometry
  • 6: Imaging myelination throughout development
  • 7: G-ratio imaging
  • Declaration of interests
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Multimodal MRI: Applications to early brain development in infants
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Overview of age-related changes in MRI modalities
  • 3: Multimodal MRI to assess the early maturation of brain tissues
  • 4: Multimodal MRI to relate complementary aspects of structural development
  • 5: Multimodal imaging to compare structural and functional development
  • 6: Conclusion and perspectives
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Pediatric magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy essentials: Water suppression approaches
  • 3: Common aspects: Outer volume suppression
  • 4: Common aspects: Shimming
  • 5: Localization
  • 6: Spectral editing approaches
  • 7: Postprocessing
  • 8: Interpretation
  • 9: Significant discoveries afforded from proton MRS
  • 10: Summary/future directions
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Distortion, motion artifacts and how to address them
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Sources of distortion and “drop-out”
  • 3: Mitigating distortion
  • 4: Sources of motion artifacts
  • 5: Mitigating motion artifacts
  • 6: Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Section 2: MRI Postprocessing
  • Chapter 11: Pediatric brain atlases and parcellations
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Anatomical features of the pediatric brain and the effect of image transformation
  • 3: Developmental change in image contrast
  • 4: Proportion of the brain
  • 5: Surface of the brain
  • 6: Anatomical variation
  • 7: Age-specific anatomical structures
  • 8: Future directions
  • 9: Summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Segmentation with varying contrasts of pediatric MRI
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Dataset and image preprocessing
  • 3: Methods
  • 4: Experiments
  • 5: Discussions and conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 13: Surface-based analysis of the developing cerebral cortex
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Cortical surface reconstruction, representation, and measurement
  • 3: Cortical surface registration, parcellation, modeling, and atlas construction
  • 4: Publicly available tools and atlases
  • 5: Discussion and future directions
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 14: Connectome and graph analysis of the developing brain
  • Abstract
  • 1: Brain connectome and graph theory
  • 2: Maturation of structural brain connectome
  • 3: Maturation of functional brain connectomes
  • 4: Maturation of the coupling between structural and functional connectomes
  • 5: Maturation of the individual variability in brain connectomes
  • 6: Atypical early development of the brain connectomes
  • 7: Methodological issues
  • 8: Concluding remarks
  • References
  • Section 3: Electrophysiology
  • Chapter 15: MEG systems for young children and recent developments of pediatric MEG
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Pediatric MEG facilities
  • 3: Experimental procedures
  • 4: MEG data analysis
  • 5: Localization of the irritative zone in children with DRE
  • 6: Localization of somatosensory and motor areas in TD children
  • 7: Discussion
  • References
  • Chapter 16: MEG insights into brain development
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Development of cortical auditory processing
  • 3: Development of speech and language processing
  • 4: Development of cortical somatosensory processing
  • 5: Effects of preterm birth and other prenatal insults on the developing brain
  • 6: Conclusion and future directions
  • References
  • Chapter 17: MEG studies of children
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: MEG studies of children with epilepsy
  • 3: MEG studies of children with ASD
  • 4: MEG studies in children with language disorders
  • 5: MEG studies in children with ADHD
  • 6: Points to consider for young children
  • 7: Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 18: A state-of-the-art methodological review of pediatric EEG
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction to pediatric EEG
  • 2: MRI-compatible cortical source localization in pediatric EEG research
  • 3: EEG functional connectivity and brain network measures for children
  • 4: ssVEP in pediatric EEG research
  • 5: Conclusion
  • References
  • Section 4: Imaging development and disorders thereof
  • Chapter 19: Imaging early brain structural and functional development
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Early brain structural development
  • 3: Early brain development with diffusion MRI and beyond
  • 4: Early brain functional development
  • 5: Structural and functional connectome of early brain development
  • 6: Early brain metabolic and physiological development
  • 7: Current issues and limitations
  • 8: Conclusions and future directions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 20: Neuroimaging of early brain development and the consequences of preterm birth
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Neuroimaging methods for studying the early developing brain
  • 3: Neuroimaging of early brain development in prematurely born infants
  • 4: Application of neuroimaging for neurodevelopmental and socio-emotional outcomes
  • 5: Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 21: Risk of abnormal outcomes based on basic and advanced MRI measurements
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Preterm birth
  • 3: Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy/neonatal encephalopathy
  • 4: Perinatal stroke
  • 5: Congenital heart disease
  • 6: Neurodevelopmental disorders
  • 7: Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 22: Neuroimaging of perinatal brain disorders
  • Abstract
  • 1: Congenital disorders of the central nervous system
  • 2: Disorders related to prematurity
  • 3: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
  • 4: Total maturation score
  • References
  • Chapter 23: Current status of neuroimaging of pediatric neurological disorders
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Brain tumors
  • 3: Headache/migraine
  • 4: Hydrocephalus
  • 5: Epilepsy
  • 6: Inflammatory disorders of the white matter
  • 7: Cerebrovascular disorders
  • 8: Infections
  • 9: Metabolic disorders
  • 10: Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 24: Leveraging multi-modal neuroimaging for normal brain development and pediatric brain disorders
  • Abstract
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 580
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2021
  • Published: October 27, 2021
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128166420
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128166338

About the Editors

Hao Huang

Dr. Hao Huang is a Professor of Radiology in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and Faculty Director of Small Animal Imaging Facility at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. He obtained his PhD in Biomedical Engineering from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 2005. By pushing technical boundaries in advanced neural MRI acquisition and analysis, his works provide new knowledge on understanding circuits and functions of brain in health and disease. He has published more than 100 peer-reviewed articles in neuroimaging and neurobiological sciences with cutting-edge techniques in diffusion, perfusion and functional MRI as well as artificial intelligence algorithms. He is on the Editorial Board of NeuroImage. He serves as an Associate Editor for Frontiers in Neuroanatomy. He has served in a number of leadership positions in international committees. He maintains a strong NIH funding track-record and has been continuously funded by NIH R01 as a single principle investigator for more than 10 years. He has been recognized as the Distinguished Investigator of the Academy for Radiology and Biomedical Imaging Research in 2019. He has been elected as the Fellow of American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE) in 2021.

Affiliations and Expertise

Faculty Director, Small Animal Imaging Facility, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia; Associate Professor of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, USA

Timothy Roberts

Dr. Timothy Roberts is holder of the Oberkircher Family Chair in Pediatric Radiology and Vice-chair of Research in the Dept. of Radiology at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and a tenured Professor of Radiology in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. He received his PhD in MRI from Cambridge University in 1992. He has spent his career developing multimodal imaging and electrophysiological techniques for application to neurologic and psychiatric disorders. He has published over 300 peer-reviewed manuscripts in the field of functional and physiological imaging and has served as a grant reviewer for national funding agencies in more than a dozen countries. He serves as an Associate Editor for Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience and has been recognized as a Distinguished Investigator of the Academy of Radiology Research (2016) and elected, in the inaugural class, as a Fellow of the American Society of Functional Neuroradiology (ASFNR) in 2019. He is a past president of the International Society for Clinical Magnetoencephalography (ISACM) as well as the ASFNR and has served on various committees of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and the American Society of Neuroradiology (ASNR).

Affiliations and Expertise

Oberkircher Family Chair of Pediatric Radiology and Vice-Chair of Research, Department of Radiology, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, USA

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