Handbook of Organic Materials for Optical and (Opto)Electronic Devices

Handbook of Organic Materials for Optical and (Opto)Electronic Devices

Properties and Applications

1st Edition - August 31, 2013

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  • Editor: Oksana Ostroverkhova
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857098764

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Description

Small molecules and conjugated polymers, the two main types of organic materials used for optoelectronic and photonic devices, can be used in a number of applications including organic light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices, photorefractive devices and waveguides. Organic materials are attractive due to their low cost, the possibility of their deposition from solution onto large-area substrates, and the ability to tailor their properties. The Handbook of organic materials for optical and (opto)electronic devices provides an overview of the properties of organic optoelectronic and nonlinear optical materials, and explains how these materials can be used across a range of applications.Parts one and two explore the materials used for organic optoelectronics and nonlinear optics, their properties, and methods of their characterization illustrated by physical studies. Part three moves on to discuss the applications of optoelectronic and nonlinear optical organic materials in devices and includes chapters on organic solar cells, electronic memory devices, and electronic chemical sensors, electro-optic devices.The Handbook of organic materials for optical and (opto)electronic devices is a technical resource for physicists, chemists, electrical engineers and materials scientists involved in research and development of organic semiconductor and nonlinear optical materials and devices.

Key Features

  • Comprehensively examines the properties of organic optoelectronic and nonlinear optical materials
  • Discusses their applications in different devices including solar cells, LEDs and electronic memory devices
  • An essential technical resource for physicists, chemists, electrical engineers and materials scientists

Readership

Physicists, electrical engineers and scientists involved in research and development in organic semiconductor materials and devices

Table of Contents

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    Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials

    Preface

    Chapter 1: Small molecular weight materials for (opto)electronic applications: overview

    Abstract:

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Historical development in organic (opto)electronics: devices and materials

    1.3 Photo and electroactive organic materials: organic π-electron systems

    1.4 Organic (opto)electronic devices: principles and operation processes

    1.5 Molecular materials for organic (opto)electronic devices

    1.6 Structures and performance of organic (opto)electronic devices

    1.7 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 2: Influence of film morphology on optical and electronic properties of organic materials

    Abstract:

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Discontinuous processing

    2.3 Continuous processing

    2.4 Conclusion

    Chapter 3: Doping effects on charge transport in organic materials

    Abstract:

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Basics of doping of organic semiconductors

    3.3 Doped organic p-i-n devices

    3.4 Conclusion and future trends

    3.5 Acknowledgements

    3.7 Appendix: compound abbreviations, full names and CAS numbers

    Chapter 4: Third-order nonlinear optical properties of π-conjugated polymers with thiophene units and molecular assembly of the polymers

    Abstract:

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Third-order nonlinear optical properties of π-conjugated polymers with thiophene units and related compounds

    4.3 Packing and molecular assembly of π-conjugated polymers

    4.4 Conclusions and future trends

    4.5 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 5: Small molecule supramolecular assemblies for thirdorder nonlinear optics

    Abstract

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Fundamental principles of the third-order nonlinear optical response

    5.3 Macroscopic susceptibilities and microscopic polarizabilities

    5.4 From molecules to bulk solid-state materials

    5.5 Small molecules with large third-order nonlinearities

    5.6 Small molecule supramolecular assemblies with high optical quality and large third-order susceptibility

    5.7 Conclusion

    Chapter 6: Molecular crystals and crystalline thin films for photonics

    Abstract

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) organic crystals

    6.3 THz-wave generation and detection with organic crystals

    6.4 Integrated electro-optic (EO) applications

    6.5 Conclusions and future trends

    Chapter 7: Charge generation and transport in organic materials

    Abstract:

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Theoretical and computational framework

    7.3 Single-molecule magnitudes

    7.4 Supramolecular organization of the samples

    7.5 Predicting relative and absolute values of mobilities

    7.6 From p-type to n-type semiconductors

    7.7 Conclusion

    7.8 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 8: Optical, photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties of organic materials

    Abstract:

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Electronic states of single molecule and molecular solid state

    8.3 Absorption and emission spectroscopy

    8.4 Excitonic processes

    8.5 Electroluminescence in organic materials

    8.6 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 9: Nonlinear optical properties of organic materials

    Abstract

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Nonlinear optics (NLO) at the molecular level

    9.3 From microscopic (molecules) to macroscopic (materials)

    9.4 Quantum mechanical expressions for the molecular (hyper)polarizabilities

    9.5 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 10: Ultrafast intrachain exciton dynamics in π-conjugated polymers

    Abstract:

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Ultrafast dynamics in π-conjugated polymers

    10.3 Conclusion

    Chapter 11: Ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in organic (opto)electronic materials

    Abstract

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Infrared-active vibrational (IRAV) modes

    11.3 Transient photocurrent (TPC) spectroscopy

    11.4 Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS)

    11.5 Time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC)

    11.6 Experimental evidence of charge localization

    11.7 Conclusion

    Chapter 12: Short-pulse induced photocurrent and photoluminescence in organic materials

    Abstract

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Photocurrent response after short pulse excitation

    12.3 Exciton dynamics and photoluminescence in organic molecular crystals

    12.4 Exciton dynamics and delayed photocurrent

    12.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 13: Conductivity measurements of organic materials using field-effect transistors (FETs) and space-charge-limited current (SCLC) technique

    Abstract:

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Field-effect transistor (FET) measurements

    13.3 Space-charge-limited current (SCLC) measurements

    13.4 Future trends

    Chapter 14: Charge transport features in disordered organic materials measured by time-of-fl ight (TOF), xerographic discharge (XTOF) and charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (CELIV) techniques

    Abstract:

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Measurement techniques

    14.3 Experimental results of charge carrier mobility determination

    14.4 Charge transport models in disordered organic semiconductors

    14.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 15: Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) characterization of metal–organic interactions

    Abstract

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) background

    15.3 Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications

    15.4 Active and passive control of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals

    15.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 16: Second harmonic generation (SHG) as a characterization technique and phenomological probe for organic materials

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Second harmonic generation (SHG) in bulk media

    16.3 Electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG)

    16.4 Hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS)

    16.5 Second harmonic generation (SHG) probing structure and dynamics

    16.6 Conclusion

    16.7 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 17: Organic solar cells (OSCs)

    Abstract

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Organic solar cells (OSCs)

    17.3 Working principle and device structures

    17.4 Materials

    17.5 Roll-to-roll (R2R) processing of organic solar cells (OSCs)

    17.6 Demonstration projects and conclusion

    17.7 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 18: Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)

    Abstract

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Basics of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)

    18.3 Pin organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)

    18.4 Highly efficient monochrome organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)

    18.5 Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)

    18.6 Degradation of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)

    18.7 Future trends

    Chapter 19: Organic spintronics

    Abstract

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Magneto-conductance (MC) and magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)

    19.3 Organic spin-valves (OSVs)

    19.4 Optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in poly (dioctyloxy) phenyl vinylene (DOO-PPV) isotopes

    19.5 Conclusion

    19.6 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 20: Organic semiconductors (OSCs) for electronic chemical sensors

    Abstract

    20.1 Introduction to organic semiconductors (OSCs)

    20.2 Sensitive organic semiconductor (OSC) devices

    20.3 Sensitive carbon nanotube and graphene devices

    20.4 Conclusion

    20.5 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 21: Organic bioelectronics

    Abstract:

    21.1 Introduction to organic bioelectronics

    21.2 Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs)

    21.3 Enzymatic sensing with organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs)

    21.4 Cell-based organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs)

    21.5 Conclusions and future trends

    Chapter 22: Organic electronic memory devices

    Abstract

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Memory types

    22.3 Resistive memory

    22.4 Organic flash memory

    22.5 Ferroelectric random access memory (RAM)

    22.6 Molecular memories

    22.7 Future trends

    22.8 Sources of further information

    22.9 Acknowledgement

    Chapter 23: Unconventional molecular scale logic devices

    Abstract:

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Properties of nanoparticles and their applications in molecular scale logic devices

    23.3 Photoelectrochemical photocurrent switching (PEPS) effect

    23.4 Logic devices based on photoelectrochemical photocurrent switching (PEPS) effect

    23.5 Conclusions and future trends

    23.6 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 24: Photorefractive (PR) polymers and their recent applications

    Abstract:

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Fundamentals of photorefractivity

    24.3 Functions of photorefractive (PR) components

    24.4 Photorefractive (PR) characterization techniques

    24.5 Photorefractive (PR) polymer composites for applications

    24.6 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 25: Organic waveguides, ultra-low loss demultiplexers and electro-optic (EO) polymer devices

    Abstract:

    25.1 Introduction and motivation for using polymer (opto)electronic components

    25.2 General polymer science

    25.3 Polymer processing

    25.4 Ultra-low loss polymer waveguide devices: materials science

    25.5 Ultra-low loss polymer waveguide fabrication and process-induced losses

    25.6 Perfluoropolymer-based true time delay (TTD) modules

    25.7 Wide band channelizer with high-resolution arrayed waveguide grating (AWG)

    25.8 Electro-optical polymer-based waveguide devices: materials science

    25.9 Molecular theory of electro-optic (EO) polymers

    25.10 Electric-field assisted poling in polymer films

    25.11 Device and system level analysis for electro-optical polymer waveguides

    25.12 Electro-optic (EO) polymer spatial light modulators: theory

    25.13 Spacial light modulator device design and fabrication

    25.14 Spacial light modulator device characterization

    25.15 Future design considerations for spatial light modulators

    25.16 Conclusion

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 832
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2013
  • Published: August 31, 2013
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857098764

About the Editor

Oksana Ostroverkhova

Oksana Ostroverkhova is Professor in Physics at the Department of Physics, Oregon State University, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Physics, Oregon State University, USA

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