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Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750677769, 9780080466972

Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing

1st Edition

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Authors: Saeid Mokhatab William Poe James Speight
Hardcover ISBN: 9780750677769
eBook ISBN: 9780080466972
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 28th September 2006
Page Count: 672
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Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing gives engineers and managers complete coverage of natural gas transmission and processing in the most rapidly growing sector to the petroleum industry. The authors provide a unique discussion of new technologies that are energy efficient and environmentally appealing at the same time. It is an invaluable reference on natural gas engineering and the latest techniques for all engineers and managers moving to natural gas processing as well as those currently working on natural gas projects.

Key Features

  • Provides practicing engineers critical information on all aspects of gas gathering, processing and transmission
  • First book that treats multiphase flow transmission in great detail
  • Examines natural gas energy costs and pricing with the aim of delivering on the goals of efficiency, quality and profit


Petroleum Engineers, Pipeline Engineers, Chemical Engineers, any engineer working with natural gas

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Natural Gas Fundamental
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Natural Gas History
1.3 Natural Gas Origin and Composition
1.4 Gas Sources
1.4.1 Non-associated Gas
1.4.2 Associated Gas
1.4.3 Coal Bed Methane
1.5 Natural Gas Phase Behavior
1.6 Natural Gas Properties
1.6.1 Chemical and Physical Properties
1.6.2 Gas Specific Gravity
1.6.3 Ideal and Real Gas Laws
1.6.4 Gas Formation Volume Factor
1.6.5 Gas Density
1.6.6 Isothermal Compressibility of Gases
1.6.7 Gas Viscosity
1.7 Quality
1.8 Transportation
1.8.1 Pipelines
1.8.2 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
1.8.3 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
1.8.4 Gas-to-Solid (GTS)
1.8.5 Gas-to-Power (GTP)
1.8.6 Gas-to-Liquids (GTL)
1.8.7 Gas-to-Commodity (GTC)
1.9 References

Chapter 2: Natural Gas Energy Pricing
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Energy Pricing, Supply and Demand
2.3 Sustainability and the Increasing Fascination with Natural Gas
2.4 Is Natural Gas Always “Non-renewable”?
2.5 U.S. Natural Gas – Pricing, Markets, Risk Management, and Supply
2.5.1 Some Features of Current Natural Gas Pricing in the U.S.
2.5.2 U.S. Energy Markets: The Regulation-Deregulation Nexus
2.5.3 Energy Price Volatility and Derivatives
2.5.4 Natural Gas Supply in North America The Special Position of the U.S. Canada as North American Gas Supplier
2.6 Natural Gas in Eurasia: the Special Position of Post-Soviet Russia
2.7 Looking to Nature for a New Model
2.8 References

Chapter 3: Raw Gas Transmission
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Multiphase Flow Terminology
3.3 Multiphase Flow Regimes
3.3.1 Two-Phase Flow Regimes Horizontal Flow Regimes Vertical Flow Regimes Inclined Flow Regimes Flow Pattern Maps
3.3.2 Three-Phase Flow Regimes
3.4 Calculating Multiphase Flow Pressure Gradients
3.4.1 Steady State Two-Phase Flow Single-Phase Flow Approaches Homogeneous Flow Approaches Lockhart and Martinelli Method Beggs and Brill Method Mechanistic Models
3.4.2 Steady State Three-Phase Flow
3.4.3 Transient Multiphase Flow Two Fluid Model Drift Flux Model
3.5 Multiphase Flow in Gas-Condensate Pipelines
3.6 Temperature Profile of Multiphase Flow Pipelines
3.7 Velocity Criteria for Sizing Multiphase Pipelines
3.7.1 Corrosion Criteria
3.7.2 Erosion Criteria
3.8 Multiphase Flow Assurance
3.8.1 Gas Hydrates Hydrate Locus for Natural Gas Components Prediction of Hydrate Formation Conditions K-Factor Method Baillie and Wichert Method Gas Gravity Method Commercial Software Packages Hydrate Prevention Techniques Thermal Methods Chemical Inhibition Types of Inhibitors Prediction of Inhibitor Requirements Design of Injection Systems
3.8.2 Corrosion Choice of Corrosion Resistant Metals Corrosion Inhibitors Cathodic Protection Protective Coatings
3.8.3 Wax Wax Deposition Wax Deposition Envelope Gas-Condensate Wax Deposition Envelope Wax Formation in Multiphase Gas-Condensate Pipelines Identification of Wax Deposition Problems Wax Deposition Inhibition/Prevention Wax Deposit Remediation Controlled Production of Wax Deposits
3.8.4 Severe Slugging Severe Slugging Mechanism Stability Analysis Prevention and Control of Severe Slugging Riser Base Gas Injection Topside Choking Control Methods
3.8.5 Real Time Flow Assurance Monitoring
3.9 Multiphase Pipeline Operations
3.9.1 Leak Detection
3.9.2 Pigging
3.10 References

Chapter 4: Basic Concept of Natural Gas Processing
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Process Modules
4.3 Scope of Natural Gas Processing
4.3.1 Processing Objectives
4.3.2 Effect of Gas Type in Field Processing
4.3.3 Location of the Gas Field
4.4 References

Chapter 5: Phase Separation
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Gravity Separators
5.2.1 General Description
5.2.2 Separators Selection
5.2.3 Gravity Separation Theory
5.2.4 Design Considerations
5.2.5 Design Procedure Vertical Separators Horizontal Separators
5.2.6 Practical Separator Design
5.2.7 Operating Problems of Separators
5.3 Multistage Separation
5.4 Centrifugal Separators
5.5 Twister Supersonic Separator
5.6 Slug Catchers
5.7 High Efficiency Liquid-Gas Coalescers
5.7.1 Aerosols
5.7.2 Coalescer Construction/Operation Principles
5.7.3 Modeling the Liquid/Gas Coalescer
5.7.4 Coalescer Performance/Operational Limits
5.7.5 Liquid/Gas Coalescer Applications
5.8 High Efficiency Liquid-Liquid Coalescer
5.8.1 Emulsions
5.8.2 Coalescer Principles and Materials of construction
5.8.3 Coalescer Mechanism of Operation
5.8.4 Liquid/Liquid Coalescer Performance
5.8.5 Limitations of Using Coalescers
5.8.6 Applications
5.9 References

Chapter 6: Condensate Stabilization
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Stabilization Processes
6.2.1 Flash Vaporization
6.2.2 Stabilization by Fractionation Process Description Design Consideration of Stabilization Column
6.3 Condensate Storage
6.4 References

Chapter 7: Acid Gas Treating
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Acid Gas Removal Processes
7.2.1 Batch Type Processes Metal Oxide Processes Iron Sponge Process Zinc Oxide Process Slurry Processes Chemsweet Process Sulfa-Check Process
7.2.2 Amine Processes Process Description Design Considerations
7.2.3 Carbonate Washing and Water Washing
7.2.4 Methanol Based Processes
7.2.5 Other Processes
7.2.6 Process Selection
7.3 Sulfur Recovery Processes
7.4 References

Chapter 8: Natural Gas Compression
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Reciprocating Compressors
8.3 Centrifugal Compressors
8.4 Comparison Between Compressors
8.5 Thermodynamics of Gas Compression
8.6 Real Gas Behavior and Equation of State
8.7 Compressors Sizing Procedure
8.7.1 Compression Ratio
8.7.2 Determining Compression Number of Stages
8.7.3 Estimating BHP
8.8 Compressor Control
8.8.1 Reciprocating Compressors
8.8.2 Centrifugal Compressors
8.9 Compressor Performance Map
8.9.1 Reciprocating Compressors
8.9.2 Centrifugal Compressors
8.10 References

Chapter 9: Gas Dehydration
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Water Content Determination
9.3 Gas Dehydration Using Glycol
9.3.1 Choice of Glycol
9.3.2 Process Description
9.3.3 Design Considerations
9.3.4 Glycol Dehydrator Operational Problems
9.4 Solid Bed Dehydration
9.4.1 Desiccant Capacity
9.4.2 Desiccant Selection
9.4.3 Process Description
9.4.4 Design Considerations
9.4.5 Adsorber Sizing Procedure
9.4.6 Solid Bed Dehydrator Operational Problems
9.5 References

Chapter 10 Natural Gas Liquids Recovery
10.1 Introduction
10.2 NGL Recovery Processes
10.2.1 Refrigeration Processes Mechanical Refrigeration Self Refrigeration Cryogenic Refrigeration
10.2.2 Lean Oil Absorption
10.2.3 Solid Bed Adsorption
10.2.4 Membrane Separation Process
10.2.5 Selection of NGL Recovery Processes
10.3 NGL Fractionation
10.3.1 Fractionator Operation
10.3.2 Fractionator Design
10.3.3 Design Procedure
10.4 Gasoline and LPG Treating
10.4.1 Doctor Process
10.4.2 Merox Process
10.5 References

Chapter 11: Sales Gas Transmission
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Gas Flow Fundamentals
11.2.1 General Flow Equation
11.2.2 Friction Factor Correlations
11.2.3 Practical Flow Equations
11.3 Predicting Gas Temperature Profile
11.4 Transient Flow in Gas Transmission Pipelines
11.5 Compressor Stations and Associated Pipeline Installations
11.5.1 Compressor Stations Drivers
11.5.2 Compressors Configurations
11.5.3 Reduction and Metering Stations Filters Heaters Pressure Reduction and Regulation System Metering System
11.6 Design Considerations of Sales Gas Pipelines
11.6.1 Line Sizing Criteria
11.6.2 Compressor Station Spacing
11.6.3 Compression Power
11.7 Pipeline Operations
11.8 References

Chapter 12: Gas Processing Plant Controls and Automation
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Early Methods of Gas Plant Automation
12.3 Microprocessor Based Automation
12.3.1 Programmable Logic Controllers
12.3.2 Distributed Control Systems Remote Control Panel Communications Medium Central Control
12.3.3 Standards and Protocols
12.4 Control of Equipment and Process Systems
12.4.1 Gas Gathering
12.4.2 Gas Treating
12.4.3 Sulfur Recovery
12.4.4 Gas Dehydration Absorption Adsorbents
12.4.5 Liquid Recovery Condensate Stabilization Refrigeration Cryogenic Recovery (Turboexpander Processes) Demethanizer
12.4.6 NGL Fractionation
12.4.7 Centrifugal Compressors
12.4.8 Centrifugal Pumps
12.4.9 Reciprocating Pumps
12.4.10 Utilities
12.5 Automation Applications
12.5.1 Data Historians
12.5.2 Asset and Performance Management
12.5.3 Statistical Process Control
12.5.4 Advanced Regulatory Control
12.5.5 Multivariable Predictive Control
12.5.6 Optimization
12.5.7 Leveraging Automation Automation Upgrade Master Plans Determining The Benefits Baselining Statistical Analysis Performance Improvement Initiatives
12.6 Condensate Stabilizer Case Study
12.7 References

Chapter 13: Dynamic Simulation of Gas Processing Plants
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Areas of Application of Dynamic Simulation
13.2.1 Plant Design Controllability and Operability Safety Analysis Start-up Procedure Definition DCS Check-out Operator Training Advanced Process Control
13.2.2 Plant Operation Troubleshooting Plant Performance Enhancement Incident Analysis Operator Decision Support Operator Training Advanced Process Control (APC)
13.3 Modeling Considerations
13.3.1 Level of Detail in the Model
13.3.2 Model Speed
13.3.3 Equipment Specific Considerations Valves Rotating Equipment Piping Equipment Columns Heat Exchangers Control Systems
13.4 Control of Equipment and Process Systems
13.4.1 Gas Gathering and Transportation
13.4.2 Gas Treating
13.4.3 Sulfur Recovery
13.4.4 Gas Dehydration
13.4.5 Liquids Recovery, Natural Gas Liquefaction
13.4.6 NGL Fractionation
13.5 Case Study I: Analysis of a Fuel Gas System Startup
13.5.1 Introduction
13.5.2 Steady State Analysis
13.5.3 Dynamic Analysis
13.5.4 Conclusion
13.6 Case Study II: Online Dynamic Model of a Trunk Pipeline
13.7 References

Chapter 14 Environmental Aspects of Gas Processing and Use
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Environmental Impacts of Natural Gas Processing
14.2.1 Air Pollutant Emissions
14.2.2 Gas Flaring Emissions
14.2.3 Methane Emissions Pneumatic Devices Dehydrator Systems Vapor Recovery Units Compressors Cryogenic Equipment Flares Methane Emissions Reduction
14.2.4 Water Pollution
14.2.5 Soil Pollution
14.2.6 Pollution Prevention
14.3 Emissions from Natural Gas Use
14.3.1 Combustion Emissions
14.3.2 Acid Rain Formation
14.3.3 Smog Formation
14.3.4 Greenhouse Gas Emissions
14.3.5 Industrial and Electric Generation Emissions
14.4 Protocols and Environmental Programs
14.5 Environmental Management System
14.6 References

Chapter 15 Maximizing Profitability of Gas Plant Assets
15.1 Introduction
15.2 The Performance Strategy – Integrated Gas Plant
15.3 Strategies for Organizational Behavior and Information
15.4 Organizational Behavior Model
15.4.1 Information Quality
15.4.2 Perception of Information Two Dimensional Curves and Plots Prediction Trends Dynamic Performance Measures Performance Messages
15.4.3 Capability to Perform
15.4.4 Organizational Hierarchy of Needs
15.4.5 Behavior
15.5 The Successful Information Strategy
15.6 The Impact of Living with Information Technology
15.7 Vision of the Modern Plant Operation
15.8 Operations Strategy
15.9 Model Based Asset Management
15.10 Optimization
15.10.1 Tools for Optimization
15.10.2 Optimization Alternatives
15.11 Industrial Relevance
15.12 The Technology Integration Challenge
15.13 Scientific Approach
15.14 Other Miscellaneous Initiatives
15.15 Conclusion
15.16 References

Chapter 16 Gas Plant Project Management
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Project Management Overview
16.3 Industry Perspective
16.4 The Project Management Process
16.4.1 Defining Business and Project Objectives The Project Charter Project Team Roles and Responsibilities
16.4.2 Contracting Strategy
16.4.3 Conceptual Estimates and Schedules
16.4.4 Project Execution Planning
16.4.5 Pre Project Planning Measurement
16.4.6 The Responsibility Matrix
16.5 Project Controls
16.5.1 Project Timeline
16.5.2 Risk Management Project Risk Management Methodology Risk Response Planning Developing Risk Response Strategies Qualitative Project Risk Management Quantitative Project Risk Management Assessment Risk Process Modelling Project Risk Management in Interaction with other Management Processes Other Risk Mitigation Concepts
16.6 Quality Assurance
16.7 Commissioning and Start-up
16.8 Operate and Evaluate
16.9 Project Closeout
16.10 Conclusion
16.11 References

Appendix 1 Three-Phase Flash Calculation for Hydrocarbon Systems Containing Water
Appendix 2 Conversion Factors
Appendix 3 Physical Properties of Fluids
Appendix 4 Glossary


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© Gulf Professional Publishing 2007
28th September 2006
Gulf Professional Publishing
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About the Authors

Saeid Mokhatab

Saeid Mokhatab is recognized globally as an expert in the fields of natural gas processing and LNG. He has been actively involved in the development and implementation of several large-scale gas processing and LNG projects over the years. Dr. Mokhatab has made major contributions to enhance the understanding of gas processing and LNG knowledge, practices, and technologies through 300 technical papers and 3 Elsevier books. He founded the Elsevier peer-reviewed Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering and has served on the editorial/advisory boards of leading professional publications pertaining to gas processing and LNG. As a result of his work, he has received a number of international awards and medals and has been listed in highly prestigious biographical directories.

Affiliations and Expertise

Gas Processing Consultant, Halifax, Canada

William Poe

William A. “Bill” Poe is a Senior Principal Technical Consultant at AVEVA, the United States. He has over 35 years of international business and industrial experience in design, operations and project management of gas processing plants with a special focus on automation, multivariable predictive control (MPC), advanced process control (APC), optimization design and implementation, and real-time performance monitoring. Bill started his career at Shell Oil Company, USA, in 1981, working over a decade in natural gas processing plants operations and engineering as well as management of multimillion-dollar projects. In 1993, he joined Continental Controls to lead the process engineering department in support of executing contracts with the Gas Research Institute, USA, where he developed new multivariable control applications in the natural gas industry. After joining GE as part of the Continental Controls acquisition, he became vice president of this division of GE where his responsibilities included direction of product development, projects, technical sales support, and customer service for multivariable control and optimization applications in the natural gas industry. In 2001, Bill joined Invensys Process Systems, USA, where he has developed APC and Optimization Master Plans for international companies such as Saudi Aramco, ADNOC, Statoil, and PDVSA, as well as automation and advanced process control feasibility studies for over 100 natural gas processing plants worldwide. After Schneider Electric acquired Invensys Process Systems in 2014 and merged its software division with AVEVA in 2018, he has continued to work with the top gas processing companies. Bill is an Associate Editor of the Journal of Natural Gas Science & Engineering, has authored or co-authored more than 60 technical papers, and made numerous technical presentations at prestigious international conferences. He received the GE Innovators Award in 1999 and attained the Invensys Circle of Excellence in 2011.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Principal Technical Consultant, AVEVA, USA

James Speight

James G. Speight is a senior fuel consultant as well as an Adjunct Professor of Chemical and Fuels Engineering at the University of Utah, USA. He is recognized internationally as an expert in the characterization, properties, and processing of conventional and synthetic fuels and as a chemist with more than 35 years of experience in thermal/process chemistry, thermodynamics, refining of petroleum, heavy oil, and tar sand bitumen, and physics of crude with emphasis on distillation, visbreaking, coking units, and oil-rock or oil catalyst interactions. Speight is currently Editor-in-Chief for the Journal of Petroleum Science and Technology, Energy Sources-Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, and Energy Sources-Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy. He is also the author/editor/compiler of more than 25 books and bibliographies related to fossil fuel processing and environmental issues.

Speight was Chief Scientific Officer and then Chief Executive Officer of the Western Research Institute, Laramie, WY, USA, from 1984 to 2000. During this period he led a staff of more that 150 scientists, engineers, and technicians in developing new technology for gas processing, petroleum, shale oil, tar sand bitumen, and asphalt. Speight has considerable expertise in evaluating new technologies for patentability and commercial application. As a result of his work, he was awarded the Diploma of Honor, National Petroleum Engineering Society, for outstanding contributions to the petroleum industry in 1995 and the Gold Medal of Russian Academy of Sciences (Natural) for outstanding work in the area of petroleum science in 1996. He has also received the Specialist Invitation Program Speakers Award from NEDO (New Energy Development Organization, Government of Japan) in 1987 and again in 1996 for his contributions to coal research. In 2001, he was also awarded the Einstein Medal of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Natural) in recognition of outstanding contributions.

Affiliations and Expertise

Editor, Petroleum Science and Technology (formerly Fuel Science and Technology International) and Energy Sources and Adjunct Professor, Chemical and Fuels Engineering, University of Utah, USA


"We are entering into an economic cycle where natural gas is going to play the leading role as energy source than what it played in the past century. It has been called the Gas Economy. This book intends to educate in the areas of gas transmission and processing discussing new technology in these areas. I recommend that you consider this practical book for quick reference in your day-to-day business." Jorge H. Foglietta, Director of Technology Development and Process Engineering, ABB Lummus Global Inc. – Randall Gas Technologies, USA "This is an excellent document that combines all facets of engineering within the oil and gas business from source to supply. As well as supporting our engineering design industry this work will offer a comprehensive education to our process engineers of the future." Dr John H. Hargreaves, Chief Process Engineer, KBR Production Services, Aberdeen, UK "Natural gas is in the ascendant as a green fuel of the future. Gas usage will continue to increase worldwide in the coming years. In this regard it is fitting that technical books covering gas processing and transport will be required reading for technical specialists. This highly readable book contains a mine of information on gas transmission and processing. It is recommended for the layman and the technical specialist." Dr. Satinder Purewal, Leader - Business and Leadership,Shell International Exploration and Production B.V., The Netherlands "Natural gas will not only continue to be a significant part of the energy resource for many years to come, but its use will also be increasing. This book documents the latest technology in all areas of natural gas engineering. It is a useful book for every engineer, scientist, and researcher who has ever faced the challenge of investigating natural gas gathering, processing, and transport. I recommend it highly, as a reference and textbook." Dr. Brian F. Towler, Head, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming "This book is a useful reference to have for producers, transporters, processors and commercial users. It covers all technical aspects of natural gas transmission and processing. I recommend that if you work in the natural gas area, you have this reference available." Dr. James F. Lea, Kerr McGee Professor of Petroleum Engineering, University of Oklahoma "This book covers subject areas missed by other books on natural gas engineering that have emphasized mainly the upstream aspects. The emergence of natural gas in a global market underscores the importance of transmission and processing, and I highly recommend this book as a technical resource." Dr. Christine A. Ehlig-Economides, Professor, Albert E. Stevens Endowed Chair in Petroleum Engineering, Texas A&M University "The ongoing emergence of natural gas as the premier fuel of the world economy makes this book eminently topical and useful to all professionals working along the natural gas chain from exploration and production to the midstream and downstream. It fills a considerable void." Dr. Michael J. Economides, Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Houston

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