Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750677769, 9780080466972

Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing

1st Edition

Authors: Saeid Mokhatab William Poe James Speight
eBook ISBN: 9780080466972
Hardcover ISBN: 9780750677769
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 28th September 2006
Page Count: 672
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Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing gives engineers and managers complete coverage of natural gas transmission and processing in the most rapidly growing sector to the petroleum industry. The authors provide a unique discussion of new technologies that are energy efficient and environmentally appealing at the same time. It is an invaluable reference on natural gas engineering and the latest techniques for all engineers and managers moving to natural gas processing as well as those currently working on natural gas projects.

Key Features

  • Provides practicing engineers critical information on all aspects of gas gathering, processing and transmission
  • First book that treats multiphase flow transmission in great detail
  • Examines natural gas energy costs and pricing with the aim of delivering on the goals of efficiency, quality and profit


Petroleum Engineers, Pipeline Engineers, Chemical Engineers, any engineer working with natural gas

Table of Contents

Table of Contents Foreword Preface Dedication Acknowledgements Endorsements Authors Biographical Sketches

Chapter 1: Natural Gas Fundamental 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Natural Gas History 1.3 Natural Gas Origin and Composition 1.4 Gas Sources 1.4.1 Non-associated Gas 1.4.2 Associated Gas 1.4.3 Coal Bed Methane 1.5 Natural Gas Phase Behavior 1.6 Natural Gas Properties 1.6.1 Chemical and Physical Properties 1.6.2 Gas Specific Gravity 1.6.3 Ideal and Real Gas Laws 1.6.4 Gas Formation Volume Factor 1.6.5 Gas Density 1.6.6 Isothermal Compressibility of Gases 1.6.7 Gas Viscosity 1.7 Quality 1.8 Transportation 1.8.1 Pipelines 1.8.2 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) 1.8.3 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) 1.8.4 Gas-to-Solid (GTS) 1.8.5 Gas-to-Power (GTP) 1.8.6 Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) 1.8.7 Gas-to-Commodity (GTC) 1.9 References

Chapter 2: Natural Gas Energy Pricing 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Energy Pricing, Supply and Demand 2.3 Sustainability and the Increasing Fascination with Natural Gas 2.4 Is Natural Gas Always “Non-renewable”? 2.5 U.S. Natural Gas – Pricing, Markets, Risk Management, and Supply 2.5.1 Some Features of Current Natural Gas Pricing in the U.S. 2.5.2 U.S. Energy Markets: The Regulation-Deregulation Nexus 2.5.3 Energy Price Volatility and Derivatives
2.5.4 Natural Gas Supply in North America The Special Position of the U.S. Canada as North American Gas Supplier 2.6 Natural Gas in Eurasia: the Special Position of Post-Soviet Russia 2.7 Looking to Nature for a New Model 2.8 References

Chapter 3: Raw Gas Transmission 3.1 Introduction
3.2 Multiphase Flow Terminology
3.3 Multiphase Flow Regimes 3.3.1 Two-Phase Flow Regimes Horizontal Flow Regimes Vertical Flow Regimes Inclined Flow Regimes Flow Pattern Maps 3.3.2 Three-Phase Flow Regimes 3.4 Calculating Multiphase Flow Pressure Gradients 3.4.1 Steady State Two-Phase Flow Single-Phase Flow Approaches Homogeneous Flow Approaches Lockhart and Martinelli Method Beggs and Brill Method Mechanistic Models 3.4.2 Steady State Three-Phase Flow 3.4.3 Transient Multiphase Flow Two Fluid Model Drift Flux Model 3.5 Multiphase Flow in Gas-Condensate Pipelines 3.6 Temperature Profile of Multiphase Flow Pipelines 3.7 Velocity Criteria for Sizing Multiphase Pipelines 3.7.1 Corrosion Criteria 3.7.2 Erosion Criteria 3.8 Multiphase Flow Assurance 3.8.1 Gas Hydrates Hydrate Locus for Natural Gas Components Prediction of Hydrate Formation Conditions K-Factor Method Baillie and Wichert Method Gas Gravity Method Commercial Software Packages Hydrate Prevention Techniques Thermal Methods Chemical Inhibition Types of Inhibitors Prediction of Inhibitor Requirements Design of Injection Systems 3.8.2 Corrosion Choice of Corrosion Resistant Metals Corrosion Inhibitors Cathodic Protection Protective Coatings 3.8.3 Wax Wax Deposition Wax Deposition Envelope Gas-Condensate Wax Deposition Envelope Wax Formation in Multiphase Gas-Condensate Pipelines Identification of Wax Deposition Problems Wax Deposition Inhibition/Prevention Wax Deposit Remediation Controlled Production of Wax Deposits 3.8.4 Severe Slugging Severe Slugging Mechanism Stability Analysis Prevention and Control of Severe Slugging Riser Base Gas Injection Topside Choking Control Methods 3.8.5 Real Time Flow Assurance Monitoring 3.9 Multiphase Pipeline Operations 3.9.1 Leak Detection
3.9.2 Pigging 3.10 References

Chapter 4: Basic Concept of Natural Gas Processing 4.1 Introduction
4.2 Process Modules
4.3 Scope of Natural Gas Processing
4.3.1 Processing Objectives
4.3.2 Effect of Gas Type in Field Processing
4.3.3 Location of the Gas Field
4.4 References

Chapter 5: Phase Separation 5.1 Introduction
5.2 Gravity Separators
5.2.1 General Description
5.2.2 Separators Selection
5.2.3 Gravity Separation Theory
5.2.4 Design Considerations
5.2.5 Design Procedure Vertical Separators Horizontal Separators
5.2.6 Practical Separator Design 5.2.7 Operating Problems of Separators 5.3 Multistage Separation
5.4 Centrifugal Separators 5.5 Twister Supersonic Separator
5.6 Slug Catchers 5.7 High Efficiency Liquid-Gas Coalescers 5.7.1 Aerosols 5.7.2 Coalescer Construction/Operation Principles 5.7.3 Modeling the Liquid/Gas Coalescer 5.7.4 Coalescer Performance/Operational Limits 5.7.5 Liquid/Gas Coalescer Applications 5.8 High Efficiency Liquid-Liquid Coalescer 5.8.1 Emulsions 5.8.2 Coalescer Principles and Materials of construction 5.8.3 Coalescer Mechanism of Operation 5.8.4 Liquid/Liquid Coalescer Performance 5.8.5 Limitations of Using Coalescers 5.8.6 Applications 5.9 References

Chapter 6: Condensate Stabilization 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Stabilization Processes 6.2.1 Flash Vaporization 6.2.2 Stabilization by Fractionation Process Description Design Consideration of Stabilization Column
6.3 Condensate Storage
6.4 References

Chapter 7: Acid Gas Treating 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Acid Gas Removal Processes 7.2.1 Batch Type Processes Metal Oxide Processes Iron Sponge Process Zinc Oxide Process Slurry Processes Chemsweet Process Sulfa-Check Process 7.2.2 Amine Processes Process Description Design Considerations 7.2.3 Carbonate Washing and Water Washing 7.2.4 Methanol Based Processes 7.2.5 Other Processes 7.2.6 Process Selection 7.3 Sulfur Recovery Processes 7.4 References

Chapter 8: Natural Gas Compression 8.1 Introduction
8.2 Reciprocating Compressors
8.3 Centrifugal Compressors
8.4 Comparison Between Compressors
8.5 Thermodynamics of Gas Compression 8.6 Real Gas Behavior and Equation of State 8.7 Compressors Sizing Procedure
8.7.1 Compression Ratio
8.7.2 Determining Compression Number of Stages 8.7.3 Estimating BHP 8.8 Compressor Control 8.8.1 Reciprocating Compressors 8.8.2 Centrifugal Compressors 8.9 Compressor Performance Map 8.9.1 Reciprocating Compressors 8.9.2 Centrifugal Compressors 8.10 References

Chapter 9: Gas Dehydration 9.1 Introduction
9.2 Water Content Determination
9.3 Gas Dehydration Using Glycol
9.3.1 Choice of Glycol
9.3.2 Process Description
9.3.3 Design Considerations
9.3.4 Glycol Dehydrator Operational Problems
9.4 Solid Bed Dehydration
9.4.1 Desiccant Capacity
9.4.2 Desiccant Selection
9.4.3 Process Description
9.4.4 Design Considerations
9.4.5 Adsorber Sizing Procedure
9.4.6 Solid Bed Dehydrator Operational Problems
9.5 References

Chapter 10 Natural Gas Liquids Recovery 10.1 Introduction
10.2 NGL Recovery Processes
10.2.1 Refrigeration Processes Mechanical Refrigeration Self Refrigeration Cryogenic Refrigeration 10.2.2 Lean Oil Absorption
10.2.3 Solid Bed Adsorption 10.2.4 Membrane Separation Process
10.2.5 Selection of NGL Recovery Processes
10.3 NGL Fractionation
10.3.1 Fractionator Operation
10.3.2 Fractionator Design
10.3.3 Design Procedure
10.4 Gasoline and LPG Treating
10.4.1 Doctor Process
10.4.2 Merox Process
10.5 References

Chapter 11: Sales Gas Transmission 11.1 Introduction
11.2 Gas Flow Fundamentals
11.2.1 General Flow Equation
11.2.2 Friction Factor Correlations
11.2.3 Practical Flow Equations
11.3 Predicting Gas Temperature Profile 11.4 Transient Flow in Gas Transmission Pipelines 11.5 Compressor Stations and Associated Pipeline Installations 11.5.1 Compressor Stations Drivers 11.5.2 Compressors Configurations 11.5.3 Reduction and Metering Stations Filters Heaters Pressure Reduction and Regulation System Metering System 11.6 Design Considerations of Sales Gas Pipelines 11.6.1 Line Sizing Criteria 11.6.2 Compressor Station Spacing 11.6.3 Compression Power
11.7 Pipeline Operations 11.8 References

Chapter 12: Gas Processing Plant Controls and Automation 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Early Methods of Gas Plant Automation 12.3 Microprocessor Based Automation 12.3.1 Programmable Logic Controllers 12.3.2 Distributed Control Systems Remote Control Panel Communications Medium Central Control 12.3.3 Standards and Protocols 12.4 Control of Equipment and Process Systems 12.4.1 Gas Gathering 12.4.2 Gas Treating 12.4.3 Sulfur Recovery 12.4.4 Gas Dehydration Absorption Adsorbents 12.4.5 Liquid Recovery Condensate Stabilization Refrigeration Cryogenic Recovery (Turboexpander Processes) Demethanizer 12.4.6 NGL Fractionation 12.4.7 Centrifugal Compressors 12.4.8 Centrifugal Pumps 12.4.9 Reciprocating Pumps 12.4.10 Utilities 12.5 Automation Applications 12.5.1 Data Historians 12.5.2 Asset and Performance Management 12.5.3 Statistical Process Control 12.5.4 Advanced Regulatory Control 12.5.5 Multivariable Predictive Control 12.5.6 Optimization 12.5.7 Leveraging Automation Automation Upgrade Master Plans Determining The Benefits Baselining Statistical Analysis Performance Improvement Initiatives 12.6 Condensate Stabilizer Case Study 12.7 References

Chapter 13: Dynamic Simulation of Gas Processing Plants 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Areas of Application of Dynamic Simulation 13.2.1 Plant Design Controllability and Operability Safety Analysis Start-up Procedure Definition DCS Check-out Operator Training Advanced Process Control 13.2.2 Plant Operation Troubleshooting Plant Performance Enhancement Incident Analysis Operator Decision Support Operator Training Advanced Process Control (APC) 13.3 Modeling Considerations 13.3.1 Level of Detail in the Model 13.3.2 Model Speed 13.3.3 Equipment Specific Considerations Valves Rotating Equipment Piping Equipment Columns Heat Exchangers Control Systems 13.4 Control of Equipment and Process Systems 13.4.1 Gas Gathering and Transportation 13.4.2 Gas Treating 13.4.3 Sulfur Recovery 13.4.4 Gas Dehydration 13.4.5 Liquids Recovery, Natural Gas Liquefaction 13.4.6 NGL Fractionation 13.5 Case Study I: Analysis of a Fuel Gas System Startup 13.5.1 Introduction 13.5.2 Steady State Analysis 13.5.3 Dynamic Analysis 13.5.4 Conclusion 13.6 Case Study II: Online Dynamic Model of a Trunk Pipeline 13.7 References

Chapter 14 Environmental Aspects of Gas Processing and Use 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Environmental Impacts of Natural Gas Processing 14.2.1 Air Pollutant Emissions 14.2.2 Gas Flaring Emissions 14.2.3 Methane Emissions Pneumatic Devices Dehydrator Systems Vapor Recovery Units Compressors Cryogenic Equipment Flares Methane Emissions Reduction 14.2.4 Water Pollution 14.2.5 Soil Pollution 14.2.6 Pollution Prevention 14.3 Emissions from Natural Gas Use 14.3.1 Combustion Emissions 14.3.2 Acid Rain Formation 14.3.3 Smog Formation 14.3.4 Greenhouse Gas Emissions 14.3.5 Industrial and Electric Generation Emissions 14.4 Protocols and Environmental Programs 14.5 Environmental Management System 14.6 References

Chapter 15 Maximizing Profitability of Gas Plant Assets 15.1 Introduction 15.2 The Performance Strategy – Integrated Gas Plant 15.3 Strategies for Organizational Behavior and Information 15.4 Organizational Behavior Model 15.4.1 Information Quality 15.4.2 Perception of Information Two Dimensional Curves and Plots Prediction Trends Dynamic Performance Measures Performance Messages 15.4.3 Capability to Perform 15.4.4 Organizational Hierarchy of Needs 15.4.5 Behavior 15.5 The Successful Information Strategy 15.6 The Impact of Living with Information Technology 15.7 Vision of the Modern Plant Operation 15.8 Operations Strategy 15.9 Model Based Asset Management 15.10 Optimization 15.10.1 Tools for Optimization 15.10.2 Optimization Alternatives 15.11 Industrial Relevance 15.12 The Technology Integration Challenge 15.13 Scientific Approach 15.14 Other Miscellaneous Initiatives 15.15 Conclusion 15.16 References

Chapter 16 Gas Plant Project Management 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Project Management Overview 16.3 Industry Perspective 16.4 The Project Management Process 16.4.1 Defining Business and Project Objectives The Project Charter Project Team Roles and Responsibilities 16.4.2 Contracting Strategy 16.4.3 Conceptual Estimates and Schedules 16.4.4 Project Execution Planning 16.4.5 Pre Project Planning Measurement 16.4.6 The Responsibility Matrix 16.5 Project Controls 16.5.1 Project Timeline 16.5.2 Risk Management Project Risk Management Methodology Risk Response Planning Developing Risk Response Strategies Qualitative Project Risk Management Quantitative Project Risk Management Assessment Risk Process Modelling Project Risk Management in Interaction with other Management Processes Other Risk Mitigation Concepts 16.6 Quality Assurance 16.7 Commissioning and Start-up 16.8 Operate and Evaluate 16.9 Project Closeout 16.10 Conclusion 16.11 References

Appendix 1 Three-Phase Flash Calculation for Hydrocarbon Systems Containing Water Appendix 2 Conversion Factors
Appendix 3 Physical Properties of Fluids
Appendix 4 Glossary


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About the Author

Saeid Mokhatab

Saeid Mokhatab is one of the most recognizable names in the natural gas community through his contributions to advancing the technologies in the natural gas processing industry. He has been actively involved in different aspects of several large-scale gas processing projects, from conceptual design through plant startup and operations support. He has presented on gas processing technologies worldwide and has published 300 technical papers and two renowned Elsevier’s handbooks in collaboration with leading experts from the largest international engineering companies and prominent process licensors. His numerous publications, which are widely read and highly respected, have set the technical standards in the natural gas processing industry and are considered by many as major references to be used for any gas processing/LNG project in development. He founded the world’s first peer-reviewed journal devoted to natural gas science and engineering (published by Elsevier, the United States) and has held editorial positions for many scientific journals/book publishing companies in the hydrocarbon processing industry. He has also served as a member of technical committees for several professional societies and acclaimed gas processing conferences worldwide. As a result of his outstanding work in the natural gas industry, he has received a number of international awards and medals, and his biography has been listed in highly prestigious directories.

Affiliations and Expertise

Gas Processing Consultant, Canada

William Poe

William A. “Bill” Poe is a Senior Principal Technical Consultant at AVEVA, the United States. He has over 35 years of international business and industrial experience in design, operations and project management of gas processing plants with a special focus on automation, multivariable predictive control (MPC), advanced process control (APC), optimization design and implementation, and real-time performance monitoring. Bill started his career at Shell Oil Company, USA, in 1981, working over a decade in natural gas processing plants operations and engineering as well as management of multimillion-dollar projects. In 1993, he joined Continental Controls to lead the process engineering department in support of executing contracts with the Gas Research Institute, USA, where he developed new multivariable control applications in the natural gas industry. After joining GE as part of the Continental Controls acquisition, he became vice president of this division of GE where his responsibilities included direction of product development, projects, technical sales support, and customer service for multivariable control and optimization applications in the natural gas industry. In 2001, Bill joined Invensys Process Systems, USA, where he has developed APC and Optimization Master Plans for international companies such as Saudi Aramco, ADNOC, Statoil, and PDVSA, as well as automation and advanced process control feasibility studies for over 100 natural gas processing plants worldwide. After Schneider Electric acquired Invensys Process Systems in 2014 and merged its software division with AVEVA in 2018, he has continued to work with the top gas processing companies. Bill is an Associate Editor of the Journal of Natural Gas Science & Engineering, has authored or co-authored more than 60 technical papers, and made numerous technical presentations at prestigious international conferences. He received the GE Innovators Award in 1999 and attained the Invensys Circle of Excellence in 2011.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Principal Technical Consultant, AVEVA, USA

James Speight

James G. Speight is a senior fuel consultant as well as an Adjunct Professor of Chemical and Fuels Engineering at the University of Utah, USA. He is recognized internationally as an expert in the characterization, properties, and processing of conventional and synthetic fuels and as a chemist with more than 35 years of experience in thermal/process chemistry, thermodynamics, refining of petroleum, heavy oil, and tar sand bitumen, and physics of crude with emphasis on distillation, visbreaking, coking units, and oil-rock or oil catalyst interactions. Speight is currently Editor-in-Chief for the Journal of Petroleum Science and Technology, Energy Sources-Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, and Energy Sources-Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy. He is also the author/editor/compiler of more than 25 books and bibliographies related to fossil fuel processing and environmental issues.

Speight was Chief Scientific Officer and then Chief Executive Officer of the Western Research Institute, Laramie, WY, USA, from 1984 to 2000. During this period he led a staff of more that 150 scientists, engineers, and technicians in developing new technology for gas processing, petroleum, shale oil, tar sand bitumen, and asphalt. Speight has considerable expertise in evaluating new technologies for patentability and commercial application. As a result of his work, he was awarded the Diploma of Honor, National Petroleum Engineering Society, for outstanding contributions to the petroleum industry in 1995 and the Gold Medal of Russian Academy of Sciences (Natural) for outstanding work in the area of petroleum science in 1996. He has also received the Specialist Invitation Program Speakers Award from NEDO (New Energy Development Organization, Government of Japan) in 1987 and again in 1996 for his contributions to coal research. In 2001, he was also awarded the Einstein Medal of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Natural) in recognition of outstanding contributions.

Affiliations and Expertise

Editor, Petroleum Science and Technology (formerly Fuel Science and Technology International) and Energy Sources; Adjunct Professor, Chemical and Fuels Engineering, University of Utah, USA


"We are entering into an economic cycle where natural gas is going to play the leading role as energy source than what it played in the past century. It has been called the Gas Economy. This book intends to educate in the areas of gas transmission and processing discussing new technology in these areas. I recommend that you consider this practical book for quick reference in your day-to-day business." Jorge H. Foglietta, Director of Technology Development and Process Engineering, ABB Lummus Global Inc. – Randall Gas Technologies, USA "This is an excellent document that combines all facets of engineering within the oil and gas business from source to supply. As well as supporting our engineering design industry this work will offer a comprehensive education to our process engineers of the future." Dr John H. Hargreaves, Chief Process Engineer, KBR Production Services, Aberdeen, UK "Natural gas is in the ascendant as a green fuel of the future. Gas usage will continue to increase worldwide in the coming years. In this regard it is fitting that technical books covering gas processing and transport will be required reading for technical specialists. This highly readable book contains a mine of information on gas transmission and processing. It is recommended for the layman and the technical specialist." Dr. Satinder Purewal, Leader - Business and Leadership,Shell International Exploration and Production B.V., The Netherlands "Natural gas will not only continue to be a significant part of the energy resource for many years to come, but its use will also be increasing. This book documents the latest technology in all areas of natural gas engineering. It is a useful book for every engineer, scientist, and researcher who has ever faced the challenge of investigating natural gas gathering, processing, and transport. I recommend it highly, as a reference and textbook." Dr. Brian F. Towler, Head, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming "This book is a useful reference to have for producers, transporters, processors and commercial users. It covers all technical aspects of natural gas transmission and processing. I recommend that if you work in the natural gas area, you have this reference available." Dr. James F. Lea, Kerr McGee Professor of Petroleum Engineering, University of Oklahoma "This book covers subject areas missed by other books on natural gas engineering that have emphasized mainly the upstream aspects. The emergence of natural gas in a global market underscores the importance of transmission and processing, and I highly recommend this book as a technical resource." Dr. Christine A. Ehlig-Economides, Professor, Albert E. Stevens Endowed Chair in Petroleum Engineering, Texas A&M University "The ongoing emergence of natural gas as the premier fuel of the world economy makes this book eminently topical and useful to all professionals working along the natural gas chain from exploration and production to the midstream and downstream. It fills a considerable void." Dr. Michael J. Economides, Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Houston

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