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Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780128014998, 9780128016640

Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing

3rd Edition

Principles and Practices

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Authors: Saeid Mokhatab William Poe John Mak
eBook ISBN: 9780128016640
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128014998
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 17th February 2015
Page Count: 628
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Written by an internationally-recognized author team of natural gas industry experts, the third edition of  Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing is a unique, well-documented, and comprehensive work on the major aspects of natural gas transmission and processing. Two new chapters have been added to the new edition: a chapter on nitrogen rejection to address today's high nitrogen gases and a chapter on gas processing plant operations to assist plant operators with optimizing their plant operations. In addition, overall updates to Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing provide a fresh look at new technologies and opportunities for solving current gas processing problems on plant design and operation and on greenhouse gases emissions. It also does an excellent job of highlighting the key considerations that must be taken into account for any natural gas project in development.

Key Features

  • Covers all technical and operational aspects of natural gas transmission and processing in detail.
  • Provides pivotal updates on the latest technologies, applications and solutions.
  • Offers practical advice on design and operation based on engineering principles and operating experiences.


Professional gas processing engineers and technologists, gas-processing plant designers and operators, scientists and researchers working in the natural gas industry

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Natural Gas Fundamentals

  • 1.1. Introduction
  • 1.2. Natural gas history
  • 1.3. Natural gas origin and sources
  • 1.4. Natural gas composition and classification
  • 1.5. Natural gas phase behavior
  • 1.6. Natural gas properties
  • 1.7. Natural gas reserves
  • 1.8. Natural gas exploration and production
  • 1.9. Natural gas transportation
  • 1.10. Natural gas processing
  • 1.11. Sales gas transmission
  • 1.12. Underground gas storage

Chapter 2. Raw Gas Transmission

  • 2.1. Introduction
  • 2.2. Multiphase flow terminology
  • 2.3. Multiphase flow regimes
  • 2.4. Determining multiphase flow design parameters
  • 2.5. Predicting temperature profile of multiphase pipeline
  • 2.6. Velocity criteria for sizing multiphase pipelines
  • 2.7. Multiphase pipeline operations
  • 2.8. Multiphase flow assurance

Chapter 3. Basic Concepts of Natural Gas Processing

  • 3.1. Introduction
  • 3.2. Natural gas processing objectives
  • 3.3. Gas processing plant configurations
  • 3.4. Finding the best gas processing route
  • 3.5. Support systems
  • 3.6. Contractual agreements

Chapter 4. Phase Separation

  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Gravity separators
  • 4.3. Multistage separation
  • 4.4. Centrifugal separators
  • 4.5. Twister supersonic separator
  • 4.6. Slug catchers
  • 4.7. High-efficiency liquid/gas coalescers
  • 4.8. High-efficiency liquid–liquid coalescers
  • 4.9. Practical design of separation systems

Chapter 5. Condensate Production

  • 5.1. Introduction
  • 5.2. Condensate stabilization
  • 5.3. Condensate hydrotreating
  • 5.4. Effluent treatment
  • 5.5. Condensate storage

Chapter 6. Natural Gas Treating

  • 6.1. Introduction
  • 6.2. Gas treating specifications
  • 6.3. Gas treating processes
  • 6.4. Chemical absorption processes
  • 6.5. Physical solvent processes
  • 6.6. Mixed physical and chemical absorption processes
  • 6.7. Solid bed absorption processes
  • 6.8. Solid bed adsorption process
  • 6.9. Membrane
  • 6.10. Cryogenic fractionation
  • 6.11. Microbiological treatment processes
  • 6.12. Selecting the gas treating process

Chapter 7. Natural Gas Dehydration

  • 7.1. Introduction
  • 7.2. Water content determination
  • 7.3. Glycol dehydration
  • 7.4. Solid-bed dehydration
  • 7.5. Other gas dehydration processes
  • 7.6. Gas dehydration process selection
  • 7.7. Mercury removal

Chapter 8. Natural Gas Liquids Recovery

  • 8.1. Introduction
  • 8.2. Refrigeration processes
  • 8.3. Liquid recovery processes
  • 8.4. Selection of NGL recovery process
  • 8.5. NGL recovery technology development
  • 8.6. NGL recovery unit design considerations
  • 8.7. NGL recovery unit operating problems
  • 8.8. NGL fractionation
  • 8.9. Liquid product processing

Chapter 9. Sulfur Recovery and Handling

  • 9.1. Introduction
  • 9.2. Sulfur properties
  • 9.3. Sulfur recovery
  • 9.4. Tail gas cleanup
  • 9.5. Sulfur degassing
  • 9.6. Sulfur storage and handling
  • 9.7. SRU design considerations
  • 9.8. SRU operation problems
  • 9.9. Selecting the sulfur recovery process
  • 9.10. Sulfur disposal by acid gas injection

Chapter 10. Nitrogen Rejection

  • 10.1. Introduction
  • 10.2. Nitrogen rejection options
  • 10.3. Nitrogen rejection unit integration
  • 10.4. Cryogenic nitrogen rejection
  • 10.5. Design considerations
  • 10.6. Operating problems

Chapter 11. Natural Gas Compression

  • 11.1. Introduction
  • 11.2. Reciprocating compressors
  • 11.3. Centrifugal compressors
  • 11.4. Comparison between compressors
  • 11.5. Compressor selection
  • 11.6. Thermodynamics of gas compression
  • 11.7. Compression ratio
  • 11.8. Compressor design
  • 11.9. Compressor control
  • 11.10. Compressor performance maps
  • 11.11. Example for operating a compressor in a pipeline system

Chapter 12. Sales Gas Transmission

  • 12.1. Introduction
  • 12.2. Gas flow fundamentals
  • 12.3. Predicting gas temperature profile
  • 12.4. Transient flow in gas transmission pipelines
  • 12.5. Compressor stations
  • 12.6. Reduction and metering stations
  • 12.7. Design considerations of sales gas pipelines
  • 12.8. Pipeline operations

Chapter 13. Gas Processing Plant Automation

  • 13.1. Introduction
  • 13.2. Early methods of gas plant automation
  • 13.3. Microprocessor-based automation
  • 13.4. Control of equipment and process systems
  • 13.5. Automation applications
  • 13.6. Condensate stabilizer case study

Chapter 14. Gas Processing Plant Operations

  • 14.1. Introduction
  • 14.2. Commissioning and start-up
  • 14.3. Control room management
  • 14.4. Maintenance
  • 14.5. Troubleshooting
  • 14.6. Turnarounds

Chapter 15. Dynamic Simulation of Gas Processing Plants

  • 15.1. Introduction
  • 15.2. Areas of application of dynamic simulation
  • 15.3. Modeling considerations
  • 15.4. Control of equipment and process systems
  • 15.5. Case study I: Analysis of a fuel gas system start-up
  • 15.6. Case study II: Online dynamic model of a trunk line

Chapter 16. Real-Time Optimization of Gas Processing Plants

  • 16.1. Introduction
  • 16.2. Real-time optimization
  • 16.3. RTO project considerations
  • 16.4. Example of RTO

Chapter 17. Maximizing Profitability of Gas Plant Assets

  • 17.1. Introduction
  • 17.2. The performance strategy—integrated gas plant
  • 17.3. Strategies for organizational behavior and information
  • 17.4. Organizational behavior model
  • 17.5. The successful information strategy
  • 17.6. The impact of living with information technology
  • 17.7. Vision of the modern plant operation
  • 17.8. Operations strategy
  • 17.9. Model-based asset management
  • 17.10. Optimization
  • 17.11. Industrial relevance
  • 17.12. The technology integration challenge
  • 17.13. Scientific approach
  • 17.14. Other miscellaneous initiatives
  • 17.15. Conclusion

Chapter 18. Gas Plant Project Management

  • 18.1. Introduction
  • 18.2. Project management overview
  • 18.3. Industry perspective
  • 18.4. The project management process
  • 18.5. Project controls
  • 18.6. Quality assurance
  • 18.7. Commissioning and start-up
  • 18.8. Operate and evaluate
  • 18.9. Project closeout
  • 18.10. Conclusion

Appendix 1. Conversion Factors

Appendix 2. Standard Gas Conditions

Appendix 3. Physical Properties of Fluids


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© Gulf Professional Publishing 2015
17th February 2015
Gulf Professional Publishing
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:

About the Authors

Saeid Mokhatab

Saeid Mokhatab is recognized globally as an expert in the fields of natural gas processing and LNG. He has been actively involved in the development and implementation of several large-scale gas processing and LNG projects over the years. Dr. Mokhatab has made major contributions to enhance the understanding of gas processing and LNG knowledge, practices, and technologies through 300 technical papers and 3 Elsevier books. He founded the Elsevier peer-reviewed Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering and has served on the editorial/advisory boards of leading professional publications pertaining to gas processing and LNG. As a result of his work, he has received a number of international awards and medals and has been listed in highly prestigious biographical directories.

Affiliations and Expertise

Gas Processing Consultant, Halifax, Canada

William Poe

William A. “Bill” Poe is a Senior Principal Technical Consultant at AVEVA, the United States. He has over 35 years of international business and industrial experience in design, operations and project management of gas processing plants with a special focus on automation, multivariable predictive control (MPC), advanced process control (APC), optimization design and implementation, and real-time performance monitoring. Bill started his career at Shell Oil Company, USA, in 1981, working over a decade in natural gas processing plants operations and engineering as well as management of multimillion-dollar projects. In 1993, he joined Continental Controls to lead the process engineering department in support of executing contracts with the Gas Research Institute, USA, where he developed new multivariable control applications in the natural gas industry. After joining GE as part of the Continental Controls acquisition, he became vice president of this division of GE where his responsibilities included direction of product development, projects, technical sales support, and customer service for multivariable control and optimization applications in the natural gas industry. In 2001, Bill joined Invensys Process Systems, USA, where he has developed APC and Optimization Master Plans for international companies such as Saudi Aramco, ADNOC, Statoil, and PDVSA, as well as automation and advanced process control feasibility studies for over 100 natural gas processing plants worldwide. After Schneider Electric acquired Invensys Process Systems in 2014 and merged its software division with AVEVA in 2018, he has continued to work with the top gas processing companies. Bill is an Associate Editor of the Journal of Natural Gas Science & Engineering, has authored or co-authored more than 60 technical papers, and made numerous technical presentations at prestigious international conferences. He received the GE Innovators Award in 1999 and attained the Invensys Circle of Excellence in 2011.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Principal Technical Consultant, AVEVA, USA

John Mak

John Y. Mak is a Senior Fellow and Technical Director at Fluor, the United States, and leads the technology and design development for Fluor chemical and energy division. He is the technical expert and SME with Fluor for over 40 years and has been leading major oil and gas, petrochemical and refinery projects from conceptual designs, feasibility studies, FEED development, detailed engineering, to plant start-up and performance testing. John has made contributions to innovations in natural gas treating and processing, NGL recovery, LNG liquefaction and regasification, synthesis gas purification, and carbon capture methods. John is the co-author of the Handbook of Liquefied Natural Gas, first edition (2013) published by Elsevier, the United States. He has published over 80 technical papers and has frequently presented his findings at technical conferences such as GPA Midstream Convention, GPA Europe, Laurance Reid Gas Conditioning Conference, LNG Summit, Offshore Technology Conference, GASTECH, and China Coal Forum. John is the inventor of over 90 patents and patent pending processes. John is specializing in more complex NGL recovery designs for conventional and unconventional gases, treating high CO2 content gases using physical solvents, acid gas removal with amines, cryogenic nitrogen rejection and helium recovery.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Fellow and Technical Director, Fluor, USA


"This handbook is a valuable reference that covers all aspects of the natural gas transmission and processing industries. It contains much needed design, operation and optimization information, all in a single source and does an excellent job of highlighting the key considerations for any gas processing project, as well as providing innovative solutions in NGL recoveries and treating high nitrogen and carbon dioxide content gases in unconventional gas plants. It is a key addition to any gas processing professional's library.2 --Jason Kraynek, Vice President of Business Transformation and Innovations, Fluor, USA

"This well-balanced handbook is the only book of its kind, covering all aspects of natural gas transmission and processing in more details. I believe it will serve as a valuable desk reference for practicing gas engineers and technologists, and as a text for graduate students in the gas engineering curriculum." --Dr. J.C. Kuo, Senior Advisor of Gas Team, Process Engineering, Chevron ETC, USA

2This high quality, comprehensive book gives an accurate picture of where the natural gas transmission and processing industry stands today, and describes some relatively new technologies that could become important in the future. I recommend this book for any professional gas processing engineer and technologist." --David Messersmith, Bechtel Fellow and Manager of LNG Technology and Services Group, Bechtel OG&C, USA

"This is the only book that covers all technical and operational aspects of natural gas transmission and processing as well as subject areas missed by other similar references. I recommend that if you work in the natural gas industry, you have this unique reference available." --Dr. Jaleel V. Valappil, Manager - Advanced Simulation/Process, Bechtel OG&C, USA

"This is a valuable handbook to both the experienced engineer and the graduate just commencing in natural gas engineering. It provides practical advice for design and operation based on sound engineering principles and established techniques as well as introducing process solutions based on new and emerging technologies." --Adrian Finn, Manager of Process Technology, Costain Natural Resources, UK

"This book does an excellent job of describing the fundamental handling of natural gas from the wellhead to the consumer. I particularly found the segment on natural gas liquids recovery most informative. I plan to make this very informative publication available to my employees as an excellent training tool as well." --Randy Johnson, Operations Manager-LNG, Energy Transfer, USA

"Must have book for anyone in the Gas Processing Industry. The authors did an incredible job at covering the process dynamics and introducing control theories for optimal operation. Absolutely enjoyed the descriptive nature of the chapters without compromising technical details." --Cesar A. Felizzola, Process Control Engineer, South Region Engineering, DCP Midstream, USA

"This comprehensive book provides in-depth coverage of all technical aspects of natural gas transmission and processing, beyond those addressed in other books. This is a ‘must addition’ to library of anyone working in the midstream and downstream sectors of natural gas utilization to achieve higher career goals. I commend the authors’ continuous effort to make it an excellent source book for all professionals, engineers, and scientists in the natural gas industry.2 --Dr. Suresh C. Sharma, ONEOK Chair Professor and Director of Natural Gas Engineering and Management, University of Oklahoma, USA

"This comprehensive book provides a state-of-the-art treatment of the different aspects of natural gas transmission and processing from the fundamental principles to the latest technology developments. It is a unique reference for all professionals involved in natural gas industry and an excellent textbook for graduate programs on the subject." --Dr. Valerio Cozzani, Professor of Chemical Engineering and Director of Post-Graduate Program on Oil & Gas Process Design, University of Bologna, Italy

"This unique handbook, written by internationally renowned gas-engineering experts, is a major contribution to the professional and scholarly literature, offering an excellent coverage of key topics in the natural gas supply chain. It addresses the principles, practices, advanced technologies, new issues and challenges related to the natural gas transmission and processing industry, which have not been addressed in depth in any existing books. I recommend it highly, as a reference and textbook." --Dr. Brian F. Towler, Professor and Chair of Petroleum Engineering, University of Queensland, Australia

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