Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123869142, 9780123869753

Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing

2nd Edition

Authors: Saeid Mokhatab William Poe
eBook ISBN: 9780123869753
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123869142
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 2nd July 2012
Page Count: 828
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A unique, well-documented, and forward-thinking work, the second edition of Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing continues to present a thoroughly updated, authoritative, and comprehensive description of all major aspects of natural gas transmission and processing. It provides an ideal platform for engineers, technologists, and operations personnel working in the natural gas industry to get a better understanding of any special requirements for optimal design and operations of natural gas transmission pipelines and processing plants.

Key Features

  • First book of its kind that covers all aspects of natural gas transmission and processing
  • Provides pivotal updates on the latest technologies, which have not been addressed in-depth in any existing books
  • Offers practical advice for design and operation based on sound engineering principles and established techniques
  • Examines ways to select the best processing route for optimal design of gas-processing plants
  • Contains new discussions on process modeling, control, and optimization in gas processing industry


Professional gas processing engineers and technologists, gas-processing plant designers and operators, scientists and researchers working in the natural gas industry

Table of Contents

Endorsements for the Second



Preface to the Second Edition

Authors Biographical Sketches

Chapter 1. Natural Gas Fundamentals

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Natural Gas History

1.3 Natural Gas Origin and Sources

1.4 Natural Gas Composition and Classification

1.5 Natural Gas Phase Behavior

1.6 Natural Gas Properties

1.7 Natural Gas Reserves

1.8 Natural Gas Exploration and Production

1.9 Natural Gas Transportation

1.10 Dynamics of Global Gas Business


Chapter 2. Natural Gas Energy Pricing

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Energy Pricing, Supply, and Demand

2.3 Sustainability and the Increasing Fascination with Natural Gas

2.4 Is Natural Gas Always “Nonrenewable”?

2.5 U.S. Natural Gas: Pricing, Markets, Risk Management, and Supply

2.6 Natural Gas in Eurasia: the Special Position of Post-Soviet Russia

2.7 Looking to Nature for a New Model


Chapter 3. Raw Gas Transmission

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Multiphase Flow Terminology

3.3 Multiphase Flow Regimes

3.4 Determining Multiphase Flow Design Parameters

3.5 Predicting Temperature Profile of Multiphase Pipelines

3.6 Velocity Criteria for Sizing Multiphase Pipelines

3.7 Multiphase Pipeline Operations

3.8 Multiphase Flow Assurance


Chapter 4. Basic Concepts of Natural Gas Processing

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Scope of Natural Gas Processing

4.3 Typical Setup of Gas Processing Plants

4.4 Finding the Best Gas Processing Route


Chapter 5. Phase Separation

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Gravity Separators

5.3 Multistage Separation

5.4 Centrifugal Separators

5.5 Twister Supersonic Separator

5.6 Slug Catchers

5.7 High-Efficiency Liquid-Gas Coalescers

5.8 High-Efficiency Liquid–Liquid Coalescers


Chapter 6. Condensate Stabilization

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Stabilization Processes

6.3 Condensate Storage


Chapter 7. Natural Gas Sweetening

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Gas Sweetening Processes

7.3 Liquid-Phase Processes

7.4 Dry-Bed Processes

7.5 Membranes

7.6 Cryogenic Fractionation

7.7 Other Processes

7.8 Process Selection


Chapter 8. Sulfur Recovery and Handling

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Sulfur Properties

8.3 Sulfur Recovery

8.4 Tail Gas Treating

8.5 Sulfur Degassing

8.6 Sulfur Storage and Handling

8.7 Sulfur Disposal by Acid Gas Injection


Chapter 9. Natural Gas Dehydration

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Water Content Determination

9.3 Glycol Dehydration

9.4 Solid Desiccant Dehydration

9.5 Process Selection


Chapter 10. Natural Gas Liquids Recovery

10.1 Introduction

10.2 NGL Recovery Processes

10.3 NGL Fractionation

10.4 Liquids Processing


Chapter 11. Natural Gas Compression

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Reciprocating Compressors

11.3 Centrifugal Compressors

11.4 Comparison Between Compressors

11.5 Compressor Selection

11.6 Thermodynamics of Gas Compression

11.7 Real Gas Behavior and Equations of State

11.8 Compression Ratio

11.9 Compression Design

11.10 Compressor Control

11.11 Compressor Performance Maps

11.12 Example for Operating a Compressor in a Pipeline System


Chapter 12. Sales Gas Transmission

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Gas Flow Fundamentals

12.3 Predicting Gas Temperature Profile

12.4 Transient Flow in Gas Transmission Pipelines

12.5 Compressor Stations and Associated Pipeline Installations

12.6 Design Considerations of Sales Gas Pipelines

12.7 Pipeline Operations


Chapter 13. Selecting the Best Gas Processing Route

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Proposed Technologies for Designing Gas Processing Plants

13.3 Proposed Process Treating Lineups


Chapter 14. Process Control Fundamentals

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Dynamic Process Characteristics

14.3 Closed-Loop Control

14.4 Control Loop Tuning


Chapter 15. Process Modeling in the Natural Gas Processing Industry

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Modeling and Identification Techniques

15.3 Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge-Based Systems

15.4 Implementing a Knowledge-Based System

15.5 Modeling Dynamic Systems

15.6 Artificial Neural Network Application

15.7 Time Series Models

15.8 State-Space Models

15.9 Process Simulation


Chapter 16. Gas Processing Plant Controls and Automation

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Early Methods of Gas Plant Automation

16.3 Microprocessor-Based Automation

16.4 Control of Equipment and Process Systems

16.5 Automation Applications

16.6 Condensate Stabilizer Case Study


Chapter 17. Dynamic Simulation of Gas Processing Plants

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Areas of Application of Dynamic Simulation

17.3 Modeling Considerations

17.4 Control of Equipment and Process Systems

17.5 Case Study I: Analysis of a Fuel Gas System Start-up

17.6 Case Study II: Online Dynamic Model of a Trunk Pipeline


Chapter 18. Real-Time Optimization of Gas Processing Plants

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Real-Time Optimization

18.3 Real-Time Optimization Project Considerations

18.4 Example of Real-Time Optimization


Chapter 19. Environmental Aspects of the Natural Gas Supply Chain

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Atmospheric Impacts

19.3 Aquatic Impacts

19.4 Terrestrial and Ecological Impacts

19.5 Noise Impact

19.6 Other Environmental Impacts of Natural Gas Processing

19.7 Regulatory Framework

19.8 Performance Indicators and Monitoring

19.9 Environmental Impact Assessement of Natural Gas Production and Processing

19.10 Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention in Gas Processing Operations


Chapter 20. Maximizing Profitability of Gas Plant Assets

20.1 Introduction

20.2 The Performance Strategy: Integrated Gas Plant

20.3 Strategies for Organizational Behavior and Information

20.4 Organizational Behavior Model

20.5 The Successful Information Strategy

20.6 The Impact of Living with Information Technology

20.7 Vision of the Modern Plant Operation

20.8 Operations Strategy

20.9 Model-Based Asset Management

20.10 Optimization

20.11 Industrial Relevance

20.12 The Technology Integration Challenge

20.13 Scientific Approach

20.14 Other Miscellaneous Initiatives

20.15 Conclusion


Chapter 21. Gas Plant Project Management

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Project Management Overview

21.3 Industry Perspective

21.4 The Project Management Process

21.5 Project Controls

21.6 Quality Assurance

21.7 Commissioning and Start-up

21.8 Operate and Evaluate

21.9 Project Closeout

21.10 Conclusion


APPENDIX 1. Three-Phase Flash Calculation for Hydrocarbon Systems Containing Water

APPENDIX 2. Conversion Factors

APPENDIX 3. Physical Properties of Fluids

APPENDIX 4. Glossary



No. of pages:
© Gulf Professional Publishing 2012
Gulf Professional Publishing
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About the Author

Saeid Mokhatab

Saeid Mokhatab is one of the most recognizable names in the natural gas community through his contributions to advancing the technologies in the natural gas processing industry. He has worked in a variety of senior technical and managerial positions with major petroleum companies and has been actively involved in several large-scale gas-field development projects, concentrating on design, precommissioning and startup of processing plants. He has presented numerous invited lectures on gas processing technologies, and has authored or co-authored over 200 technical publications including two well-known Elsevier’s handbooks, which are considered by many as major references to be taken into account for any gas processing/LNG project in development. He founded the world’s first peer-reviewed journal devoted to the natural gas science and engineering (published by Elsevier, USA); has held editorial positions in many scientific journals/book publishing companies for the hydrocarbon processing industry; and served as a member of technical committees for a number of professional societies and famous gas-processing conferences worldwide. As a result of his outstanding work in the natural gas industry, he has received a number of international awards/medals including the Einstein Gold Medal of Honor and Kapitsa Gold Medal of Honor; and his biography has been listed in highly prestigious directories.

Affiliations and Expertise

Gas Processing Consultant, UAE

William Poe

William A. “Bill” Poe is a Senior Principal Technical Consultant at the Invensys Division of Schneider Electric, USA. He has over 30 years of international business and industrial experience in design, operations and project management of gas processing plants with a special focus on automation, multivariable predictive control (MPC), advanced process control (APC), optimization design and implementation, and real-time performance monitoring. Bill started his career at Shell Oil Company, USA, in 1981, working over a decade in natural gas processing plants operations and engineering as well as management of multimillion-dollar projects. In 1993, he joined Continental Controls to lead the process engineering department in support of executing contracts with the Gas Research Institute, USA, where he developed new multivariable control applications in the natural gas industry. After joining GE as part of the Continental Controls acquisition, he became vice president of this division of GE where his responsibilities included direction of product development, projects, technical sales support, and customer service for multivariable control and optimization applications in the natural gas industry. In 2001, Bill joined Invensys Process Systems, USA, where he has developed APC and Optimization Master Plans for international companies such as Saudi Aramco, ADNOC, Statoil, and PDVSA, as well as automation and advanced process control feasibility studies for over 100 natural gas processing plants worldwide. Bill is an Associate Editor of the Journal of Natural Gas Science & Engineering, has authored or co-authored more than 50 technical papers, and made numerous technical presentations at prestigious international conferences. He received the GE Innovators Award in 1999 and attained the Invensys Circle of Excellence in 2011.

Affiliations and Expertise

Business Consultant, Invensys Operations Management, USA


“This well-balanced handbook is the only book of its kind, covering all aspects of natural gas transmission and processing in more details. I believe it will serve as a valuable desk reference for practicing gas engineers and technologists, and as a text for graduate students in the gas engineering curriculum.”
J.C. Kuo, Senior Advisor of Gas Team, Process Technology Unit, Chevron ETC, USA

“Today’s natural gas industry is evolving and the projects are technically challenging. This book is an excellent reference for all professionals, engineers and scientists working in the mid-stream and down-stream sectors of natural gas industry. It fills a considerable void.”
John Y. Mak, Senior Fellow and Director of Process Engineering, Fluor, USA

“This high quality, comprehensive book gives an accurate picture of where the natural gas transmission and processing industry stands today, as well as indicating some relatively new technologies that could become important in the future. I recommend this book for any professional gas processing engineer and technologist.”
Dave Messersmith, Manager of LNG Technology and Services Group, Bechtel, USA

“This is a valuable handbook to both the experienced engineer and the graduate just commencing in natural gas engineering. It provides practical advice for design and operation based on sound engineering principles and established techniques as well as introducing process solutions based on new and emerging technologies.”
Adrian Finn, Technology Manager, Costain Energy amp; Process, UK

“This book addresses the advanced technologies, new issues and challenges related to natural gas transmission and processing, which have not been addressed in depth in any existing books. The format of the book makes it a particularly valuable reference work for all engineers in the natural gas business as well as a textbook for students in petroleum and chemical engineering curricula and in the training departments of a large group of companies.”
Dr. Douglas G. Elliot, President and Chief Operating Officer, IPSI LLC, USA

“This is an excellent document that combines all facets of engineering within the natural gas business from source to supply. As well as supporting our engineering design industry, this work will offer a comprehensive education to our process engineers of the future.”
Dr. John H. Hargreaves, Chief Process Engineer, Wood Group PSN, UK

“This book comes at a critical time when many nations are shifting to an increasingly higher percentage of natural gas use within their range of energy sources. Giving the reader a comprehensive insight into the natural gas transmission and processing industry, this book will prove invaluable in orienting the newcomer and extending the scope of understanding of the
Dr. Lorenzo Micucci, Manager of Technology and Ramp;D, Siirtec Nigi, Italy

“At the dawn of the Information Age, there has been a surge in so-called Handbooks, all claiming to have the 'right' answer. Unfortunately, with the superflux of information, it is becoming increasing difficulty, if not impossible, to come up with the 'right' answer to any problem. This handbook breaks out of the conventional mode, and prepares readers with fundamentals so that they can discover for themselves the answer that would best serve their purpose. This approach is unique and is very timely. This book has the potential of creating a standard for handbook for other engineering fields.”
Dr. M.R. Islam, Professor of Petroleum Engineering, Dalhousie University, Canada

“For natural gas professionals working with transmission and processing, this book provides an excellent reference that covers a wide range of topics. From a brief chapter on basic fundamentals to advance topics such as plant project management and environmental aspects of the business, this book provides a comprehensive look at post-production aspects of natural gas industry. I believe this book will be a great companion for active natural gas professionals.”
Dr. Shahab D. Mohaghegh, Professor of Petroleum amp; Natural Gas Engineering, West Virginia University, USA

“Natural gas will not only continue to be a significant part of the energy resource for many years to come, but its use will also be increasing. This book documents the latest technology in all areas of natural gas engineering. It is a useful book for every engineer, scientist, and researcher who has ever faced the challenge of investigating natural gas gathering, processing, and transport. I recommend it highly, as a reference and textbook.”
Dr. Brian F. Towler, Professor of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, USA