Handbook of Multilevel Metallization for Integrated Circuits - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780815513407, 9780815517610

Handbook of Multilevel Metallization for Integrated Circuits

1st Edition

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Authors: Syd R. Wilson Clarence J. Tracy John L. Freeman, Jr.
eBook ISBN: 9780815517610
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 31st December 1993
Page Count: 910
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The Handbook of Multilevel Metallization for Integrated Circuits answers and important need by pulling together in one volume a thorough technical summary of each of the key areas that make up a multilevel metal system. Included are associated design, analysis, materials, and manufacturing topics. The book then serves three purposes: It functions as a good learning tool for the engineer newly assigned to work in metallization; It serves as a reference text for any MLM engineer, new or experienced, who wishes to refresh their memory. For someone who wants to further specialize in one topical areas, an extensive listing of references has been provided.


Multilevel metallization engineers, both new and veterans.

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction 1.0 MLM Terminology and Structure 2.0 What are the Uses of Metal Layers in an Integrated Circuit? 3.0 Why Use Multiple Layers of Metal 4.0 Trends in Multilevel Metallization 5.0 Methodology for Developing an MLM System 6.0 Summary References
  2. Silicides and Contacts for ULSI 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Silicides for Application to Salicide and Polycide 3.0 Sputtered Barrier Materials Between Al and Si or Silicide 4.0 CVD Barrier Materials 5.0 Local Interconnects and Multilevel Metallization 6.0 Conclusion and Future Trends References
  3. Aluminum Based Multilevel Metallizations in VLSI/ULSICs 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Requirements in Multilevel Metallizations 3.0 Applications of AIX in Multilevel Metallizations and Key Problems 4.0 Properties of Al, AIX and Related Materials 5.0 Current Status of Al-Based Multilevel Metallizations 6.0 Key Reliability Issues in AIX-Based Multilevel Metallizations and Some Solutions 7.0 Future Directions 8.0 Summary References
  4. Inorganic Dielectrics 1.0 Introduction 2.0 CVD Processes 3.0 Deposition Equipment 4.0 Spin On Dielectrics 5.0 Film Characterization 6.0 Doped Glasses 7.0 Intermetal Layer Dielectric 8.0 Passivation Layer 9.0 Summary References
  5. Organic Dielectrics in Multilevel Metallization of Integrated Circuits 1.0 General Introduction 2.0 Historical Perspective 3.0 Fundamental Chemistry of Organic Dielectrics 4.0 Processing of Polymer Films 5.0 Process Integration with Organic Dielectrics 6.0 Reliability 7.0 Performance Advantages of Organic Dielectrics 8.0 Future Trends References
  6. Planarization Techniques 1.0 Why Planarize? 2.0 Concepts 3.0 Thermal Flow of Borophosphosilicate Glass (BPSG Films) 4.0 Planarization with Sacrificial Photoresist 5.0 Planarization Using Spin-On-Glass 6.0 Deposition-Etchback Techniques 7.0 Planarization by Chemical-Mechanical Polishing 8.0 Gap Filling Using CVD Ozone-TEOS Oxides 9.0 Outlook References
  7. Lithography and Etch Issues for a Multilevel Metallization System 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Introduction to Pattern Transfer Technology 3.0 Etch References
  8. Electro- and Stress-Migration in MLM Interconnect Structures 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Theory of Electromigration 3.0 Electromigration in Thin Films 4.0 Measurement of Temperature and Current Density in MLM Structures 5.0 Electromigration Measurement Techniques 6.0 Life Test Method 7.0 Damage Formation in Multilevel Metallization 8.0 Stress-Induced Void Formation References
  9. Multilevel Metallization Test Vehicle 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Process Control 3.0 Defectivity and Yield Enhancement Structures 4.0 Test Structures for Reliability 5.0 Summary References
  10. Manufacturing and Analytic Methods 1.0 Introduction (Business Perspectives) 2.0 Performance Drivers 3.0 Architecture 4.0 Unit Processes 5.0 Key Design Rules 6.0 Design for Manufacture 7.0 Equipment Integration 8.0 Challenges and Requirements 9.0 Control and Analytic Capability 10.0 Summary References
  11. Characterization Techniques for VLSI Multilevel Metallization 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Imaging Techniques 3.0 Surface Analysis 4.0 Thin Film 'Bulk' Analysis Techniques 5.0 Conclusion References
  12. Electronic Packaging and its Influences on Integrated Circuit Design and Processing 1.0 Overview 2.0 Package Types 3.0 Fundamentals of Packaging 4.0 Integrated Circuit Design/Structure and Packaging Influences References
  13. Future Interconnect Systems 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Metallization Trend in the Next Decade 3.0 Summary Perspective on Interconnection Technology References Index


No. of pages:
© William Andrew 1993
31st December 1993
William Andrew
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Syd R. Wilson

Affiliations and Expertise

Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector, Mesa, Arizona, USA

Clarence J. Tracy

Affiliations and Expertise

Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector, Mesa, Arizona

John L. Freeman, Jr.

Affiliations and Expertise

Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector, Mesa, Arizona

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