Handbook of Microscopy

Handbook of Microscopy

1st Edition - January 19, 1983

Write a review

  • Authors: Marcel Locquin, Maurice Langeron
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483164878

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (PDF)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order

Description

Handbook of Microscopy is a manual that deals mainly with the basic instruments and techniques used in light microscopy and its biological applications. A large section is devoted to the study of organic matter in microfossils preserved in rocks, in view of its stratigraphic importance in mining and oil prospecting. This text is comprised of six chapters; the first of which introduces the reader to the basic principles as well as to the instruments and techniques used in light microscopy. This book also discusses the microscopes and electronic flashlights for photomicrography, along with the use of monochromatic light, stereological and physicochemical microanalysis, microanalysis by electron microscopy, and microdetermination of physical values. Attention then turns to staining and impregnation and methods of fixation, examination, cutting, and mounting. The remaining chapters focus on the microscopy of topological stains and non-specific cytological stains, with emphasis on special methods used in animal and plant histology and protistology and mycological methods in pathology. This book is written specifically for microscopists.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Acknowledgments

    Abbreviations

    1 Instruments and Techniques

    1.1 Basic Principles

    Light and Colors

    Image Formation

    Mechanical Conventions

    Aberrations

    Depth of Field

    Flatness of Field

    Microscopic Image in Wave Optics

    Useful Magnification

    Homogeneous Immersion of Objectives

    Antireflection Treatment of Optical Surfaces

    1.2 Basic Instruments

    Mechanical Features of the Microscope

    Use of the microscope

    Microscopic Observation

    1.3 Chief Instrumental Methods

    Dark Ground Illumination

    Examination under Reflected Light

    Infrared Microscopy

    Ultraviolet Microscopy

    Pupillary Modulators

    Interference Microscopes

    Phase Contrast

    Polarizing Microscope

    Study of Anisotropy of Biological Tissues under Polarized Light

    Fluorescence Microscopy

    Projection Microscopy

    1.4 Recording of Images

    Photomicrography

    Photomacrography

    Illuminating during Photomicrography

    Colored Filters

    Color Differences in Emission and Reception

    Black and White Photography

    Procedures for Color Photography

    Balanced Color Compensation

    Variations and Deficiencies in Color Emulsions

    Emulsions

    Exposure Time

    Measurement of the Exposure Time

    Development

    Printing on Paper

    Classification

    Transposition of Contrasts

    Special Effects in Photomicrography

    Equidensitometry

    1.5 Synthesis

    Stereoscopic Photomicrographs

    Graphic Reconstructions

    Solid Reconstructions

    Cine Reconstructions

    Cinemicrography

    Drawing at the Microscope

    Artifacts

    1.6 Measurements

    Measuring Techniques

    1.7 Special Techniques

    Locating Objects

    Special Stages and Warmed or Cooled Stages

    Microscopic Observations under Increased Pressure

    Automation in Microscopy

    Microsurgery

    1.8 Use of Monochromatic Light

    Monochromators

    Spectrographs

    Spark Microspectroscopes and Emission Spectrography

    Microphotometers and Microspectrophotometers

    1.9 Stereological Microanalysis

    Counting

    Morphometry and Stereology

    Microquantimeters

    1.10 Physicochemical Microanalysis

    Micro-Electrophoresis Cell

    Thermal Micromethods

    Microrefractometry

    Autoradiography

    Historadiography

    Spodography

    1.11 Microanalysis by Electron Microscopy

    The Scanning Electron Microscope

    The Transmission Electron Microscope

    Ultra High-Voltage Electron Microscopy

    Ultraviolet Excited Electron Microscopy

    Proton Microscopy

    Ion Microscopy

    1.12 Microdetermination of Physical Values

    Microdetermination of Osmotic Pressure

    Differential Separation Techniques

    Ultracentrifugation of Cells

    Determination of Dry Weight of Cellular Constituents

    Determination of Constituents by Specific Absorption

    2 Methods of Fixation, Examination, Cutting and Mounting

    2.1 Methods of Preparation

    Test or Reference Preparations

    Rehydration of Dried Material

    Preservation Mixtures

    2.2 Methods of Fixation

    The Aims of Fixation

    Accuracy of Preservation in Fixation

    Simple Fixatives

    Fixative Mixtures

    Time for Fixation

    Cytological Fixatives

    Embedding Compatibility

    Penetration

    Compatibility of Stains

    Decalcification

    Quantity of Fixative

    Choice Based on the Specimen

    Stopping Fixation

    Fixatives for Electron Microscopy

    2.3 Methods of Bleaching

    Demineralization and Softening

    Softening of Keratin and Chitin

    Maceration

    Depigmentation

    2.4 Observations of Living Specimens

    Examination of Living Specimens

    Vital Staining

    Methods of Preparation for Examination of Microorganisms In Vivo

    Equilibrated Media

    Osmodialysis

    2.5 Special Techniques

    Thin Sections Produced by Polishing

    Disintegration Techniques

    Contrast-Enhancing Techniques

    Drying and Dehydration

    Dehydration in the Liquid Phase

    Clearing Agents: Removal of Ethanol

    Dehydrating Agents Which Can Be Used Immediately before Paraffin

    Clearing Agents Which Can Be Used between 95% Ethanol and Paraffin

    2.6 Embedding Methods

    Non-Aqueous Media

    Aqueous Media

    Embedding in Paraffin

    Embedding in Celloidin or Collodion

    Embedding in Epoxy Resins, Methacrylate and Polyesters

    Embedding in Hydrophilic Media

    Embedding with Gel-Paraffin Mixtures

    2.7 Sections

    Microtomes

    Cutting Tools

    Automatic Honing Equipment

    Cutting with a Microtome

    Smoothing and Attachment of Sections

    Removal of Paraffin before Staining

    Ultrafine Sections for Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Preparation of Supporting Membranes for Electron Microscopy

    Fixation and Preservation of Small Specimens

    2.8 Mounting of Preparations

    Microscopic preparation

    Media for Temporary observation

    Permanent Mounting

    Visibility Indices in the Mounting Media

    Air-tightness of Cements and Varnishes

    3 Stains

    3.1 Principal Stains

    Anthraquinones

    Azines

    Monoazides

    Polyazides

    Cyanines, Quinolines

    Diazonium, Tetrazonium, Tetrazolium Salts

    Indulins

    Nitro-Stains

    Oxazines

    Pyrazolones

    Quinone-Oximes

    Phthalocyanins

    Thiazines

    Triarylmethanes

    Xanthenes

    Thiazoles

    Polymethines

    Mineral Dyes

    Natural Pigments

    Fluorochromes

    3.2 Synonyms of the Most Important Stains

    Glossary of Stains and Dyes

    4 Staining and Impregnation

    4.1 Methodology

    General Considerations

    Observations

    Staining Materials

    Modes of Action

    Neutraistains

    Staining Whole Pieces

    Negative Stains

    Infiltration and Injection

    Automation of Staining

    4.2 Applications

    Non-specific Stains

    5 Topological Stains

    5.1 General Panoptic Methods

    Staining of Nuclei with Progressive Haematein Lakes

    Trichromes and Dichromes

    5.2 Special Methods in Animal Histology

    Staining of Blood and Intracellular Parasites

    Staining of Bony and Cartilaginous Tissues

    Staining of Muscle Fibers

    Staining of the Nervous System

    Bacteriological Stains

    Staining of Tissues Containing Collagen

    Staining of Glycogen and Galactogen

    Staining of Integuments

    Pigments

    5.3 Special Methods in Plant Histology

    Spores and Cysts

    Plant Techniques

    Detection of Parasitic Fungi in Plants

    Mycological Techniques

    5.4 Special Methods in Protistology

    Techniques of Protistology

    Amoeba

    Sporozoa

    Flagellates

    Infusoria

    Spirochaetae

    5.5 Mycological Methods in Pathology

    Zoopathological Techniques

    5.6 Observations on Supplementary Techniques

    Automation of Fixation, Impregnation and Staining

    Large-Scale Series for Teaching

    6 Non-specific Cytological Stains

    6.1 General Cytology

    6.2 Staining of Intracellular Organelles

    6.3 Cellular Diagnosis in Cancer

    6.4 Conclusions

    Appendix I Physicochemical Constants

    Bibliography

    Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 334
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1983
  • Published: January 19, 1983
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483164878

About the Authors

Marcel Locquin

Maurice Langeron

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Handbook of Microscopy"