Electrochromic materials are able to change their optical properties in a persistent and reversible way under the action of a voltage pulse. This book explores electrochromism among the metal oxides, with detailed discussions of materials preparation (primarily by thin film technology), materials characterization by (electro)chemical and physical techniques, optical properties, electrochromic device design, and device performance. The vast quantity of information presented is structured in a systematic manner and the optical data is interpreted within a novel conceptual framework.

The publication will serve as a comprehensive foundation and reference work for future studies within the rapidly expanding field of electrochromic materials and devices. These devices are of particular interest for information displays, variable-transmittance (smart) windows, variable-reflectance mirrors and variable-emittance surfaces.

Table of Contents

Preface. Introduction. Case Study on Tungsten Oxide. Bulk crystalline tungsten oxide. Tungsten oxide films: preparation, structure, and composition of evaporated films. Tungsten oxide films: preparation, structure, and composition of sputter-deposited films. Tungsten oxide films: preparation, structure, and composition of electrochemically and chemically prepared films. Tungsten oxide films: ion intercalation/deintercalation studied by electrochemical techniques. Tungsten oxide films: ion intercalation/deintercalation studied by physical techniques. Tungsten oxide films: ultraviolet absorption and semiconductor bandgap. Tungsten oxide films: optical properties in the luminous and near-infrared range. Tungsten oxide films: theoretical models for the optical properties. Tungsten oxide films: electrical properties. Electrochromism among the Oxides (except Tungsten Oxide). Molybdenum oxide films. Miscellaneous tungsten- and molybdenum-oxide-containing films. Iridium oxide films. Titanium oxide films. Manganese oxide films. Vanadium dioxide films. Vanadium pentoxide films. Nickel oxide films. Cobalt oxide films. Niobium oxide films. Miscellaneous oxide films. Systematics for the electrochromism in transition metal oxides. Inorganic non-oxide electrochromic materials. Electrochromic Devices. Transparent electrical conductors. Electrolytes and ion conductors. Ion storage materials: brief overview. Devices with liquid electrolytes. Devices with solid inorganic electrolytes and ion conductors. Devices with polymer electrolytes. Time-dependent device performance: a unified treatment. Appendix: Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Symbols. References. Index.


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© 1995
Elsevier Science
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About the author

C.G. Granqvist

Affiliations and Expertise

Uppsala University, School of Engineering, Department of Technology, Uppsala, Sweden