Handbook of Infrared Detection Technologies - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781856173889, 9780080507910

Handbook of Infrared Detection Technologies

1st Edition

Editors: M. Henini M Razeghi
eBook ISBN: 9780080507910
Hardcover ISBN: 9781856173889
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 11th December 2002
Page Count: 532
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Description

The use of lasers which emit infra-red radiation and sophisticated detectors of IR radiation is increasing dramatically: they are being used for long-distance fibre-optic communications and remote environmental monitoring and sensing. Thus they are of interest to the telecommunications industry and the military in particular. This book has been designed to bring together what is known on these devices, using an international group of contributors.

Readership

Those involved in the design, manufacture and processing of Infra-red devices; materials manufacture and use in corporate, government and academic facilities world-wide.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 - Introduction (M. Henini, M.Razeghi)

Chapter 2 - Comparison of photon and thermal detector performance (A. Rogalski)


2.1 Introduction


2.2 Fundamental limits to infrared detector performance


2.2.1 Photon detectors


2.2.2 Thermal detectors


2.2.3 Comparison of the fundamental limits of photon and thermal detectors


2.3 Focal plane array performance


2.4 FPAs of photon detectors


2.4.1 InSb photodiodes


2.4.2 HgCdTe photodiodes


2.4.3 Photoemissive PtSi Schottky-barrier detectors


2.4.4 Extrinsic photoconductors


2.4.5 GaAs/AIGaAs QWIPs


2.4.6 QWIP versus HgCdTe in the LWIR spectral region


2.5 Dual-band FPAs


2.5.1 Dual-band HgCdTe


2.5.2 Dual-band QWIPs


2.6 FPAs of thermal detectors


2.6.1 Micromachined silicon bolometers


2.6.2 Pyroelectric arrays


2.6.3 Thermoelectric arrays


2.6.4 Status and trends of uncooled arrays


2.7 Conclusions


Appendix


References

Chapter 3 - GaAs/AIGaAs based quantum well intrared photodetector focal plane arrays (S.D. Gunapala, S.V. Bandara)


3.1 Introduction


3.2 Detectivity D* comparison


3.3 Effect of nonuniformity


3.4 640x512 pixel long-wavelength portable QWIP camera


3.5 640x486 long-wavelength dual-band imaging camera


3.6 640x512 pixel broad-band QWIP imaging camera


3.7 640x512 spatially separated four-band QWIP focal plane array


3.8 QWIPs for low background and low temerature operation


3.9 Summary


Acknowledgements


References

Chapter 4 - GaInAs(P) based QWIPs on GaAs, InP and Si substrates for focal plane arrays (J. Jaing, M. Razeghi)


4.1 Introduction


4.1.1 Overview of infrared detector


4.1.2 Quantum well infrared photodetector


4.1.3 State-of-the-art


4.2 Fundamentals of QWIP


4.2.1 Intersubband absorption


4.2.2 QWIP parameters


4.2.3 Comparison of n-type and p-type QWIPs


4.2.4 Growth, fabrication and device characterization of a single QWIP device


4.3 Fabrication of infrared FPA


4.3.1 Infrared FPA fabrication steps


4.3.2 Indium solder bump fabrication steps


4.3.3 ROIC for infrared FPA


4.4 p-type QWIPS


4.4.1 p-type MWIR QWIPS


4.4.2 p-type LWIR QWIPS


4.5 n-type QWIPS


4.5.1 n-type LWIR QWIPS


4.5.2 n-type VLWIR QWIPS


4.5.3 Multi-colour QWIPS


4.6 Low Cost QWIP FPA integrated with Si substrate


4.6.1 Overview of QWIPs on Si


4.6.2 Growth of GaInAs/InP QWIP-on-Si


4.6.3 Detector performance of GaInAs/InP QWIP-on-Si


4.6.4 How to fabricate a monolithic integrated FPA with Si substrate


4.7 New approaches of QWIP


4.8 Conslusions


References

Chapter 5 - InAs/(Galn)Sb superlattices: a promising material system for infrared detection (L. Burkle, F. Fuchs)


5.1 Introduction


5.2 Materials properties


5.2.1 Bandstructure of InAs/(BaIn)Sb superlattices


5.2.2 X-ray characterization


5.2.3Interfaces


5.2.4 Sample homogeneity


5.2.5 Residual doping


5.3 Superlattice photodiodes


5.3.1 Diode structure


5.3.2 Diode processing


5.3.3 Photo response


5.3.4 I-V measurements


5.3.5 C-V measurements


5.3.6 Noise measurement


5.4 Summary and outlook


References

Chapter 6 - GaSb/InAs superlattices for infrared FPAs (M. Razeghi, H. Mohseni)


6.1 Type-II heterostructures


6.1.1 Historical review


6.1.2 Definition of type-II band alignment


6.1.3 Features of type-II band alignment and their applications


6.2 Type-II infrared detectors


6.2.1 Principle of operation


6.2.2 Band structure of type-II superlattices


6.2.3 Optical absorption in type-II superlattices


6.2.4 Modeling and simulation of type-II superlattices


6.3 Experimental results from type-II photoconductors


6.3.1 Uncooled type-II photoconductors in the &lgr;=8-12 &mgr;m range


6.3.2 Cooled type-II photoconductors for &lgr; ⩽ 20 &mgr;m


6.4 Experimental results from type-II photodiodes


6.4.1 Uncooled type-II photodiodes in the &lgr;=8-12 &mgr;m range


6.4.2 Cooled type-II photodiodes in the &lgr; ⩽ 14 &mgr;m range


6.5 Future work


References

Chapter 7 - MCT properties, growth methods and characterization (R.E. Longshore)


7.1 Preface


7.2 Introduction


7.2.1 Brief history


7.3 MCT Characteristics and material properties


7.3.1 Composition and crystal structure


7.3.2 Bandgap


7.3.3 Intrinsic carrier concentration


7.3.4 Doping and impurities


7.3.5 Carrier mobility


7.3.6 Carrier lifetime


7.3.7 Defects


7.4 MCT crystal growth methods


7.4.1 Phase diagrams


7.4.2 Bulk growth


7.4.3 Expitaxial growth


7.5 Material characterization methods


7.5.1 Material composition


7.5.2 Measurements of carrier concentration and mobility


7.6 Summary


References

Chapter 8 - HgCdTe 2D arrays - technology and performance limits (I.M. Baker)


8.2 Introduction


8.1.1 Historical perspective


8.2 Applications and sensor design


8.3 Comparison of HgCdTe with other 2D array materials


8.4 Multiplexers for HgCdTe 2D arrays


8.4.1 Photocurrent injection techniques


8.4.2 Scanning architectures


8.4.3 Future trends


8.5 Theoretical foundations for HgCdTe array technology


8.5.1 Thermal diffusion current in HgCdTe


8.5.2 Leakage currents


8.5.3 Photocurrent and quantum efficiency


8.6 Technology of HgCdTe photovoltaic devices


8.6.1 Materials growth technology


8.6.2 Junction forming techniques in homojunction arrays


8.6.3 Device structures


8.7 Measurements and figures of merit for 2D arrays


8.7.1 NETD - theoretical calcuation


8.7.2 NETD - experimental measurement


8.7.3 Relationship of NETD with other figures of merit


8.8 HgCdTe 2D arrays for 3-5 &mgr;m (MW) band


8.9 HgCdTe 2D arrays for 8-12 &mgr;m (LW) band


8.9.1 Array design issues


8.9.2 Introduction to performance limitations in LW arrays


8.9.3 Cause of defective elements in HgCdTe 2D arrays


8.10 HgCdTe 2D arrays for the 1-3 &mgr;m (SW) band


8.11 Towards GEN III detectors


8.11.1 Two-colour array technology


8.11.2 Higher operating temperature (HOT) device structures


8.11.3 Retina level processing


8.12 Conclusion and future trends


Acknowledgement


References

Chapter 9 - Status of HgCdTe MBE technology (T.J. de Lyon, R.D. Rajavel, J.A. Roth, J.E. Jensen)


9.1 Introduction


9.2 HgCdTe MBE equipment and process sensors


9.2.1 Vacuum equipment and sources


9.2.2 HgCdTe MBE process senosors


9.3 HgCdTe MBE growth process


9.3.1 Substrate preparation


9.3.2 Growth conditions


9.3.3 Defects


9.3.4 Doping


9.4 Device applications


9.4.1 Multispectral HgCdTe infrared detectors


9.4.2 Near-infrared avalanche photodiodes


9.4.3 High-performance MWIR detectors


9.4.4 Large-format arrays on silicon substrates


Acknowledgements


References

Chapter 10 - Silicon infrared focal plane arrays (M. Kimata)


10.1 Introduction


10.2 Cooled FPAs


10.2.1 Schottky-barrier FPAs


10.2.2 Heterojunction internal photoemission FPAs


10.3 Uncooled FPAs


10.3.1 Silicon On Insulator (SOI) diode FPAs


10.3.2 Si-based resistance bolometer FPAs


10.3.3 Thermopile FPAs


10.4 Summary


References

Chapter 11 - Infrared silicon/germanium detectors (H. Presting)


11.1 Introduction


11.2 Near Infrared detector


11.2.1 General operation principle


11.2.2 Detector growth and fabrication


11.2.3 Results and discussion


11.3. Mid-and long-wavelength SiGe IR detectors


11.3.1 Introduction


11.3.2 Principle of operation of HIP detectors


11.3.3 Growth and material characterization


11.3.4 Experimental results and discussion


11.3.5 Calculation of optical properties of SiGe HIP detectors


11.3.6 Résumeé and outlook for SiGe MWIR detectors


Acknowledgements


References

Chapter 12 - PolySiGe uncooled microbolometers for thermal IR detection (C. Van Hoof, P. De Moor)


12.1 Introduction


12.1.1 Uncooled resistive microbolometers


12.1.2 Microbolometer terminology


12.1.3 Microbolometer process options


12.2 Structural, thermal and electrical properties of polySiGe


12.2.1 Deposition of polySiGe


12.2.2 Structural properties


12.2.3 Thermal properties


12.2.4 Electrical properties


12.2.5 High-temperature vs. low-temperature polySiGe


12.3 PolySiGe bolometer pixel


12.3.1 Process development


12.3.2 Absorber comparison and trade-offs


12.3.3 Pixel optimization


12.3.4 Vapor HF processing


12.3.5 Stiffness enhancement techniques


12.4 Readout and system development


12.4.1 Introduction


12.4.2 Readout of polySiGe bolometer arrays


12.5 Zero-level vacuum packaging


12.5.1 Introduction


12.5.2 Indent-Reflow Sealing using metal solder


12.5.3 Zero-level packaging using BCB


12.5.4 Hermeticity testing using microbolometers


12.6 Conclusions and outlook


Acknowledgements


References

Chapter 13 - Fundamentals of spin filtering in ferromagnetic metals with application to spin sensors (H.J. Drouhin)


13.1 Introduction


13.2 Theoretical IMFP variation


13.2.1 The simplest model - mathematical bases of the calculation


13.2.2 A more complete treatment


13.2.3 An intuitive derivation


13.2.4 Comparison with the Schönhense and Siegmann model


13.3 Experimental study of ▴ &sgr;


13.4 Spin precession and spin filters


13.4.1 Density-operator formalism


13.4.2 Electron transmission through ferromagnetic bilayers


13.4.3 The bilayer with collinear magnetizations


13.4.4 The bilayer with perpendicular magnetizations


13.5 Discussion and conclusion


Acknowledgements


References

Details

No. of pages:
532
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 2002
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9780080507910
Hardcover ISBN:
9781856173889

About the Editor

M. Henini

M Razeghi

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Center for Quantum Devices, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northwestern University, USA