Quartz, zeolites, gemstones, perovskite type oxides, ferrite, carbon allotropes, complex coordinated compounds and many more -- all products now being produced using hydrothermal technology. Handbook of Hydrothermal Technology brings together the latest techniques in this rapidly advancing field in one exceptionally useful, long-needed volume.

The handbook provides a single source for understanding how aqueous solvents or mineralizers work under temperature and pressure to dissolve and recrystallize normally insoluble materials, and decompose or recycle any waste material. The result, as the authors show in the book, is technologically the most efficient method in crystal growth, materials processing, and waste treatment. The book gives scientists and technologists an overview of the entire subject including:

À Evolution of the technology from geology to widespread industrial use.
À Descriptions of equipment used in the process and how it works.
À Problems involved with the growth of crystals, processing of technological materials, environmental and safety issues.
À Analysis of the direction of today's technology.

In addition, readers get a close look at the hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites, fluorides, sulfides, tungstates, and molybdates, as well as native elements and simple oxides. Delving into the commercial production of various types, the authors clarify the effects of temperature, pressure, solvents, and various other chemical components on the hydrothermal processes.

Key Features

  • Gives an overview of the evolution of Hydrothermal Technology from geology to widespread industrial use
  • Describes the equipment used in the process and how it works
  • Discusses problems involved with the growth of crystals, processing of technological materials, and environmental and safety issues


Scientists and technologists concerned with the research and application of hydrothermal technology and crystal growth.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Preface
  • 1. Hydrothermal Technology—Principles and Applications
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Definition
    • 1.3 Mineralizers
    • 1.4 Surfactants
    • 1.5 Natural Hydrothermal Systems
    • 1.6 The Behavior of Volatiles and Other Incompatible Components Under Hydrothermal Conditions
    • 1.7 Submarine Hydrothermal Systems
    • 1.8 Hydrothermal Crystal Growth and Materials Processing
    • 1.9 Statistics of Publications and Research in Hydrothermal Technology
    • 1.10 Hydrothermal Materials Processing
    • References
  • 2. History of Hydrothermal Technology
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • References
  • 3. Apparatus
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Selection of Autoclave and Autoclave Materials
    • 3.3 Liners
    • 3.4 Temperature and Pressure Measurements
    • 3.5 Autoclaves and Autoclave Designs
    • 3.6 Safety and Maintenance of Autoclaves
    • References
  • 4. Physical Chemistry of Hydrothermal Growth of Crystals
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Basic Principles of Phase Formation Under Hydrothermal Conditions
    • 4.3 Solutions, Solubility, and Kinetics of Crystallization
    • 4.4 Thermodynamic Principles of Solubility
    • 4.5 Kinetics of Crystallization Under Hydrothermal Conditions
    • 4.6 Thermodyanmic Calculations for the Intelligent Engineering of Materials
    • References
  • 5. Hydrothermal Growth of Some Selected Crystals
    • 5.1 Quartz
    • 5.2 Growth of High-Quality (and Dislocation-Free) Quartz Crystals
    • 5.3 Berlinite
    • 5.4 Gallium Phosphate
    • 5.5 Potassium Titanyl Phosphate
    • 5.6 Potassium Titanyl Arsenate
    • 5.7 Calcite
    • 5.8 Hydroxyapatite
    • References
  • 6. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Growth of Zeolites
    • 6.1 Introd


No. of pages:
© 2013
William Andrew
Electronic ISBN:
Print ISBN:

About the authors

K. Byrappa

Dr. K Byrappa is a Professor at the University of Mysore in India. He specializes in hydrothermal te

Masahiro Yoshimura

Dr. Masahiro Yoshimura is a Professor at the Tokyo Institute of Technology.