Handbook of Hydrothermal Technology - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123750907, 9781437778366

Handbook of Hydrothermal Technology

2nd Edition

Authors: K. Byrappa Masahiro Yoshimura
eBook ISBN: 9781437778366
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123750907
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 14th December 2012
Page Count: 800
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Quartz, zeolites, gemstones, perovskite type oxides, ferrite, carbon allotropes, complex coordinated compounds and many more -- all products now being produced using hydrothermal technology. Handbook of Hydrothermal Technology brings together the latest techniques in this rapidly advancing field in one exceptionally useful, long-needed volume.

The handbook provides a single source for understanding how aqueous solvents or mineralizers work under temperature and pressure to dissolve and recrystallize normally insoluble materials, and decompose or recycle any waste material. The result, as the authors show in the book, is technologically the most efficient method in crystal growth, materials processing, and waste treatment. The book gives scientists and technologists an overview of the entire subject including:

À Evolution of the technology from geology to widespread industrial use.
À Descriptions of equipment used in the process and how it works.
À Problems involved with the growth of crystals, processing of technological materials, environmental and safety issues.
À Analysis of the direction of today's technology.

In addition, readers get a close look at the hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites, fluorides, sulfides, tungstates, and molybdates, as well as native elements and simple oxides. Delving into the commercial production of various types, the authors clarify the effects of temperature, pressure, solvents, and various other chemical components on the hydrothermal processes.

Key Features

  • Gives an overview of the evolution of Hydrothermal Technology from geology to widespread industrial use
  • Describes the equipment used in the process and how it works
  • Discusses problems involved with the growth of crystals, processing of technological materials, and environmental and safety issues


Scientists and technologists concerned with the research and application of hydrothermal technology and crystal growth.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Preface
  • 1. Hydrothermal Technology—Principles and Applications
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Definition
    • 1.3 Mineralizers
    • 1.4 Surfactants
    • 1.5 Natural Hydrothermal Systems
    • 1.6 The Behavior of Volatiles and Other Incompatible Components Under Hydrothermal Conditions
    • 1.7 Submarine Hydrothermal Systems
    • 1.8 Hydrothermal Crystal Growth and Materials Processing
    • 1.9 Statistics of Publications and Research in Hydrothermal Technology
    • 1.10 Hydrothermal Materials Processing
    • References
  • 2. History of Hydrothermal Technology
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • References
  • 3. Apparatus
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Selection of Autoclave and Autoclave Materials
    • 3.3 Liners
    • 3.4 Temperature and Pressure Measurements
    • 3.5 Autoclaves and Autoclave Designs
    • 3.6 Safety and Maintenance of Autoclaves
    • References
  • 4. Physical Chemistry of Hydrothermal Growth of Crystals
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Basic Principles of Phase Formation Under Hydrothermal Conditions
    • 4.3 Solutions, Solubility, and Kinetics of Crystallization
    • 4.4 Thermodynamic Principles of Solubility
    • 4.5 Kinetics of Crystallization Under Hydrothermal Conditions
    • 4.6 Thermodyanmic Calculations for the Intelligent Engineering of Materials
    • References
  • 5. Hydrothermal Growth of Some Selected Crystals
    • 5.1 Quartz
    • 5.2 Growth of High-Quality (and Dislocation-Free) Quartz Crystals
    • 5.3 Berlinite
    • 5.4 Gallium Phosphate
    • 5.5 Potassium Titanyl Phosphate
    • 5.6 Potassium Titanyl Arsenate
    • 5.7 Calcite
    • 5.8 Hydroxyapatite
    • References
  • 6. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Growth of Zeolites
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Mineralogy of Zeolites
    • 6.3 Crystal Chemistry of Zeolites
    • 6.4 Comparison Between Natural and Synthetic Zeolites
    • 6.5 Synthesis of Zeolites
    • 6.6 Crystal Growth
    • 6.7 Aluminophosphate Zeolites
    • 6.8 Growth of Zeolite Thin Films and Crystals at Inorganic–Organic Interfaces (Preparation of Zeolite-Based Composites)
    • 6.9 Applications of Zeolites
    • 6.10 Oxidative Catalysis on Zeolites
    • References
  • 7. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Growth of Coordinated Complex Crystals (Part I)
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 Crystal Chemical Background
    • 7.3 Rare Earth Silicates
    • 7.4 Phase Formation of Rare Earth Silicates (in Aqueous Solvents)
    • 7.5 Crystal Chemical Significance of Phase Formation
    • 7.6 Degree of Silification
    • 7.7 Properties of Rare Earth Silicates
    • 7.8 Sodium Zirconium Silicates
    • 7.9 Growth of Selected Silicates
    • 7.10 Hydrothermal Growth of Lithium Silicates
    • 7.11 Hydrothermal Growth of Germanates
    • 7.12 Properties of Germanates
    • 7.13 Hydrothermal Growth of Phosphates
    • 7.14 Hydrothermal Growth of Mixed Valent Metal Phosphates
    • 7.15 Properties of Rare Earth and Mixed Valent Metal Phosphates
    • 7.16 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Vanadates
    • 7.17 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Borates
    • References
  • 8. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Crystal Growth of Fluorides, Sulfides, Tungstates, Molybdates, and Related Compounds (Coordinated Complex Crystals, Part II)
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 Fluorides
    • 8.3 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Transition Metal Fluorides
    • 8.4 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Fluorocarbonates and Fluorophosphates
    • 8.5 Oxyfluorinated Compounds
    • 8.6 Physical Properties of Transition Metal Fluorides and Fluorocarbonates/Fluorophosphates/Oxyfluorides
    • 8.7 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Tungstates
    • 8.8 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Molybdates
    • 8.9 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Titanates
    • 8.10 Hydrothermal Growth of Lithium Metagallate Crystals
    • 8.11 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Sulfides
    • 8.12 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Selenides, Tellurides, Niobates, and Tantalates
    • 8.13 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Arsenates
    • References
  • 9. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Native Elements and Simple Oxides
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Native Elements
    • 9.3 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Hydroxides
    • 9.4 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Selected Oxides
    • 9.5 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Mixed Oxides
    • References
  • 10. Hydrothermal Technology for Nanotechnology—A Technology for Processing of Advanced Materials
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 Current Trends in Hydrothermal Technology
    • 10.3 New Concepts in Hydrothermal Technology
    • 10.4 Hydrothermal Processing of Fine Particles
    • 10.5 Hydrothermal Technology for Nanotechnology
    • 10.6 Hydrothermal Processing of Selected Advanced Materials
    • 10.7 Hydrothermal Processing of Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Nanoparticles
    • 10.8 Hydrothermal Processing of Bioceramics
    • 10.9 Hydrothermal Technology for the Twenty-First Century
    • 10.10 Future Trends in Hydrothermal Research
    • References
  • Index


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© William Andrew 2013
William Andrew
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About the Author

K. Byrappa

Dr. K Byrappa is a Professor at the University of Mysore in India. He specializes in hydrothermal te

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Mysore, India

Masahiro Yoshimura

Dr. Masahiro Yoshimura is a Professor at the Tokyo Institute of Technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Tokyo Institute of Technology

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