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Handbook of Food Powders - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857095138, 9780857098672

Handbook of Food Powders

1st Edition

Processes and Properties

Editors: Bhesh Bhandari Nidhi Bansal Min Zhang Pierre Schuck
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857095138
eBook ISBN: 9780857098672
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 31st August 2013
Page Count: 688
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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials


Chapter 1: Introduction to food powders

Abstract :

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Crystalline and amorphous microstructure of powders

1.3 Cohesive forces in powders

1.4 Adhesive forces and surface energetics

1.5 Stickiness of powders during their formation and handling

1.6 Surface structure of powders

1.7 Packing property of powders

1.8 Fluidity of powders

1.9 Compressibility of powders

1.10 Mixing property of powders

1.11 Segregation of powder particles

1.12 Dust formation and explosion risk

1.13 Hydration property of powders

1.14 Conclusion

Part I: Processing and handling of technologies

Chapter 2: Spray drying for food powder production


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Principles of spray drying

2.3 Spray drying techniques and configurations

2.4 Applications of spray drying in the production of food powder

2.5 Conclusion and future trends

2.6 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 3: Freeze drying for food powder production


3.1 Introduction

3.2 The freeze drying process

3.3 Comparison to other drying methods

3.4 Freeze drying and powder production

3.5 Applications of freeze drying in the production of food powders

3.6 Conclusions and future trends

Chapter 4: Roller and drum drying for food powder production

Abstract :

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Principles and operation of drum dryers

4.3 Modelling and simulation of drum drying

4.4 Drum drying technology

4.5 Conclusion

4.6 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 5: Modelling crystallization in spray drying for food powder production


5.1 Introduction

5.2 The spray-drying process

5.3 Principles of crystallization: Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation and explaining solid-phase crystallization during spray-drying process

5.4 Techniques and applications: comparing the relative degree of crystallinity of spray-dried powders using mathematical model

5.5 Limitations of the solid-phase crystallization model

5.6 Conclusions and future trends

Chapter 6: Grinding for food powder production


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Principles of grinding and modelling

6.3 Grinding technologies and equipments

6.4 Applications of grinding in the production of food powders

6.5 Limitations

6.6 Alternation drying and grinding (ADG) in powder technology

6.7 Conclusion and future trends

6.9 Appendix: nomenclature

Chapter 7: Agglomeration/granulation in food powder production


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Powder characteristics

7.3 Physicochemical reactivity of food powders

7.4 Agglomeration processes and mechanisms

7.5 Wet controlled growth agglomeration technologies

7.6 Wet agglomeration mechanisms and powder reactivity

7.7 Conclusion

Chapter 8: Fluidization in food powder production


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Principles of fluidization

8.3 Techniques and equipment

8.4 Applications of fluidization in the production of food powders

8.5 Limitations

8.6 Conclusion and future trends

8.7 Sources of further information and advice

8.9 Appendix: nomenclature

Chapter 9: Powder mixing in the production of food powders


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Mixture quality: defining and assessing

9.3 Mixing processes and mechanisms

9.4 Mixing devices

9.5 Some elements for powder-mixer calculation and scale-up

9.6 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 10: Handling of food powders: flow patterns and storage design


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Basic flow patterns in storage vessels

10.3 Storage vessel design

10.4 Mass-flow operation

10.5 The Jenike silo design method

10.6 The flow–no flow criterion

10.7 Silo design worked example

10.8 Conclusion

10.10 Appendices

10.10.2 Appendix B: indicative bulk characteristics for a limited range of food powders

10.10.3 Appendix C: nomenclature

Chapter 11: Ensuring process safety in food powder production: the risk of dust explosion


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Dust explosion hazards

11.3 Laboratory testing to assess explosion characteristics of dust clouds

11.4 Safety from dust cloud explosion hazards

11.5 Specific unit operations

11.6 Conclusion

11.7 Sources of further information and advice

Part II: Powder properties

Chapter 12: Powder properties in food production systems


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Sampling, moisture content and chemical composition

12.3 Particle properties

12.4 Bulk properties of powders

12.5 Conclusion

12.6 Future trends

Chapter 13: Techniques to analyse particle size of food powders


13.1 Introduction

13.2 The importance of particle size of food powders

13.3 Collecting data for particle size analysis

13.4 Presenting particle size analysis data

13.5 Powder sampling and techniques for particle size analysis

13.6 Particle size analysis by direct methods

13.7 Particle size analysis by classification methods

13.8 Particle size analysis by secondary methods

13.9 Continuous and in-line measurements

13.10 Conclusion

Chapter 14: Surface composition of food powders


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Microscopy techniques for analyzing the surface of food powders

14.3 Spectroscopy techniques for analyzing the surface of food powders

14.4 Surface sorption and extraction techniques for analyzing the surface of food powders

14.5 Factors affecting food powder surface composition

14.6 Impact of powder surface composition on powder functionality

14.7 Food industry examples

14.8 Conclusion

14.9 Future trends

14.11 Appendix: abbreviations

Chapter 15: Food powder rehydration


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Principles of powder rehydration: wettability and sinkability

15.3 Principles of powder rehydration: dispersibility

15.4 Principles of powder rehydration: solubility

15.5 Improving powder rehydration properties

15.6 Conclusion

Chapter 16: Shelf-life of food powders


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Water absorption and desorption of food powders

16.3 Crystallization of amorphous powder

16.4 Oxidative changes

16.5 Effect of Maillard reactions on food products

16.6 Survival of dried probiotic bacteria

16.7 Conclusion

16.8 Sources of further information and advice

16.9 Acknowledgements

Part III: Speciality food powders

Chapter 17: Dairy powders


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Bulk production of dairy powders

17.3 Physical properties and qualities of dairy powders

17.4 Physicochemical properties and qualities of dairy powders

17.5 Applications of dairy powders

17.6 Factors affecting the properties of milk, whey and derivative powders

17.7 Control and improvement of powder properties

17.8 Conclusion

Chapter 18: Infant formula powders


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Global infant formula market

18.3 Nutritional composition

18.4 Classification of infant formula

18.5 Production of powdered infant formula

18.6 Conclusion

18.7 Future trends

Chapter 19: Powdered egg


19.1 Introduction

19.2 Production of egg powders: types and process

19.3 Drying technologies for egg powder production

19.4 Factors affecting the functionality of egg powders

19.5 Applications in the food and beverage industries

19.6 Conclusion

Chapter 20: Tea and coffee powders


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Factors affecting quality of instant coffee powder

20.3 Instant coffee production

20.4 Health effects of instant coffee powder

20.5 Instant tea powder production

20.6 Health effects of instant tea powder

20.7 Typical tea powder products

20.8 Conclusion

Chapter 21: Fruit and vegetable powders


21.1 Introduction

21.2 Fruit/vegetable powders and related products

21.3 Technologies for fruit and vegetable powder production

21.4 Grinding or pulverization

21.5 Storage

21.6 Conclusion

Chapter 22: Rice flour and related products


22.1 Introduction

22.2 Rice flour processing

22.3 Chemical composition and nutritional properties of rice flour

22.4 Physicochemical properties of rice flour

22.5 Modifications of rice flour

22.6 Conclusion

Chapter 23: Culinary powders and speciality products


23.1 Introduction

23.2 Herbs and spices

23.3 Soup powders

23.4 Salts

23.5 Safety of culinary powders

23.6 Conclusion

Chapter 24: Powders containing microorganisms and enzymes


24.1 Introduction

24.2 Drying of bacterial cultures

24.3 Preservation of yeasts and enzymes

24.4 Spray drying of lactic acid bacteria

24.5 Single droplet drying

24.6 Mechanisms of bacterial death and survival in the drying process

24.7 Bacterial survival during storage

24.8 Modelling of drying and survival kinetics

24.10 Future trends

24.11 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 25: Coating foods with powders


25.1 Introduction

25.2 Types of powders used as food coatings

25.3 Principles and equipment for coating foods with powders

25.4 Difficulties caused by powder coating and ways to resolve them

25.5 Conclusion

25.6 Sources of further information and advice



Many food ingredients are supplied in powdered form, as reducing water content increases shelf life and aids ease of storage, handling and transport. Powder technology is therefore of great importance to the food industry. The Handbook of food powders explores a variety of processes that are involved in the production of food powders, the further processing of these powders and their functional properties.

Part one introduces processing and handling technologies for food powders and includes chapters on spray, freeze and drum drying, powder mixing in the production of food powders and safety issues around food powder production processes. Part two focusses on powder properties including surface composition, rehydration and techniques to analyse the particle size of food powders. Finally, part three highlights speciality food powders and includes chapters on dairy powders, fruit and vegetable powders and coating foods with powders.

The Handbook of food powders is a standard reference for professionals in the food powder production and handling industries, development and quality control professionals in the food industry using powders in foods, and researchers, scientists and academics interested in the field.

Key Features

  • Explores the processing and handling technologies in the production of food powders
  • Examines powder properties, including surface composition, shelf life, and techniques used to examine particle size
  • Focusses on speciality powders such as dairy, infant formulas, powdered egg, fruit and vegetable, and culinary and speciality products


Professionals in the food powder production and handling industries; R&D and QA professionals in the food industry using powders in foods; Professors of food engineering and food science courses


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2013
31st August 2013
Woodhead Publishing
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:


"Chemical and biological engineers describe different processes that are involved in producing food powders, their further processing, and the functional properties of the powders. Among their topics are spray drying, roller and drum drying, grinding, powder mixing, flow patterns and storage design in handling food powders, the risk of dust explosion,…", March 2014

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editors

Bhesh Bhandari

Professor Bhesh Bhandari has been associated with the University of Queensland for the last 25 years. His research and teaching areas include food materials science, processing, physical and engineering properties of foods and recently 3D printing of foods. Professor Bhandari has published five co-edited books and more than 350 book chapters and research papers. His publications have been cited nearly 14,000 times (2018), and he is recognised as one of the leading researchers in glass transition and encapsulation technologies in the food science discipline. Professor Bhandari was listed as a highly cited researcher in his discipline in 2015 by Thomson Reuters. He has recently patented two significant technologies, a continuous microgel particle formation device for encapsulation of food and pharmaceuticals and a technology to produce ethylene powder by applying materials science approach.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, University of Queensland, Australia

Nidhi Bansal

Nidhi Bansal has been working at the University of Queensland for the last 8 years in the field of Dairy Science and Technology. Currently, she is advising 13 PhD students. Nine of her students completed their PhDs from 2013-15. In addition to her research publications in the field, Dr. Bansal has also co-edited the book Handbook of Food Powders: Processes and Properties (Woodhead Publishing, Elsevier) and contributed a book chapter on “Functional Milk Proteins: Production and Utilization. Whey-Based Ingredients” in Advanced Dairy Chemistry-1B, Proteins: Applied Aspects.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Queensland, Australia

Min Zhang

Professor Min Zhang works at the School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, China.

Affiliations and Expertise

Jiangnan University, China

Pierre Schuck

Dr Pierre Schuck is a researcher at INRA, France.