Handbook of Foaming and Blowing Agents

Handbook of Foaming and Blowing Agents

2nd Edition - March 12, 2022

Write a review

  • Author: George Wypych
  • eBook ISBN: 9781774670019
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781774670002

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (EPub, PDF)
Available
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order

Description

Handbook of Foaming and Blowing Agents, Second Edition includes the most current information on foaming technology, guiding users on the proper selection of formulation, which is highly dependent on the mechanisms of action of blowing agents and foaming agents, as well as dispersion and solubility. The book includes properties of 23 groups of blowing agents and the typical range of technical performance for each group, including general properties, physical-chemical properties, health and safety, environmental impact, and applications in different products and polymers. All information is illustrated by chemical reactions and diagrams. Chapters in the book look at foaming mechanisms with the use of solid blowing agents, which are decomposed to the gaseous products by application of heat, production of gaseous products by chemical reaction, and foaming by gases and evaporating liquids.

Key Features

  • Introduces the fundamental mechanisms of action of blowing agents and foaming
  • Includes best practice guidance to help engineers and technicians improve the efficiency of their existing foaming processes
  • Enables practitioners to select blowing agents and foaming methods more effectively, thus reducing the risk of poor specification
  • Introduces useful analytical techniques for foaming
  • Discusses the environmental impact of foaming processes

Readership

Academic researchers, R&D, production chemists and engineers, industrial hygienists, students

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • List of Illustrations
  • List of Tables
  • Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
  • Chapter 2: CHEMICAL ORIGINS OF BLOWING AGENTS
  • 2.1 ACTIVATORS
  • 2.2 AZODICARBONAMIDE
  • 2.3 CROSSLINKERS
  • 2.4 DINITROSO PENTAMETHYLENE TETRAMINE COMPOUNDS
  • 2.5 DISPERSIONS IN POLYMERS CARRIERS
  • 2.6 FOAMING AGENT MIXTURES WITH OTHER ADDITIVE(S)
  • 2.7 GASES
  • 2.8 HYDRAZIDES
  • 2.9 HYDROCARBONS
  • 2.10 HYDROCHLORCARBON
  • 2.11 HYDROCHLOROFLUOROCARBON
  • 2.12 HYDROFLUOROCARBONS
  • 2.13 HYDROFLUOROOLEFINS
  • 2.14 MASTERBATCHES
  • 2.15 MICROSPHERES
  • 3.16 MIXTURES OF FOAMING AGENTS
  • 2.17 NUCLEATING AGENTS
  • 2.18 PROPRIETARY
  • 2.19 SALTS OF CARBONIC AND POLYCARBOXYLIC ACIDS
  • 2.20 SODIUM BICARBONATE
  • 2.21 SULFONYLSEMICARBAZIDES
  • 2.22 TETRAZOLES
  • 2.23 WATER
  • Chapter 3: MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF BLOWING AGENTS
  • 3.1 MECHANISMS OF FOAMING BY DECOMPOSING SOLIDS
  • 3.2 PRODUCTION OF GASEOUS PRODUCTS BY CHEMICAL REACTION
  • 3.3 FOAMING BY GASES AND EVAPORATING LIQUIDS
  • Chapter 4: DISPERSION AND SOLUBILITY OF BLOWING AGENTS
  • Chapter 5: PARAMETERS OF FOAM PRODUCTION
  • 5.1 AMOUNT OF BLOWING AGENT
  • 5.2 CLAMPING PRESSURE
  • 5.3 DELAY TIME
  • 5.4 DESORPTION TIME
  • 5.5 DIE PRESSURE
  • 5.6 DIE TEMPERATURE
  • 5.7 GAS CONTENT
  • 5.8 GAS FLOW RATE
  • 5.9 GAS INJECTION LOCATION
  • 5.10 GAS SORPTION AND DESORPTION RATES
  • 5.11 INTERNAL PRESSURE AFTER FOAMING
  • 5.12 MOLD PRESSURE
  • 5.13 MOLD TEMPERATURE
  • 5.14 OPERATIONAL WINDOW
  • 5.15 PLASTISOL VISCOSITY
  • 5.16 SATURATION PRESSURE
  • 5.17 SATURATION TEMPERATURE
  • 5.18 SCREW REVOLUTION SPEED
  • 5.19 SURFACE TENSION
  • 5.20 TIME
  • 5.21 TEMPERATURE
  • 5.22 VOID VOLUME
  • Chapter 6: FOAM STABILIZATION
  • Chapter 7: FOAMING EFFICIENCY MEASURES
  • 7.1 CELL SIZE
  • 7.2 CELL DENSITY
  • 7.3 CELL WALL THICKNESS (AVERAGE)
  • 7.4 FOAM DENSITY
  • 7.5 EXPANSION RATIO (BY VOLUME)
  • 7.6 OPEN CELL CONTENT
  • 7.7 VOID FRACTION
  • Chapter 8: MORPHOLOGY OF FOAMS
  • 8.1 BIMODAL MORPHOLOGY
  • 8.2 CELL DENSITY
  • 8.3 CELL MORPHOLOGY
  • 8.4 CELL SIZE
  • 8.5 CELL WALL THICKNESS
  • 8.6 CLOSED CELL
  • 8.7 CORE & SKIN THICKNESS
  • 8.8 MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF FOAMS
  • 8.9 OPEN CELL
  • Chapter 9: FOAMING IN DIFFERENT PROCESSING METHODS
  • 9.1 BLOWN FILM EXTRUSION
  • 9.2 CALENDERING
  • 9.3 CLAY EXFOLIATION
  • 9.4 COMPRESSION MOLDING
  • 9.5 DEPRESSURIZATION
  • 9.6 EXTRUSION
  • 9.7 FREE FOAMING
  • 9.8 INJECTION MOLDING
  • 9.9 MICROWAVE HEATING
  • 9.10 ROTATIONAL MOLDING
  • 9.11 SOLID-STATE FOAMING
  • 9.12 SUPERCRITICAL FLUID-LADEN PELLET INJECTION MOLDING FOAMING TECHNOLOGY
  • 9.13 THERMOFORMING
  • 9.14 UV LASER
  • 9.15 VACUUM DRYING
  • 9.16 WIRE COATING
  • Chapter 10: SELECTION OF FOAMING AND BLOWING AGENTS FOR DIFFERENT POLYMERS
  • 10.1 ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE
  • 10.2 ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-ACRYLATE
  • 10.3 BISMALEIMIDE RESIN
  • 10.4 BROMOBUTYL RUBBER
  • 10.5 CELLULOSE ACETATE
  • 10.6 CHITOSAN
  • 10.7 CYANOACRYLATE
  • 10.8 EPOXY
  • 10.9 ETHYLENE CHLOROTRIFLUOROETHYLENE
  • 10.10 ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE DIENE RUBBER
  • 10.11 ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE
  • 10.12 FLUORINATED ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE
  • 10.13 HYDROXYPROPYL METHYLCELLULOSE
  • 10.14 MELAMINE RESIN
  • 10.15 PHENOL FORMALDEHYDE
  • 10.16 POLY(3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE-CO-3-HYDROXYVALERATE)
  • 10.17 POLY(BUTYLENE SUCCINATE)
  • 10.18 POLY(ε-CAPROLACTONE)
  • 10.19 POLYACRYLONITRILE
  • 10.20 POLYAMIDE
  • 10.21 POLYCARBONATE
  • 10.22 POLYCARBONATE/ABS
  • 10.23 POLYCHLOROPRENE
  • 10.24 POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE
  • 10.25 POLYETHERKETONE
  • 10.26 POLYETHERIMIDE
  • 10.27 POLYETHERSULFONE
  • 10.28 PES/PEN BLENDS
  • 10.29 POLYETHYLENE
  • 10.30 POLY(ETHYLENE-CO-OCTENE)
  • 10.31 POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)
  • 10.32 POLYIMIDE
  • 10.33 POLY(LACTIC ACID)
  • 10.34 POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE
  • 10.35 POLYOXYMETHYLENE
  • 10.36 POLYPROPYLENE
  • 10.37 POLYSTYRENE
  • 10.38 POLYURETHANE
  • 10.39 POLYVINYLALCOHOL
  • 10.40 POLYVINYLCHLORIDE
  • 10.41 POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE-CO-VINYL ACETATE)
  • 10.42 POLYVINYLIDENEFLUORIDE
  • 10.43 NATURAL RUBBER
  • 10.44 STARCH
  • Chapter 11: ADDITIVES
  • 11.1 ACTIVATORS, ACCELERATORS, AND KICKERS
  • 11.2 CATALYSTS
  • 11.3 CROSSLINKING AGENTS
  • 11.4 CURING AGENTS
  • 11.5 DILUENTS
  • 11.6 EXFOLIATED ADDITIVES
  • 11.7 FIBERS
  • 11.8 FILLERS
  • 11.9 FIRE RETARDANTS
  • 11.10 FOAM STABILIZERS
  • 11.11 NUCLEATING AGENTS
  • 11.12 PLASTICIZERS
  • 11.13 POLYMERIC MODIFIERS
  • 11.14 RETARDERS
  • 11.15 SURFACTANTS
  • Chapter 12: EFFECT OF FOAMING ON PHYSICAL-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FOAMS
  • 12.1 COMPRESSION SET, STRENGTH, AND MODULUS
  • 12.2 CRYSTALLINITY
  • 12.3 DEFORMATION RECOVERY
  • 12.4 DENSITY
  • 12.5 ELASTIC MODULUS
  • 12.6 ELONGATION
  • 12.7 EMI SHIELDING
  • 12.8 EXPANSION RATIO
  • 12.9 FLEXURAL MODULUS
  • 12.10 GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE
  • 12.11 IMPACT STRENGTH
  • 12.12 RELATIVE PERMITTIVITY
  • 12.13 RESISTIVITY (ELECTRICAL)
  • 12.14 RHEOLOGY
  • 12.15 SHAPE MEMORY
  • 12.16 SHEAR MODULUS
  • 12.17 SHRINKAGE
  • 12.18 SOUND ABSORPTION
  • 12.19 SURFACE ROUGHNESS
  • 12.20 SURFACE TENSION
  • 12.21 TEAR STRENGTH
  • 12.22 TENSILE MODULUS
  • 12.23 TENSILE STRENGTH
  • 12.24 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
  • Chapter 13: ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES USEFUL IN FOAMING
  • 13.1 CELL DENSITY
  • 13.2 CELL SIZE
  • 13.3 DENSITY
  • 13.4 DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY
  • 13.5 FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED
  • 13.6 OPTICAL EXPANDOMETRY
  • 13.7 POLARIZING OPTICAL MICROSCOPE
  • 13.8 SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY
  • 13.9 TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY
  • 13.10 CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
  • 13.11 X-RAY ANALYSIS
  • Chapter 14: HEALTH AND SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF FOAMING PROCESSES
  • INDEX

Product details

  • No. of pages: 308
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © ChemTec Publishing 2022
  • Published: March 12, 2022
  • Imprint: ChemTec Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9781774670019
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781774670002

About the Author

George Wypych

George Wypych has a Ph.D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research and development. He has published 18 books, 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability and the development of sealants and coatings.

Affiliations and Expertise

ChemTec Publishing, Ontario, Canada

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Handbook of Foaming and Blowing Agents"