Handbook of Flotation Reagents: Chemistry, Theory and Practice - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444530820, 9780080932095

Handbook of Flotation Reagents: Chemistry, Theory and Practice

1st Edition

Volume 2: Flotation of Gold, PGM and Oxide Minerals

Authors: Srdjan M. Bulatovic
eBook ISBN: 9780080932095
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444530820
Paperback ISBN: 9781493302413
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 15th September 2010
Page Count: 230
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Handbook of Flotation Reagents: Chemistry, Theory and Practice: Flotation of Gold, PGM and Oxide Minerals, Volume 2 focuses on the theory, practice, and chemistry of flotation of gold, platinum group minerals (PGMs), and the major oxide minerals, along with rare earths. It examines separation methods whose effectiveness is limited when using conventional treatment processes and considers commercial plant practices for most oxide minerals, such as pyrochlore-containing ores, copper cobalt ores, zinc ores, tin ores, and tantalum/niobium ores. It discusses the geology and mineralogy of gold, PGMs, and oxide minerals, as well as reagent and flotation practices in beneficiation.
The book also looks at the factors affecting the floatability of gold minerals and describes PGM-dominated deposits such as Morensky-type deposits, hydrothermal deposits, and placer deposits. In addition, case studies of flotation and beneficiation in countries such as Canada, Africa, Russia, Chile, and Saudi Arabia are presented. This book will be useful to researchers, university students, and professors, as well as mineral processors faced with the problem of beneficiation of difficult-to-treat ores.

Key Features

  • Looks at the theoretical aspects of flotation reagents
  • Examines the practical aspects of using chemical reagents in operating plants
  • Provides guidelines for researchers and engineers involved in process design and development


For mineral processors working in the operating plants, researchers in the mineral processing industry and university students and professors

Table of Contents


17 Flotation of Gold Ores

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Geology and General Mineralogy of Gold-Bearing Ores

17.3 Flotation Properties of Gold Minerals and Factors Affecting Floatability

17.4 Flotation of Low-Sulphide-Containing Gold Ores

17.5 Flotation of Gold-Containing Mercury/Antimony Ores

17.6 Flotation of Carbonaceous Clay-Containing Gold Ores

17.6.1 Preflotation of carbonaceous gangue and carbon

17.6.2 Two-stage flotation method

17.6.3 Nitrogen atmosphere flotation method

17.7 Flotation of Gold-Containing Copper Ores

17.8 Flotation of Oxide Copper–Gold Ores

17.9 Flotation of Gold–Antimony Ores

17.10 Flotation of Arsenical Gold Ores

17.11 Flotation of Gold From Base Metal Sulphide Ores

17.11.1 Gold-containing lead-zinc ores

17.11.2 Copper-zinc gold-containing ores

17.11.3 Gold-containing copper-lead-zinc ores

17.12 Conclusions


18 Flotation of Platinum Group Metal Ores

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Minerals and Classification of PGM Ores

18.3 Description of PGM-Dominated Deposits

18.3.1 Morensky-type deposits

18.3.2 Hydrothermal deposits

18.3.3 Placer deposits

18.4 Effect of Mineralogy on Recovery of Platinum Group Minerals

18.4.1 Ores amenable to gravity preconcentration

18.4.2 Ores amenable to flotation

18.5 Copper-Nickel and Nickel Sulphide Deposits with PGM as a By-Product

18.5.1 The Sudbury area in Ontario, Canada

18.5.2 The Norilsk Talnakh ore in Russia

18.5.3 Pechenga Cala Peninsula (USSR)

18.5.4 Other deposits

18.6 Chromium Deposits with PGM

18.7 Flotation of PGM-Containing Ores

18.7.1 Introduction

18.7.2 Flotation properties of PGM from sulphide-dominated deposits

18.7.3 Reagent practice in flotation of PGM sulphide-dominated ores

18.7.4 Reagent practice in flotation of Cu–Ni and Ni ores with PGM as the by-product

18.7.5 Reagent practice in flotation of PGM from chromium-containing ores

18.7.6 Flotation of oxide PGM ores

18.8 Plant Practice in Treatment of PGM Ores

18.8.1 Flowsheets for treatment of sulphide-dominated PGM ores

18.8.2 Flowsheets for treatment of Cu–Ni-containing PGM ores

18.8.3 Flowsheet used for treatment of high-chromium PGM-containing ores

18.9 Reagent Schemes Used to Treat PGM-Containing Ores


19 Flotation of Oxide Copper and Copper Cobalt Ores

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Oxide Copper Ores and Minerals

19.3 Flotation Properties of the Individual Copper Minerals and Mixtures

19.4 Cobalt and Copper Cobalt Oxide Ores

19.5 Flotation Practice in Beneficiation of Oxide Copper Minerals

19.5.1 Sulphidization flotation method

19.6 Industrial Practice in Flotation of Oxide Copper and Copper-Cobalt Ores

19.6.1 Kolwezi concentrator (Kongo) – Oxide siliceous ore

19.6.2 Industrial practice in beneficiation of dolomitic oxide ores

19.7 Industrial Practice in Beneficiation of Mixed Sulphide Oxide Ores


20 Flotation of Mixed Lead Zinc Sulphide Oxide and Oxide Lead and Zinc Ores

20.1 Some Geological and Mineralogical Features of Mixed Sulphide Oxide and Oxide Lead Zinc Ores

20.1.1 Mixed sulphide oxide lead zinc ores

20.1.2 Oxide lead ores

20.1.3 Zinc oxide ores

20.2 Flotation Properties of Individual Oxide Lead Zinc Minerals of Economic Importance

20.2.1 Oxide lead and zinc minerals of economic value

20.2.2 Flotation properties of oxide lead minerals

20.2.3 Flotation properties of oxide zinc minerals

20.3 Practices in the Beneficiation of Mixed and Oxide Lead Zinc Ores

20.3.1 Reagent scheme and plant practice for beneficiation of mixed sulphide oxide ores

20.3.2 Practices in beneficiation of oxide zinc ores

20.3.3 Flotation of oxide lead silver ore


21 Flotation of Tin Minerals

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Mineral Composition of Various Tin Ores

21.3 Brief Description of Tin Deposits

21.4 Beneficiation of Tin Ores

21.4.1 Gravity beneficiation method

21.4.2 Combination of gravity–flotation tin beneficiation method (lodge deposits)

21.4.3 Flotation

21.5 Practices in Beneficiation of Tin-Containing Ores

21.5.1 Factors effecting selection of treatment process

21.5.2 Development work and operation of cassiterite flotation plants


22 Flotation of Niobium

22.1 Introduction

22.2 General Overview of Pyrochlore-Containing Ores

22.3 Flotation Properties of Pyrochlore

22.3.1 Flotation of pyrochlore from carbonatite ores

22.3.2 Flotation of pyrochlore from pegmatitic ores

22.4 Refractory Niobium Ores

22.5 Plant Practices in Beneficiation of Pyrochlore Ores

22.5.1 St. Honore Niobec operation

22.5.2 Oka operating plant


23 Flotation of Tantalum/Niobium Ores

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Characteristics of Ta/Nb Minerals of Economic Value

23.3 Geological and Mineralogical Features of Ta/Nb Ores

23.4 Flotation Characteristics of Tantalite–Columbite Minerals

23.5 Practices in Beneficiation of Ta/Nb Ores

23.5.1 Introduction

23.5.2 Gravity concentration

23.6 Flotation

23.6.1 Background

23.6.2 Bernic Lake Ta/Nb flotation from gravity tails

23.6.3 Flotation of Ta/Nb from Greenbushes gravity tailing

23.7 Beneficiation of Ta/Nb Ores Containing Zircon

23.7.1 Development of a beneficiation process for Ta/Nb recovery from Ghurayyah ore – Saudi Arabia

23.7.2 Beneficiation studies

23.7.3 Separation of Ta/Nb and Zr

23.8 Beneficiation of Ta/Nb Ore from Malawi, Africa

23.8.1 Experimental development testwork using alternative collectors

23.8.2 Effect of different depressant systems on Ta/Nb flotation

23.8.3 The treatment flowsheet, reagent additions and metallurgical results

23.9 Ta/Nb–Zr Separation from the Bulk Concentrate

23.10 Ta/Nb Separation from Refractory Tin Gravity Intermediate Products

23.10.1 Fe-hydroxide decoating

23.10.2 Ta/Nb–Zr separation


24 Flotation of REO Minerals

24.1 Ore and Minerals Containing Rare Earth Oxide Elements (REOE)

24.2 Flotation Properties of Cerium Group of REOE Minerals

24.2.1 Flotation properties of monazite and bastnaesite

24.2.2 Flotation properties of REO-containing yttrium

24.3 Flotation Practices and Research Work on Beneficiation of REO Minerals

24.3.1 Introduction

24.3.2 Flotation practice in the beneficiation of bastnaesite-containing ores

24.3.3 Flotation practices in beneficiation of monazite


25 Flotation of Titanium Minerals

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Titanium-Bearing Ores and Minerals

25.2.1 Ilmenite

25.2.2 Ilmenorutile

25.2.3 Rutile

25.2.4 Perovskite

25.2.5 Leucoxene

25.3 Classification of Titanium Deposits

25.3.1 Rock deposits

25.3.2 Sand deposits of titanium minerals

25.4 Flotation Properties of Major Titanium Minerals

25.4.1 Flotation properties of ilmenite

25.4.2 Flotation properties of rutile

25.4.3 Flotation properties of perovskite

25.5 Practices in Beneficiation of Titanium Ores

25.5.1 Practices in beneficiation of ilmenite ores using flotation

25.5.2 Beneficiation of apatite–ilmenite ores (Sept Iles Mine, Canada)

25.5.3 Ilmenite production from heavy mineral sands and chromium problems

25.6 Practices in Rutile Flotation

25.6.1 Development and operation of zircon flotation at sierra rutile limited

25.6.2 Rutile flotation from hard rock ore

25.6.3 White Mountain titanium (Chile)




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About the Author

Srdjan M. Bulatovic

Affiliations and Expertise

SBM Mineral Processing and Engineering Services LTD, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada