Handbook of Fillers

Handbook of Fillers

5th Edition - January 28, 2021

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  • Author: George Wypych
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781927885796

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Description

Handbook of Fillers, Fifth Edition discusses the rapidly advancing field of fillers, the substances added to plastics and composites that add value by improving and modifying the properties of materials and reducing costs. This new edition is an essential reference for engineers and scientists using fillers in a range of materials, including plastics, rubber, adhesives, and paper. Designed to be a comprehensive reference for both experienced practitioners and those new to the field, it covers available fillers and their properties, their effect on filled materials, their rheology and flammability, recycling considerations, and their use in practical applications. The book offers a direct comparison of general-purpose fillers (micron-size fillers) and nanofillers. The first section covers the grades of fillers available in the world market, dividing them into eight groups and analyzing their properties, applications, and sources. The second section discusses the effects of filler incorporation with ten chapters covering the mechanical properties of compounded materials, the effect of the filler on the material rheology, the morphology of the filled system, the material durability, flammability and recycling, the structure of interphase, chemical interphase, chemical interactions, interaction with and effect on other additive, fillers use in material compounds, and the analytical methods of testing fillers and filled materials. The final section is devoted to the application of fillers on an industrial scale. Filler transportation, storage, processing, and equipment used for these purposes are discussed, as are quality control of fillers, formulation with fillers, different processing methods, and health and safety issues.

Key Features

  • Synthesizes the literature on fillers, covering their properties, effects on filled materials, rheology, flammability, and more
  • Provides up-to-date, applicable information on the use of fillers in plastics, rubber, adhesives, and paper
  • Presents comprehensive coverage on the effect of fillers on materials, including their mechanical properties, their effects on material rheology, the morphology of the filled system, material durability, and more
  • Includes essential guidance on the industrial scale use of fillers and their transportation, storage, processing, equipment, quality control, and health and safety considerations

Readership

Academic researchers, R&D, production chemists and engineers, environmental engineers, industrial hygienists, medical professionals, civil engineers, students

Table of Contents

  • 1 INTRODUCTION
    1.1 Expectations from fillers
    1.2 Typical filler properties
    1.3 Definitions
    1.4 Classification
    1.5 Markets and trends
    References
    2 SOURCES OF FILLERS, THEIR CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, PROPERTIES, AND MORPHOLOGY
    2.1 Particulate Fillers
    2.1.1 Aluminum flakes and powders
    2.1.2 Aluminum borate whiskers
    2.1.3 Aluminum nitride
    2.1.4 Aluminum oxide
    2.1.5 Aluminum trihydroxide
    2.1.6 Anthracite
    2.1.7 Antimonate of sodium
    2.1.8 Antimony pentoxide
    2.1.8 Antimony trioxide
    2.1.10 Ammonium octamolybdate
    2.1.11 Apatite
    2.1.12 Ash, fly
    2.1.13 Attapulgite
    2.1.14 Barium metaborate
    2.1.15 Barium sulfate
    2.1.16 Barium & strontium sulfates
    2.1.17 Barium titanate
    2.1.18 Bentonite
    2.1.19 Beryllium oxide
    2.1.20 Boron nitride
    2.1.21 Calcium carbonate
    2.1.22 Calcium fluoride
    2.1.23 Calcium hydroxide
    2.1.24 Calcium phosphate
    2.1.25 Calcium silicate
    2.1.26 Calcium sulfate
    2.1.27 Carbon black
    2.1.28 Carbonyl iron powder
    2.1.29 Cellulose particles
    2.1.30 Ceramic beads
    2.1.31 Chitosan
    2.1.32 Clamshell powder
    2.1.33 Clay
    2.1.34 Cobalt powder
    2.1.35 Copper
    2.1.36 Corn cob powder
    2.1.37 Cristobalite
    2.1.38 Diatomaceous earth
    2.1.39 Dolomite
    2.1.40 Eggshell filler
    2.1.41 Ferrites
    2.1.42 Feldspar
    2.1.43 Gandolinium oxide
    2.1.44 Glass beads
    2.1.45 Gold
    2.1.46 Graphene
    2.1.47 Graphene oxide
    2.1.48 Graphite
    2.1.49 Ground tire powder
    2.1.50 Halloysite
    2.1.51 Huntite
    2.1.52 Hydrous calcium silicate
    2.1.53 Illite
    2.1.54 Iron
    2.1.55 Iron oxide
    2.1.56 Kaolin
    2.1.57 Lead oxide
    2.1.58 Lithopone
    2.1.59 Magnesium oxide
    2.1.60 Magnesium hydroxide
    2.1.61 Magnetite
    2.1.62 Metal-containing conductive materials
    2.1.63 Mica
    2.1.64 Molybdenum
    2.1.65 Molybdenum disulfide
    2.1.66 Molybdic oxide
    2.1.67 Nanofillers
    2.1.68 Nickel
    2.1.69 Nickel oxide
    2.1.70 Nickel zinc ferrite
    2.1.71 Nutshell powder
    2.1.72 Perlite
    2.1.73 Polymeric fillers
    2.1.74 Potassium hexatitanate whiskers
    2.1.75 Pumice
    2.1.76 Pyrophyllite
    2.1.77 Rubber particles
    2.1.78 Sepiolite
    2.1.79 Silica
    2.1.79.1 Fumed silica
    2.1.79.2 Fused silica
    2.1.79.3 Precipitated silica
    2.1.79.4 Quartz (Tripoli)
    2.1.79.5 Sand
    2.1.79.6 Silica gel
    2.1.80 Silicon carbide
    2.1.81 Silicon nitride
    2.1.82 Silver powder and flakes
    2.1.83 Slate flour
    2.1.84 Talc
    2.1.85 Titanium dioxide
    2.1.86 Tungsten
    2.1.87 Vermiculite
    2.1.88 Wollastonite
    2.1.89 Wood flour and similar materials
    2.1.90 Zeolites
    2.1.91 Zinc borate
    2.1.92 Zinc oxide
    2.1.93 Zinc stannate
    2.1.94 Zinc sulfide
    2.2 Fibers
    2.2.1 Aramid fibers
    2.2.2 Carbon fibers
    2.2.3 Carbon nanotubes
    2.2.4 Cellulose fibers
    2.2.5 Glass fibers
    2.2.6 Other fibers
    References
    3 FILLERS TRANSPORTATION, STORAGE, AND PROCESSING
    3.1 Filler packaging
    3.2 External transportation
    3.3 Filler receiving
    3.4 Storage
    3.5 In-plant conveying
    3.6 Semi-bulk unloading systems
    3.7 Bag handling equipment
    3.8 Blending
    3.9 Feeding
    3.10 Drying
    3.11 Dispersion
    References
    4 QUALITY CONTROL OF FILLERS
    4.1 Absorption coefficient
    4.2 Acidity or alkalinity of water extract
    4.3 Ash content
    4.4 Brightness
    4.5 Coarse particles
    4.6 Color
    4.7 CTAB surface area
    4.8 Density
    4.9 Electrical properties
    4.10 Extractables
    4.11 Fines content
    4.12 Heating loss
    4.13 Heat stability
    4.14 Hegman fineness
    4.15 Hiding power
    4.16 Iodine absorption number
    4.17 Lightening power of white pigments
    4.18 Loss on ignition
    4.19 Mechanical and related properties
    4.20 Oil absorption
    4.21 Particle size
    4.22 Pellet strength
    4.23 pH
    4.24 Resistance to light
    4.25 Resistivity of aqueous extract
    4.26 Sieve residue
    4.27 Soluble matter
    4.28 Specific surface area
    4.29 Sulfur content
    4.30 Tamped volume
    4.31 Tinting strength
    4.32 Volatile matter
    4.33 Water content
    4.34 Water-soluble sulfates, chlorides and nitrates
    References
    5 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLERS AND FILLED MATERIALS
    5.1 Density
    5.2 Particle size
    5.3 Particle size distribution
    5.4 Particle shape
    5.5 Particle surface morphology and roughness
    5.6 Specific surface area
    5.7 Porosity
    5.8 Particle-particle interaction and spacing
    5.9 Agglomerates
    5.10 Aggregates and structure
    5.11 Flocculation and sedimentation
    5.12 Aspect ratio
    5.13 Packing volume
    5.14 pH
    5.15 Zeta-potential
    5.16 Surface energy
    5.17 Moisture
    5.18 Absorption of liquids and swelling
    5.19 Permeability and barrier properties
    5.20 Oil absorption
    5.21 Hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties
    5.22 Optical properties
    5.23 Refractive index
    5.24 Friction properties
    5.25 Hardness
    5.26 Intumescent properties
    5.27 Thermal conductivity
    5.28 Thermal expansion coefficient
    5.29 Thermal degradation
    5.30 Melting temperature
    5.31 Glass transition temperature
    5.32 Electrical properties
    5.33 Relative permittivity
    5.34 Electrical percolation
    5.35 EMI shielding
    5.36 Magnetic properties
    5.37 Shape memory
    References
    6 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLERS AND FILLED MATERIALS
    6.1 Reactivity
    6.2 Chemical groups on the filler surface
    6.3 Filler surface modification
    6.4 Filler modification and material properties
    6.5 Resistance to various chemicals
    6.6 Cure in fillers presence
    6.7 Polymerization in fillers presence
    6.8 Grafting
    6.9 Crosslink density
    6.10 Reaction kinetics
    6.11 Molecular mobility
    References
    7 ORGANIZATION OF INTERFACE AND MATRIX CONTAINING FILLERS
    7.1 Particle distribution in matrix
    7.2 Orientation of filler particles in a matrix
    7.3 Voids
    7.4 Matrix-filler interaction
    7.5 Chemical interactions
    7.6 Other interactions
    7.7 Interphase organization
    7.8 Interfacial adhesion
    7.9 Interphase thickness
    7.10 Filler-chain links
    7.11 Chain dynamics
    7.12 Bound rubber
    7.13 Debonding
    7.14 Mechanisms of reinforcement
    7.15 Benefits of organization on molecular level
    References
    8 THE EFFECT OF FILLERS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLED MATERIALS
    8.1 Tensile strength and elongation
    8.2 Tensile yield stress
    8.3 Mullins’ effect
    8.4 Elastic modulus
    8.5 Flexural strength and modulus
    8.6 Impact resistance
    8.7 Hardness
    8.8 Tear strength
    8.9 Compressive strength
    8.10 Fracture resistance
    8.11 Wear
    8.12 Friction
    8.13 Abrasion
    8.14 Scratch resistance
    8.15 Fatigue
    8.16 Failure
    8.17 Adhesion
    8.18 Thermal deformation
    8.19 Shrinkage
    8.20 Warpage
    8.21 Compression set
    8.22 Load transfer
    8.23 Residual stress
    8.24 Creep
    References
    9 THE EFFECT OF FILLERS ON RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLED MATERIALS
    9.1 Viscosity
    9.2 Flow
    9.3 Flow induced filler particle orientation
    9.4 Torque
    9.5 Viscoelasticity
    9.6 Dynamic mechanical behavior
    9.7 Complex viscosity
    9.8 Shear viscosity
    9.9 Elongational viscosity
    9.10 Melt rheology
    9.11 Yield value
    References
    10 MORPHOLOGY OF FILLED SYSTEMS
    10.1 Crystallinity
    10.2 Crystallization behavior
    10.3 Nucleation
    10.4 Crystal size
    10.5 Spherulites
    10.6 Transcrystallinity
    10.7 Orientation
    References
    11 EFFECT OF FILLERS ON EPOSURE TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS
    11.1 Irradiation
    11.2 UV radiation
    11.3 Temperature
    11.4 Liquids and vapors
    11.5 Stabilization
    11.6 Degradable materials
    References
    12 FLAMMABILITY OF FILLED MATERIALS
    12.1 Definitions
    12.2 Limiting oxygen index
    12.3 Ignition and flame spread rate
    12.4 Heat transmission rate
    12.5 Decomposition and combustion
    12.6 Emission of gaseous components
    12.7 Smoke
    12.8 Char
    12.9 Recycling
    References
    13 INFLUENCE OF FILLERS ON PERFORMANCE OF OTHER ADDITIVES AND VICE VERSA
    13.1 Adhesion promoters
    13.2 Antistatics
    13.3 Blowing agents
    13.4 Catalysts
    13.5 Compatibilizers
    13.6 Coupling agents
    13.7 Dispersing agents and surface active agents
    13.8 Flame retardants
    13.9 Impact modifiers
    13.10 UV stabilizers
    13.11 Other additives
    References
    14 TESTING METHODS IN FILLED SYSTEMS
    14.1 Physical methods
    14.1.1 Atomic force microscopy
    14.1.2 Autoignition test
    14.1.3 Bound rubber
    14.1.4 Char formation
    14.1.5 Cone calorimetry
    14.1.6 Contact angle
    14.1.7 Dispersing agent requirement
    14.1.8 Dispersion tests
    14.1.9 Dripping test
    14.1.10 Dynamic mechanical analysis
    14.1.11 Electric constants determination
    14.1.12 Electron microscopy
    14.1.13 Fiber orientation
    14.1.14 Flame propagation test
    14.1.15 Glow wire test
    14.1.16 Image analysis
    14.1.17 Limiting oxygen index
    14.1.18 Magnetic properties
    14.1.19 Optical microscopy
    14.1.20 Particle size analysis
    14.1.21 Radiant panel test
    14.1.22 Rate of combustion
    14.1.23 Scanning acoustic microscopy
    14.1.24 Smoke chamber
    14.1.25 Sonic methods
    14.1.26 Specific surface area
    14.1.27 Thermal analysis
    14.2 Chemical and instrumental analysis
    14.2.1 Electron spin resonance
    14.2.2 Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis
    14.2.3 Inverse gas chromatography
    14.2.4 Gas chromatography
    14.2.5 Gel content
    14.2.6 Infrared and Raman spectroscopy
    14.2.7 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
    14.2.8 UV and visible spectophotometry
    14.2.9 X-ray analysis
    References
    15 FILLERS IN COMMERCIAL POLYMERS
    15.1 Acrylics
    15.2 Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer
    15.3 Acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate
    15.4 Aliphatic polyketone
    15.5 Alkyd resins
    15.6 Bismaleimide
    15.7 Cellulose acetate
    15.8 Chitosan
    15.9 Elastomers
    15.10 Epoxy resins
    15.11 Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer
    15.12 Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer
    15.13 Ethylene-ethyl acetate copolymer
    15.14 Ethylene-propylene copolymers
    15.15 Ionomers
    15.16 Liquid crystalline polymers
    15.17 Perfluoroalkoxy resin
    15.18 Phenolic resins
    15.19 Poly(acrylic acid)
    15.20 Polyacrylonitrile
    15.21 Polyamides
    15.22 Polyamideimide
    15.23 Polyamines
    15.24 Polyaniline
    15.25 Polyaryletherketone
    15.26 Poly(butylene succinate)
    15.27 Poly(butylene terephthalate)
    15.28 Polycaprolactone
    15.29 Polycarbonate
    15.30 Polydicyclopentadiene
    15.31 Polyetheretherketone
    15.32 Polyetherimide
    15.33 Polyether sulfone
    15.34 Polyethylene
    15.35 Polyethylene, chlorinated
    15.36 Polyethylene, chlorosulfonated
    15.37 Poly(ethylene oxide)
    15.38 Poly(ethylene terephthalate)
    15.39 Polyimide
    15.41 Polymethylmethacrylate
    15.42 Polyoxymethylene
    15.43 Poly(phenylene ether)
    15.44 Poly(phenylene sulfide)
    15.45 Polypropylene
    15.46 Polypyrrole
    15.47 Polystyrene & high impact
    15.48 Polysulfide
    15.49 Polysulfone
    15.50 Polytetrafluoroethylene
    15.51 Polyurethanes
    15.52 Poly(vinyl acetate)
    15.53 Poly(vinyl alcohol)
    15.54 Poly(vinyl butyral)
    15.55 Poly(vinyl chloride)
    15.56 Rubbers
    15.56.1 Natural rubber
    15.56.2 Nitrile rubber
    15.56.3 Polybutadiene rubber
    15.56.4 Polybutyl rubber
    15.56.5 Polychloroprene
    15.56.6 Polyisobutylene
    15.56.7 Polyisoprene
    15.56.8 Styrene-butadiene rubber
    15.57 Silicones
    15.58 Styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer
    15.59 Tetrafluoroethylene-perfluoropropylene
    15.60 Unsaturated polyesters
    15.61 Vinylidene-fluoride terpolymers
    References
    16 FILLER IN MATERIALS COMBINATIONS
    16.1 Blends, alloys and interpenetrating networks
    16.2 Composites
    16.3 Nanocomposites
    16.4 Laminates
    References
    17 FORMULATION WITH FILLERS
    References
    18 FILLERS IN DIFFERENT PROCESSING METHODS
    18.1 Blow molding
    18.2 Calendering and hot-melt coating
    18.3 Compression molding
    18.4 Dip coating
    18.5 Dispersion
    18.6 Extrusion
    18.7 Foaming
    18.8 Injection molding
    18.9 Knife coating
    18.10 Mixing
    18.11 Pultrusion
    18.12 Reaction injection molding
    18.13 Resin transfer molding
    18.14 Rotational molding
    18.15 Sheet molding
    18.16 Spinning
    18.17 Thermoforming
    18.18 Welding and machining
    References
    19 FILLERS IN DIFFERENT PRODUCTS
    19.1 Adhesives
    19.2 Agriculture
    19.3 Aerospace
    19.4 Appliances
    19.5 Automotive materials
    19.6 Bottles and containers
    19.7 Building components
    19.8 Business machines
    19.9 Cable and wire
    19.10 Coated fabrics
    19.11 Coatings and paints
    19.12 Cosmetics and pharmaceutical products
    19.13 Dental restorative composites
    19.14 Electrical and electronic materials
    19.15 Electromagnetic interference shielding
    19.16 Fibers
    19.17 Film
    19.18 Foam
    19.19 Food and feed
    19.20 Friction materials
    19.21 Geosynthetics
    19.22 Hoses and pipes
    19.23 Magnetic devices
    19.24 Medical applications
    19.25 Membranes
    19.26 Noise damping
    19.27 Optical devices
    19.28 Paper
    19.29 Radiation shields
    19.30 Railway transportation
    19.31 Roofing
    19.32 Telecommunication
    19.33 Tires
    19.34 Sealants
    19.35 Siding
    19.36 Sports equipment
    19.37 Waterproofing
    19.38 Windows
    References
    20 HAZARDS IN FILLER USE

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1184
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © ChemTec Publishing 2021
  • Published: January 28, 2021
  • Imprint: ChemTec Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781927885796

About the Author

George Wypych

George Wypych has a Ph.D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research and development. He has published 18 books, 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability and the development of sealants and coatings.

Affiliations and Expertise

ChemTec Publishing, Ontario, Canada

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