Handbook of Fillers - 4th Edition - ISBN: 9781895198911, 9781927885109

Handbook of Fillers

4th Edition

Authors: George Wypych
eBook ISBN: 9781927885109
Hardcover ISBN: 9781895198911
Imprint: ChemTec Publishing
Published Date: 23rd February 2016
Page Count: 938
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Description

Handbook of Fillers, Fourth Edition, discusses the rapidly advancing field of fillers, the substances added to plastics and composites that add value by improving and modifying the properties of materials and reducing costs. This new edition is an essential reference for engineers and scientists using fillers in a range of materials, including plastics, rubber, adhesives, and paper.

The book is designed to be a comprehensive reference for both experienced practitioners and those new to fields where fillers are used. It covers available fillers and their properties, their effect on filled materials, such as mechanical properties, rheology, morphology, flammability, and recycling, and their use in practical applications.

In particular, this new edition provides extensive coverage of nanofillers, along with the practical information needed to deploy these new technologies in the real world. The book includes the latest advances in filler technology, with consolidated technical information from over 4,000 research papers, data from over 160 filler and equipment manufacturers, and a thorough review of the patent literature.

Key Features

  • Provides up-to-date, applicable information on the use of fillers in plastics, rubber, adhesives, and paper
  • Presents comprehensive coverage on the effect of fillers on materials, including their mechanical properties, their effects on material rheology, the morphology of the filled system, material durability, and more
  • Includes essential guidance on the industrial scale use of fillers and their transportation, storage, processing, equipment, quality control, and health and safety considerations

Readership

Engineers, Processors, Compounders, and R&D Scientists dealing with processing of plastics, elastomers and composites. Students of polymer and mechanical engineering, materials science, automotive engineering, and aerospace engineering; End users of products made of plastics and elastomers with fillers.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
    • 1.1 EXPECTATIONS FROM FILLERS
    • 1.2 TYPICAL FILLER PROPERTIES
    • 1.3 DEFINITIONS
    • 1.4 CLASSIFICATION
    • 1.5 MARKETS AND TRENDS
  • Chapter 2: FILLERS – ORIGIN, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, PROPERTIES, AND MORPHOLOGY
    • 2.1 PARTICULATE FILLERS
    • 2.2 FIBERS
  • Chapter 3: FILLERS TRANSPORTATION, STORAGE, AND PROCESSING
    • 3.1 FILLER PACKAGING
    • 3.2 EXTERNAL TRANSPORTATION
    • 3.3 FILLER RECEIVING
    • 3.4 STORAGE
    • 3.5 IN-PLANT CONVEYING
    • 3.6 SEMI-BULK UNLOADING SYSTEMS
    • 3.7 BAG HANDLING EQUIPMENT
    • 3.8 BLENDING
    • 3.9 FEEDING
    • 3.10 DRYING
    • 3.11 DISPERSION
  • Chapter 4: QUALITY CONTROL OF FILLERS
    • 4.1 ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT
    • 4.2 ACIDITY OR ALKALINITY OF WATER EXTRACT
    • 4.3 ASH CONTENT
    • 4.4 BRIGHTNESS
    • 4.5 COARSE PARTICLES
    • 4.6 COLOR
    • 4.7 CTAB SURFACE AREA
    • 4.8 DENSITY
    • 4.9 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
    • 4.10 EXTRACTABLES
    • 4.11 FINES CONTENT
    • 4.12 HEATING LOSS
    • 4.13 HEAT STABILITY
    • 4.14 HEGMAN FINENESS
    • 4.15 HIDING POWER
    • 4.16 IODINE ABSORPTION NUMBER
    • 4.17 LIGHTENING POWER OF WHITE PIGMENTS
    • 4.18 LOSS ON IGNITION
    • 4.19 MECHANICAL AND RELATED PROPERTIES
    • 4.20 OIL ABSORPTION
    • 4.21 PARTICLE SIZE
    • 4.22 PELLET STRENGTH
    • 4.23 p H
    • 4.24 RESISTANCE TO LIGHT
    • 4.25 RESISTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT
    • 4.26 SIEVE RESIDUE
    • 4.27 SOLUBLE MATTER
    • 4.28 SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA
    • 4.29 SULFUR CONTENT
    • 4.30 TAMPED VOLUME
    • 4.31 TINTING STRENGTH
    • 4.32 VOLATILE MATTER
    • 4.33 WATER CONTENT
    • 4.34 WATER-SOLUBLE SULFATES, CHLORIDES & NITRATES
  • Chapter 5: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLERS AND FILLED MATERIALS
    • 5.1 DENSITY
    • 5.2 PARTICLE SIZE
    • 5.3 PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION
    • 5.4 PARTICLE SHAPE
    • 5.5 PARTICLE SURFACE MORPHOLOGY AND ROUGHNESS
    • 5.6 SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA
    • 5.7 POROSITY
    • 5.8 PARTICLE-PARTICLE INTERACTION AND SPACING
    • 5.9 AGGLOMERATES
    • 5.10 AGGREGATES AND STRUCTURE
    • 5.11 FLOCCULATION AND SEDIMENTATION
    • 5.12 ASPECT RATIO
    • 5.13 PACKING VOLUME
    • 5.14 p H
    • 5.15 ZETA-POTENTIAL
    • 5.16 SURFACE ENERGY
    • 5.17 MOISTURE
    • 5.18 ABSORPTION OF LIQUIDS AND SWELLING
    • 5.19 PERMEABILITY AND BARRIER PROPERTIES
    • 5.20 OIL ABSORPTION
    • 5.21 HYDROPHILIC/HYDROPHOBIC PROPERTIES
    • 5.22 OPTICAL PROPERTIES
    • 5.23 REFRACTIVE INDEX
    • 5.24 FRICTION PROPERTIES
    • 5.25 HARDNESS
    • 5.26 INTUMESCENT PROPERTIES
    • 5.27 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
    • 5.28 THERMAL EXPANSION COEFFICIENT
    • 5.29 THERMAL DEGRADATION
    • 5.30 MELTING TEMPERATURE
    • 5.31 GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE
    • 5.32 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
    • 5.33 RELATIVE PERMITTIVITY
    • 5.34 ELECTRICAL PERCOLATION
    • 5.35 EMI SHIELDING
    • 5.36 MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
    • 5.37 SHAPE MEMORY
  • Chapter 6: CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLERS & FILLED MATERIALS
    • 6.1 REACTIVITY
    • 6.2 CHEMICAL GROUPS ON THE FILLER SURFACE
    • 6.3 FILLER SURFACE MODIFICATION
    • 6.4 FILLER MODIFICATION AND MATERIAL PROPERTIES
    • 6.5 RESISTANCE TO VARIOUS CHEMICALS
    • 6.6 CURE IN FILLERS PRESENCE
    • 6.7 POLYMERIZATION IN FILLERS PRESENCE
    • 6.8 GRAFTING
    • 6.9 CROSSLINK DENSITY
    • 6.10 REACTION KINETICS
    • 6.11 MOLECULAR MOBILITY
  • Chapter 7: ORGANIZATION OF INTERFACE AND MATRIX CONTAINING FILLERS
    • 7.1 PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION IN MATRIX
    • 7.2 ORIENTATION OF FILLER PARTICLES IN A MATRIX
    • 7.3 DISTANCE BETWEEN PARTICLES
    • 7.4 VOIDS
    • 7.5 MATRIX-FILLER INTERACTION
    • 7.6 CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS
    • 7.7 OTHER INTERACTIONS
    • 7.8 INTERPHASE ORGANIZATION
    • 7.9 INTERFACIAL ADHESION
    • 7.10 INTERPHASE THICKNESS
    • 7.11 FILLER-CHAIN LINKS
    • 7.12 CHAIN DYNAMICS
    • 7.13 BOUND RUBBER
    • 7.14 DEBONDING
    • 7.15 MECHANISMS OF REINFORCEMENT
    • 7.15 BENEFITS OF ORGANIZATION ON MOLECULAR LEVEL
  • Chapter 8: THE EFFECT OF FILLERS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLED MATERIALS
    • 8.1 TENSILE STRENGTH AND ELONGATION
    • 8.2 TENSILE YIELD STRESS
    • 8.3 MULLINS’ EFFECT
    • 8.4 ELASTIC MODULUS
    • 8.5 FLEXURAL STRENGTH AND MODULUS
    • 8.6 IMPACT RESISTANCE
    • 8.7 HARDNESS
    • 8.8 TEAR STRENGTH
    • 8.9 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
    • 8.10 FRACTURE RESISTANCE
    • 8.11 WEAR
    • 8.12 FRICTION
    • 8.13 ABRASION
    • 8.14 SCRATCH RESISTANCE
    • 8.15 FATIGUE
    • 8.16 FAILURE
    • 8.17 ADHESION
    • 8.18 THERMAL DEFORMATION
    • 8.19 SHRINKAGE
    • 8.20 WARPAGE
    • 8.21 COMPRESSION SET
    • 8.22 LOAD TRANSFER
    • 8.23 RESIDUAL STRESS
    • 8.24 CREEP
  • Chapter 9: THE EFFECT OF FILLERS ON RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLED MATERIALS
    • 9.1 VISCOSITY
    • 9.2 FLOW
    • 9.3 FLOW INDUCED FILLER PARTICLE ORIENTATION
    • 9.4 TORQUE
    • 9.5 VISCOELASTICITY
    • 9.6 DYNAMIC MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR
    • 9.7 COMPLEX VISCOSITY
    • 9.8 SHEAR VISCOSITY
    • 9.9 ELONGATIONAL VISCOSITY
    • 9.10 MELT RHEOLOGY
    • 9.11 YIELD VALUE
  • Chapter 10: MORPHOLOGY OF FILLED SYSTEMS
    • 10.1 CRYSTALLINITY
    • 10.2 CRYSTALLIZATION BEHAVIOR
    • 10.3 NUCLEATION
    • 10.4 CRYSTAL SIZE
    • 10.5 SPHERULITES
    • 10.6 TRANSCRYSTALLINITY
    • 10.7 ORIENTATION
  • Chapter 11: EFFECT OF FILLERS ON EXPOSURE TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS
    • 11.1 IRRADIATION
    • 11.2 UV RADIATION
    • 11.3 TEMPERATURE
    • 11.4 LIQUIDS AND VAPORS
    • 11.5 STABILIZATION
    • 11.6 DEGRADABLE MATERIALS
  • Chapter 12: FLAMMABILITY OF FILLED MATERIALS
    • 12.1 DEFINITIONS
    • 12.2 LIMITING OXYGEN INDEX
    • 12.3 IGNITION AND FLAME SPREAD RATE
    • 12.4 HEAT TRANSMISSION RATE
    • 12.5 DECOMPOSITION AND COMBUSTION
    • 12.6 EMISSION OF GASEOUS COMPONENTS
    • 12.7 SMOKE
    • 12.8 CHAR
    • 12.9 RECYCLING
  • Chapter 13: INFLUENCE OF FILLERS ON PERFORMANCE OF OTHER ADDITIVES AND VICE VERSA
    • 13.1 ADHESION PROMOTERS
    • 13.2 ANTISTATICS
    • 13.3 BLOWING AGENTS
    • 13.4 CATALYSTS
    • 13.5 COMPATIBILIZERS
    • 13.6 COUPLING AGENTS
    • 13.7 DISPERSING AGENTS AND SURFACE ACTIVE AGENTS
    • 13.8 FLAME RETARDANTS
    • 13.9 IMPACT MODIFIERS
    • 13.10 UV STABILIZERS
    • 13.11 OTHER ADDITIVES
  • Chapter 14: TESTING METHODS IN FILLED SYSTEMS
    • 14.1 PHYSICAL METHODS
    • 14.2 CHEMICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS
  • Chapter 15: FILLERS IN COMMERCIAL POLYMERS
    • 15.1 ACRYLICS
    • 15.2 ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE COPOLYMER
    • 15.3 ACRYLONITRILE-STYRENE-ACRYLATE, ASA
    • 15.4 ALIPHATIC POLYKETONE
    • 15.5 ALKYD RESINS
    • 15.6 BISMALEIMIDE
    • 15.7 CELLULOSE ACETATE
    • 15.8 CHITOSAN
    • 15.9 ELASTOMERS, TPO
    • 15.10 EPOXY RESINS
    • 15.11 ETHYLENE VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER, EVA
    • 15.12 ETHYLENE-VINYL ALCOHOL COPOLYMER, EVOH
    • 15.13 ETHYLENE-ETHYL ACETATE COPOLYMER, EEA
    • 15.14 ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE COPOLYMERS, EPR & EPDM
    • 15.15 IONOMERS
    • 15.16 LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYMERS, LCP
    • 15.17 PERFLUOROALKOXY RESIN, PFA
    • 15.18 PHENOLIC RESINS
    • 15.19 POLY(ACRYLIC ACID), PAA
    • 15.20 POLYACYLONITRILE, PAN
    • 15.21 POLYAMIDES, PA
    • 15.22 POLYAMIDEIMIDE, PAI
    • 15.23 POLYAMINES
    • 15.24 POLYANILINE, PANI
    • 15.25 POLYARYLETHERKETONE, PAEK
    • 15.26 POLY(BUTYLENE SUCCINATE), PBS
    • 15.27 POLY(BUTYLENE TEREPHTHALATE), PBT
    • 15.28 POLYCAPROLACTONE, PCL
    • 15.29 POLYCARBONATE, PC
    • 15.30 POLYDICYCLOPENTADIENE
    • 15.31 POLYETHERETHERKETONE, PEEK
    • 15.32 POLYETHERIMIDE, PEI
    • 15.33 POLYETHERSULFONE, PES
    • 15.34 POLYETHYLENE, PE
    • 15.35 POLYETHYLENE, CHLORINATED, CPE
    • 15.36 POLYETHYLENE, CHLOROSULFONATED, CSM
    • 15.37 POLY(ETHYLENE OXIDE), PEO & PEG
    • 15.38 POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE), PET
    • 15.39 POLYIMIDE, PI
    • 15.40 POLY(LACTIC ACID)
    • 15.41 POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE, PMMA
    • 15.42 POLYOXYMETHYLENE, POM
    • 15.43 POLY(PHENYLENE ETHER), PPO
    • 15.44 POLY(PHENYLENE SULFIDE), PPS
    • 15.45 POLYPROPYLENE, PP
    • 15.46 POLYPYRROLE
    • 15.47 POLYSTYRENE & HIGH IMPACT, PS & HIPS
    • 15.48 POLYSULFIDE
    • 15.49 POLYSULFONE, PSO
    • 15.50 POLYTETRAFLUOROETHYLENE, PTFE
    • 15.51 POLYURETHANES, PU & TPU
    • 15.52 POLY(VINYL ACETATE), PVA
    • 15.53 POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL), PVA
    • 15.54 POLY(VINYL BUTYRAL), PVB
    • 15.55 POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE), PVC
    • 15.56 RUBBERS
    • 15.57 SILICONES, SI
    • 15.58 STYRENE-ACRYLONITRILE COPOLYMER, SAN
    • 15.59 TETRAFLUOROETHYLENE-PERFLUOROPROPYLENE
    • 15.60 UNSATURATED POLYESTERS
    • 15.61 VINYLIDENE-FLUORIDE TERPOLYMER, PVDF
  • Chapter 16: FILLERS IN MATERIALS COMBINATIONS
    • 16.1 BLENDS, ALLOYS AND INTERPENETRATING NETWORKS
    • 16.2 COMPOSITES
    • 16.3 NANOCOMPOSITES
    • 16.4 LAMINATES
  • Chapter 17: FORMULATION WITH FILLERS
  • Chapter 18: FILLERS IN DIFFERENT PROCESSING METHODS
    • 18.1 BLOW MOLDING
    • 18.2 CALENDERING AND HOT-MELT COATING
    • 18.3 COMPRESSION MOLDING
    • 18.4 DIP COATING
    • 18.5 DISPERSION
    • 18.6 EXTRUSION
    • 18.7 FOAMING
    • 18.8 INJECTION MOLDING
    • 18.9 KNIFE COATING
    • 18.10 MIXING
    • 18.11 PULTRUSION
    • 18.12 REACTION INJECTION MOLDING
    • 18.13 RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING
    • 18.14 ROTATIONAL MOLDING
    • 18.15 SHEET MOLDING
    • 18.16 SPINNING
    • 18.17 THERMOFORMING
    • 18.18 WELDING AND MACHINING
  • Chapter 19: FILLERS IN DIFFERENT PRODUCTS
    • 19.1 ADHESIVES
    • 19.2 AGRICULTURE
    • 19.3 AEROSPACE
    • 19.4 APPLIANCES
    • 19.5 AUTOMOTIVE MATERIALS
    • 19.6 BOTTLES AND CONTAINERS
    • 19.7 BUILDING COMPONENTS
    • 19.8 BUSINESS MACHINES
    • 19.9 CABLE AND WIRE
    • 19.10 COATED FABRICS
    • 19.11 COATINGS AND PAINTS
    • 19.12 COSMETICS AND PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS
    • 19.13 DENTAL RESTORATIVE COMPOSITES
    • 19.14 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
    • 19.15 ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE SHIELDING
    • 19.16 FIBERS
    • 19.17 FILM
    • 19.18 FOAM
    • 19.19 FOOD AND FEED
    • 19.20 FRICTION MATERIALS
    • 19.21 GEOSYNTHETICS
    • 19.22 HOSES AND PIPES
    • 19.23 MAGNETIC DEVICES
    • 19.24 MEDICAL APPLICATIONS
    • 19.25 MEMBRANES
    • 19.26 NOISE DAMPENING
    • 19.27 OPTICAL DEVICES
    • 19.28 PAPER
    • 19.29 RADIATION SHIELDS
    • 19.30 RAILWAY TRANSPORTATION
    • 19.31 ROOFING
    • 19.32 TELECOMMUNICATION
    • 19.33 TIRES
    • 19.34 SEALANTS
    • 19.35 SIDING
    • 19.36 SPORTS EQUIPMENT
    • 19.37 WATERPROOFING
    • 19.38 WINDOWS
  • Chapter 20: HAZARDS IN FILLER USE
  • INDEX

Details

No. of pages:
938
Language:
English
Copyright:
© ChemTec Publishing 2016
Published:
Imprint:
ChemTec Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9781927885109
Hardcover ISBN:
9781895198911

About the Author

George Wypych

George Wypych has a Ph.D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research and development. He has published 18 books, 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability and the development of sealants and coatings.

Affiliations and Expertise

ChemTec Publishing, Ontario, Canada