Handbook of Fertility - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128008720, 9780128009932

Handbook of Fertility

1st Edition

Nutrition, Diet, Lifestyle and Reproductive Health

Editors: Ronald Ross Watson
eBook ISBN: 9780128009932
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128008720
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st April 2015
Page Count: 452
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Handbook of Fertility: Nutrition, Diet, Lifestyle and Reproductive Health focuses on the ways in which food, dietary supplements, and toxic agents, including alcohol and nicotine affect the reproductive health of both women and men.

Researchers in nutrition, diet, epidemiology, and endocrinology will find this comprehensive resource invaluable in their long-term goal of understanding and improving reproductive health.

This book brings together a broad range of experts researching the different aspects of foods and dietary supplements that promote or detract from reproductive health.

Section One contains several overview chapters on fertility, how it is assessed, and how it can be affected by different metabolic states, nutritional habits, dietary supplements, the action of antioxidants, and lifestyle choices. Sections Two and Three consider how male and female fertility are affected by obesity, metabolic syndrome, hormonal imbalance, and even bariatric surgery.

Section Four explores the ways diet, nutrition, and lifestyle support or retard the success of in vitro fertilization, while Section Five explores how alcohol and other drugs of abuse lower fertility in both women and men.

Key Features

  • Explores how alcohol, nicotine, and other drugs of abuse disrupt and impair reproductive health
  • Reviews studies of common conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome and their effect on fertility and reproductive health
  • Investigates the components of foods and dietary supplements, in particular oxidative stress and antioxidants
  • Presents the nutritional effects of foods and dietary supplements and their benefits and risks relating to reproductive health


Researchers and graduate students in nutrition, diet, reproductive biology, and reproductive endocrinology

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Section A: Overview on fertility
    • Chapter 1: Perceptions of Environmental Risks to Fertility
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 2: Paternal Smoking as a Cause for Transgenerational Damage in the Offspring
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Tobacco smoke
      • Genetic, epigenetic, and other transmissible factors
      • Quality control of paternal germ cells, post-fertilization repair of sperm DNA damage
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 3: Impact of Cigarette Smoking During Pregnancy on Conception and Fetal Health through Serum Folate Levels
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • General knowledge on folate
      • Smoking and pregnancy
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 4: The Effect of Maternal Metabolic Health and Diet on the Follicular Fluid Composition and Potential Consequences for Oocyte and Embryo Quality
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Metabolic health related composition of ovarian follicular fluid and its relation to oocyte and embryo quality parameters
      • Fatty Acids in the Ovarian Follicular Fluid
      • The effect of elevated NEFA concentrations on oocyte and embryo quality
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 5: The Effect of Heavy Metals on Preterm Mortality and Morbidity
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Heavy metals and preterm mortality and morbidity
      • Lead
      • Mercury
      • Cadmium
      • Arsenic
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 6: Nitrate, Nitrite, Nitrosatable Drugs, and Congenital Malformations
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Maternal exposures to nitrate, nitrite, and n-nitroso compounds
      • Nitrosatable drugs and birth defects
      • Nitrate in drinking water and birth defects
      • Dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in foods and birth defects
      • Joint exposures of nitrosatable drugs and nitrate/nitrite and birth defects
      • Vitamin C, prenatal nitrosatable drug use, and birth defects in offspring
      • Conclusions, clinical implications, and suggestions for further research
    • Chapter 7: The Application of Reproductive Techniques (ART): Worldwide Epidemiology Phenomenon and Treatment Outcomes
      • Abstract
      • Background
      • Evaluation of ART procedures worldwide: the diverse ART data collection systems
      • Reasons for different ART utilization
      • ART application and availability
      • ART application/number of treatment cycles
      • ART principal outcomes
      • Discussion
    • Chapter 8: The Effects of Environmental Hormone Disrupters on Fertility, and a Strategy to Reverse their Impact
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Historic aspects
      • Methodological aspect
      • The estrogen receptor binding assay
      • Application of the ERBA test to environmental samples
      • Xenoestrogens in flemish surface waters
      • Strategy to reduce environmental contamination
      • Effect of reducing environmental contamination of sperm quality in flanders
      • Effect of antiestrogen treatment on semen quality and male fertility
      • Complementary treatment with a specific nutraceutical
      • Female infertility
      • Estrogen metabolism
      • Conclusions
      • Appendix
    • Chapter 9: Embryo Losses During Nutritional Treatments in Animal Models: Lessons for Humans Embryo Losses and Nutrition in Mammals
      • Abstract
      • Human infertility and nutrition
      • The sheep as a model
      • Embryo development and maternal recognition of pregnancy
      • Effect of undernutrition on embryo development
      • Lessons for humans
  • Section B: Bariatric surgery, obesity, and fertility
    • Chapter 10: Fertility and Testosterone Improvement in Male Patients After Bariatric Surgery
      • Abstract
      • Male obesity and sex hormones
      • Reproductive functions in obese men
      • Bariatric surgery and its effect on male fertility
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 11: Obesity and Reproductive Dysfunction in Men and Women
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Obesity impacts on female fertility
      • Obesity impacts on male fertility
      • Practical advice and implications
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 12: Obesity and Gestational Outcomes
      • Abstract
      • Introduction: obesity in women of childbearing age
      • Obesity and adverse maternal outcomes
      • Obesity and adverse neonatal outcomes
      • Mechanisms of adverse outcomes
      • Obesity management: prepregnancy
      • Management of obesity during pregnancy
      • Conclusions
  • Section C: Exercise and lifestyle in fertility
    • Chapter 13: Lifestyle Factors and Reproductive Health
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Effects of lifestyle factors on fertility
      • Other factors
      • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Chapter 14: Effect of Diet and Physical Activity of Farm Animals on their Health and Reproductive Performance
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Farm animal vigor and health status
      • Reproductive performance of livestock species
      • Influence of diet on the health and reproduction performance of livestock
      • The effect of physical activity on health and reproduction of livestock species
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 15: Prenatal Physical Activity and Gestational Weight Gain
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Gestational weight gain guidelines
      • Health care provider advice on GWG
      • Physical activity in pregnancy
      • GWG interventions
      • Achieving healthy GWG
    • Chapter 16: Lifestyle Intervention for Resumption of Ovulation in Anovulatory Women with Obesity and Infertility
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Defining obesity and its contribution to anovulation
      • The role of lifestyle intervention for resumption of ovulation
      • Implementation of lifestyle intervention
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 17: Effects of Lifestyle on Female Reproductive Features and Success: Lessons from Animal Models
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Animal models
      • Effects of diet and lifestyle on puberty
      • Effects of diet and lifestyle on fertility
      • Effects of diet and lifestyle on pregnancy and offspring development
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
  • Section D: Nutrition and reproduction
    • Chapter 18: Green Leafy Vegetables: A Health Promoting Source
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Therapeutic value and health benefits of green leafy vegetables
      • Effect of green leafy vegetables on mother and fetus health
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 19: Nutrition, Lifestyle, and Obesity in Urology
      • Abstract
      • Obesity and benign urological disease
      • Obesity and urological malignancy: possible mechanisms
      • Protecting nutritional factors
      • Physical exercise and weight loss
      • Key points
    • Chapter 20: Pregnancy with Multiple Micronutrients: Perinatal Mortality Reduction
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Methods
      • Results
      • Discussion
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 21: Nutrition and Hormones: Role in Male Infertility
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
    • Chapter 22: Nutrition and Developmental Programming of Central Nervous System (CNS)
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Developmental origins of adult disease
      • Role of maternal nutrition in early life programming
      • Nutritional deficiencies
      • The developing nervous system
      • Probable mechanism of action
      • Nutritional inadequacies and their neurological consequences
      • Nutritional deficiencies and psychiatric disorders
      • Early life malnutrition and aging brain
      • Nutritional intervention
    • Chapter 23: Herbal Supplements in Pregnancy: Effects on Conceptions and Delivery
      • Abstract
      • Traditional medicine: Introduction
      • Traditional Chinese medicine
      • Herbal remedies and fertility
      • Herbal remedies during pregnancy
    • Chapter 24: Selenium in Fertility and Reproduction
      • Abstract
      • Selenium background
      • Selenium and reproductive health
      • Selenium and pregnancy
      • Selenium and early childhood
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 25: The Role of Oxidative Stress in Endometriosis
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Background of disease
      • The origin of endometriosis
      • Relationship between oxidative stress and endometriosis
      • Oxidative stress markers in endometriosis
      • Nitric oxide and endometriosis
      • Role of iron
      • Role of cytokines
      • Treatment of endometriosis
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 26: Oxidative Stress in Preeclampsia
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Definition of preeclampsia
      • Pathophysiology of preeclampsia
      • Risk factors for preeclampsia
      • Effects on mother and baby
      • Treatment of preeclampsia
      • Preeclampsia-related oxidative stress
      • Complications in the fetus and newborn
      • Interventions to overcome oxidative stress in preeclampsia
      • Future directions
      • Conclusions
  • Section E: Nutrition and lifestyle in in vitro fertilization
    • Chapter 27: The Psychological Management of Infertility
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Stress and infertility
      • The cycle of infertility
      • The consequences of infertility
      • Infertility and one’s relationship
      • Psychoneuroimmunology
      • Real and self-induced stress
      • Time urgency perfectionism stress
      • Adoption and the impact on infertility
      • Identifying chronic stress
      • Managing one’s stress
      • Other stress management techniques in infertility
      • Spousal involvement
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 28: The Role of Body Mass Index on Assisted Reproductive Treatment Outcome
      • Abstract
      • Introduction: Obesity and fertility
      • Maternal obesity and fertility
      • Paternal obesity and fertility
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 29: Health Outcomes of Children Conceived Through Assisted Reproductive Technology
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Congenital malformations
      • Perinatal complications
      • Imprinting disorders
      • Cardiovascular and metabolic effects
      • Malignancy
      • Respiratory and allergy disorder: asthma, allergy, and atopy
      • Endocrine
      • Ophthalmological and auditory disorders
      • Growth and pubertal development
      • General health and well-being
      • Testicular function
      • Cerebral palsy
      • Neuromotor development
      • Cognitive function
      • School performance
      • Socio-emotional development and psychological disorders
      • Autism
      • Attention deficit disorder
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 30: Influence of Male Hyperinsulinemia on IVF Outcome
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Semen parameters and functional assays in hyperinsulinemic patients
      • Results
      • IVF outcome of hyperinsulinemic sperm donors
      • Influence of male hyperinsulinemia on IVF outcome
      • The effect of metformin therapy and dietary supplements on semen parameters in hyperinsulinemic males
  • Section F: Nutrition, lifestyle, and male fertility
    • Chapter 31: Dietary Zinc Deficiency and Testicular Apoptosis
      • Abstract
      • Zinc biology
      • Zinc absorption
      • Zinc deficiency
      • Zinc in male reproduction
      • Apoptosis and apoptotic genes
      • Zinc and apoptosis
      • Spermatogenesis and germ cell apoptosis
    • Chapter 32: Environmental Factors, Food Intake, and Social Habits in Male Patients and its Relationship to Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Outcomes
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Weight and exercise
      • Recreational substances and illicit drugs
      • Occupational and environmental factors
      • Caffeine
      • Food intake
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 33: The Role of Over-the-Counter Supplements in Male Infertility
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Oxidative stress and male infertility
      • Supplements
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 34: Sperm Physiology and Assessment of Spermatogenesis Kinetics In Vivo
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The testis: structure and function
      • The epididymis: structure and function
      • Sperm function
      • Assessment of spermatogenesis kinetics in vivo
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 35: Antioxidant Treatment and Prevention of Human Sperm DNA Fragmentation: Role in Health and Fertility
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Antioxidants and general health
      • Oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation prevention in infertile man
      • Antioxidant treatment
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 36: Epigenetics and its Role in Male Infertility
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Epigenetics of the male gamete
      • DNA methylation
      • Chromatin reorganization
      • Histone modifications
      • Sperm RNAs
      • Male infertility
      • Epigenetics and testicular cancer
      • Nutrition and epigenetics
      • The impact of environment on epigenetics
      • Epigenetics and ART
      • Current techniques for the assessment of spermatozoa epigenetics
      • The future of epigenetics
  • Index


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About the Editor

Ronald Ross Watson

Ronald Ross Watson

Ronald Ross Watson PhD is a professor of Health Promotion Sciences in the University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. He was one of the founding members of this school serving the mountain west of the USA. He is a professor of Family and Community Medicine in the School of Medicine at the University of Arizona. He began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and USA which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring at a Lt. Colonel. He published 450 papers, and presently directs or has directed several NIH funded biomedical grants relating to alcohol and disease particularly immune function and cardiovascular effects including studying complementary and alternative medicines. Professor Ronald Ross Watson was Director of a National Institutes of Health funded Alcohol Research Center for 5 years. The main goal of the Center was to understand the role of ethanol-induced immunosuppression on immune function and disease resistance in animals. He is an internationally recognized alcohol-researcher, nutritionist and immunologist. He also initiated and directed other NIH-associated work at The University of Arizona, College of Medicine. Dr. Watson has funding from companies and non-profit foundations to study bioactive foods’ components in health promotion. Professor Watson attended the University of Idaho, but graduated from Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, with a degree in Chemistry in 1966. He completed his Ph.D. degree in 1971 in Biochemistry from Michigan State University. His postdoctoral schooling was completed at the Harvard School of Public Health in Nutrition and Microbiology, including a two-year postdoctoral research experience in immunology. Professor Watson is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Overall his career has involved studying many foods for their uses in health promotion. He has edited 120 biomedical reference books, particularly in health and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research in foods, nutrition and bacterial disease also prepare him to edit this book. He has 4 edited works on nutrition in aging. He has extensive experience working with natural products, alcohol, exercise, functional foods and dietary extracts for health benefits and safety issues, including getting 12 patents. Dr. Watson has done laboratory studies in mice on immune functions that decline with aging and the role of supplements in delaying this process as modified by alcohol and drugs of abuse.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ, USA

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