Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Theory and Technology

1st Edition - May 4, 2013

Write a review

  • Editor: Michael Gasik
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080977669
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080977539

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (Mobi, EPub, PDF)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order


This handbook gathers, reviews and concisely presents the core principles and varied technology involved in processing ferroalloys. Background content in thermodynamics, kinetics, heat and mass transfer is accompanied by an overview of electrical furnaces theory and practice as well as sustainability issues. The work includes detailed coverage of the major technologies of ferrosilicon, ferronickel, ferromolybdenum, ferrotungsten, ferrovanadium, ferromanganese and lesser known minor ferroalloys. Distilling the results of many years' experience in ferroalloys, Michael Gasik has assembled contributions from the worlds' foremost experts. The work is therefore a unique source for scientists, engineers and university students, exploring in depth an area which is one of the most versatile and increasingly used fields within modern metallurgy.

Key Features

  • All-in-one source for the major ferroalloys and their metallurgical processing technologies, cutting research time otherwise spent digging through old handbooks or review articles.
  • In-depth discussion of the C, Si, Al-reduction, groups II-VIII of the periodic table, supporting analysis of metallurgical processing.
  • Contemporary coverage includes environment and energy saving issues.


Graduate metallurgists and related areas of study. Metallurgist, materials engineer, industrial chemist, process engineer, mechanical engineer, thermal engineer

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    Section I: General

    Chapter 1. Introduction

    1.1 Introduction to Ferroalloys

    1.2 The Scope and Structure of the Book



    Chapter 2. Basics of Ferroalloys

    2.1 Introduction: Background for Ferroalloys Development and Production

    2.2 Ferroalloys in the Development of Steels

    2.3 A Case: Ferroalloys for Stainless Steels

    2.4 Recent Ferroalloys Production and Markets Development

    2.5 Energy and Emissions Issues of the Ferroalloys Industry

    2.6 Future Outlook for the Ferroalloys Industry


    Chapter 3. Theory of Ferroalloys Processing

    3.1 General Theory of the Processes of Ferroalloys Production

    3.2 Ferroalloys Components and Their Properties


    Chapter 4. Ferroalloys Processing Equipment

    4.1 Introduction to Ferroalloys Processing Technology

    4.2 Equipment for Furnace Feed Processing

    4.3 Downstream Processing

    4.4 Other Furnaces for Ferroalloys Processing



    Chapter 5. Electric and Thermal Operations of Furnaces for Ferroalloys Production

    5.1 Introduction to Furnace Operations for Ferroalloys Processing

    5.2 Basics of Electric Circuit Theory

    5.3 Ferroalloy Smelting Furnaces as Electrical Circuits

    5.4 Modes of Heat Dissipation in Furnaces

    5.5 Electric Operations and Control of the Furnace

    5.6 Environmental Issues of Ferroalloys Furnace Operations


    Section II: Major (bulk) Ferroalloys

    Chapter 6. Ferrosilicon and Silicon Technology

    6.1 Introduction to Silicon and Its Ferroalloys

    6.2 Raw Materials, Silicon, and Ferrosilicon Compositions

    6.3 Silicon and Ferrosilicon Smelting Technology

    6.4 Casting and Refining Operations

    6.5 Energy Savings and Environmental Issues in Silicon and Ferrosilicon Production


    Chapter 7. Manganese Ferroalloys Technology

    7.1 Introduction to Manganese Ferroalloys

    7.2 Properties of Manganese and Its Compounds

    7.3 Manganese Ores Processing and Reduction

    7.4 Manganese Ferroalloys

    7.5 Smelting Technologies for Manganese Alloys

    7.6 Technology of Ferromanganese

    7.7 Refining Operations for Low-Carbon Manganese Ferroalloys

    7.8 Manganese Ferroalloys Postprocessing

    7.9 Nitrided Manganese Ferroalloys

    7.10 Energy Use in Manganese Ferroalloys Processing

    7.11 Potential Hazards of Operations



    Chapter 8. Technology of Chromium and Its Ferroalloys

    8.1 Properties of Chromium

    8.2 Chromium Raw Materials and Their Processing

    8.3 Chromium Ferroalloys Technology

    8.4 Production of Metallic Chromium and Its Alloys by Aluminum Reduction

    8.5 Environmental Issues of Chromium and Its Ferroalloys Processing


    Chapter 9. High Carbon Ferrochrome Technology

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Technology Routes for the Production of High Carbon Ferrochrome

    9.3 Post Tap Hole Practices and Product Types

    9.4 Environmental Control and Occupational Health


    Section III: Minor Ferroalloys

    Chapter 10. Technology of Ferronickel

    10.1 Properties of Nickel and Its Compounds

    10.2 Nickel Raw Materials

    10.3 Ferronickel Smelting and Refining


    Chapter 11. Technology of Tungsten Ferroalloys

    11.1 Properties of Tungsten and Its Compounds

    11.2 Minerals, Ores, and Concentrates of Tungsten

    11.3 Technology for Producing Ferrotungsten


    Chapter 12. Technology of Molybdenum Ferroalloys

    12.1 Properties of Molybdenum and Its Compounds

    12.2 Minerals, Ores, and Concentrates of Molybdenum

    12.3 Oxidative Roasting of Molybdenite Concentrates

    12.4 Technology for Producing Ferromolybdenum


    Chapter 13. Technology of Vanadium Ferroalloys

    13.1 Properties of Vanadium and Its Compounds

    13.2 Sources of Vanadium

    13.3 Treatment of Vanadium Raw Materials

    13.4 Technology of Ferrovanadium

    13.5 Technology of Other Ferrovanadium Alloys

    13.6 The Technology of Nitrided Ferrovanadium


    Chapter 14. Technology of Niobium Ferroalloys

    14.1 Properties of Niobium

    14.2 Sources of Niobium and Its Reduction

    14.3 Technology of Niobium Ferroalloys


    Chapter 15. Technology of Titanium Ferroalloys

    15.1 Properties of Titanium and Its Compounds

    15.2 Sources of Titanium and Methods of Its Reduction

    15.3 Technology of Titanium Ferroalloys


    Chapter 16. Technology of Zirconium Ferroalloys

    16.1 Properties of Zirconium and Its Main Compounds

    16.2 Sources of Zirconium and Its Reduction

    16.3 Technology of Zirconium Ferroalloys


    Chapter 17. Boron Ferroalloys

    17.1 Properties of Boron and Its Compounds

    17.2 Boron Sources and Its Reduction

    17.3 Technology of Boron Alloys


    Chapter 18. Technology of Ferroalloys with Rare-Earth Metals

    18.1 Properties of Rare-Earth Metals and Their Compounds

    18.2 Minerals, Ores, and Concentrates of Rare-Earth Metals

    18.3 Technology for Producing Ferroalloys with REM


    Chapter 19. Technology of Ferroalloys with Alkaline-Earth Metals

    19.1 Calcium and Its Alloys

    19.2 Magnesium

    19.3 Strontium

    19.4 Barium

    19.5 Metallurgical Lime


    Chapter 20. Complex Ferroalloys and Other Master Alloys

    20.1 Complex Ferroalloys

    20.2 Ferroalloys with Nonmetallic Elements

    20.3 Exothermic Ferroalloys


    General References


Product details

  • No. of pages: 536
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2013
  • Published: May 4, 2013
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080977669
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080977539

About the Editor

Michael Gasik

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Materials Science and Engineering, Aalto University, Aalto, Finland

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

Latest reviews

(Total rating for all reviews)

  • Deon J. Tue Mar 22 2022

    Excellent and comprehensive textbook covering

    Excellent and comprehensive textbook covering all areas of ferroally production.