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Handbook of Ferroalloys - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080977539, 9780080977669

Handbook of Ferroalloys

1st Edition

Theory and Technology

Editor: Michael Gasik
eBook ISBN: 9780080977669
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080977539
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 4th May 2013
Page Count: 536
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This handbook gathers, reviews and concisely presents the core principles and varied technology involved in processing ferroalloys. Background content in thermodynamics, kinetics, heat and mass transfer is accompanied by an overview of electrical furnaces theory and practice as well as sustainability issues. The work includes detailed coverage of the major technologies of ferrosilicon, ferronickel, ferromolybdenum, ferrotungsten, ferrovanadium, ferromanganese and lesser known minor ferroalloys.

Distilling the results of many years' experience in ferroalloys, Michael Gasik has assembled contributions from the worlds' foremost experts. The work is therefore a unique source for scientists, engineers and university students, exploring in depth an area which is one of the most versatile and increasingly used fields within modern metallurgy.

Key Features

  • All-in-one source for the major ferroalloys and their metallurgical processing technologies, cutting research time otherwise spent digging through old handbooks or review articles.
  • In-depth discussion of the C, Si, Al-reduction, groups II-VIII of the periodic table, supporting analysis of metallurgical processing.
  • Contemporary coverage includes environment and energy saving issues.


Graduate metallurgists and related areas of study. Metallurgist, materials engineer, industrial chemist, process engineer, mechanical engineer, thermal engineer

Table of Contents



Section I: General

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1 Introduction to Ferroalloys

1.2 The Scope and Structure of the Book



Chapter 2. Basics of Ferroalloys

2.1 Introduction: Background for Ferroalloys Development and Production

2.2 Ferroalloys in the Development of Steels

2.3 A Case: Ferroalloys for Stainless Steels

2.4 Recent Ferroalloys Production and Markets Development

2.5 Energy and Emissions Issues of the Ferroalloys Industry

2.6 Future Outlook for the Ferroalloys Industry


Chapter 3. Theory of Ferroalloys Processing

3.1 General Theory of the Processes of Ferroalloys Production

3.2 Ferroalloys Components and Their Properties


Chapter 4. Ferroalloys Processing Equipment

4.1 Introduction to Ferroalloys Processing Technology

4.2 Equipment for Furnace Feed Processing

4.3 Downstream Processing

4.4 Other Furnaces for Ferroalloys Processing



Chapter 5. Electric and Thermal Operations of Furnaces for Ferroalloys Production

5.1 Introduction to Furnace Operations for Ferroalloys Processing

5.2 Basics of Electric Circuit Theory

5.3 Ferroalloy Smelting Furnaces as Electrical Circuits

5.4 Modes of Heat Dissipation in Furnaces

5.5 Electric Operations and Control of the Furnace

5.6 Environmental Issues of Ferroalloys Furnace Operations


Section II: Major (bulk) Ferroalloys

Chapter 6. Ferrosilicon and Silicon Technology

6.1 Introduction to Silicon and Its Ferroalloys

6.2 Raw Materials, Silicon, and Ferrosilicon Compositions

6.3 Silicon and Ferrosilicon Smelting Technology

6.4 Casting and Refining Operations

6.5 Energy Savings and Environmental Issues in Silicon and Ferrosilicon Production


Chapter 7. Manganese Ferroalloys Technology

7.1 Introduction to Manganese Ferroalloys

7.2 Properties of Manganese and Its Compounds

7.3 Manganese Ores Processing and Reduction

7.4 Manganese Ferroalloys

7.5 Smelting Technologies for Manganese Alloys

7.6 Technology of Ferromanganese

7.7 Refining Operations for Low-Carbon Manganese Ferroalloys

7.8 Manganese Ferroalloys Postprocessing

7.9 Nitrided Manganese Ferroalloys

7.10 Energy Use in Manganese Ferroalloys Processing

7.11 Potential Hazards of Operations



Chapter 8. Technology of Chromium and Its Ferroalloys

8.1 Properties of Chromium

8.2 Chromium Raw Materials and Their Processing

8.3 Chromium Ferroalloys Technology

8.4 Production of Metallic Chromium and Its Alloys by Aluminum Reduction

8.5 Environmental Issues of Chromium and Its Ferroalloys Processing


Chapter 9. High Carbon Ferrochrome Technology

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Technology Routes for the Production of High Carbon Ferrochrome

9.3 Post Tap Hole Practices and Product Types

9.4 Environmental Control and Occupational Health


Section III: Minor Ferroalloys

Chapter 10. Technology of Ferronickel

10.1 Properties of Nickel and Its Compounds

10.2 Nickel Raw Materials

10.3 Ferronickel Smelting and Refining


Chapter 11. Technology of Tungsten Ferroalloys

11.1 Properties of Tungsten and Its Compounds

11.2 Minerals, Ores, and Concentrates of Tungsten

11.3 Technology for Producing Ferrotungsten


Chapter 12. Technology of Molybdenum Ferroalloys

12.1 Properties of Molybdenum and Its Compounds

12.2 Minerals, Ores, and Concentrates of Molybdenum

12.3 Oxidative Roasting of Molybdenite Concentrates

12.4 Technology for Producing Ferromolybdenum


Chapter 13. Technology of Vanadium Ferroalloys

13.1 Properties of Vanadium and Its Compounds

13.2 Sources of Vanadium

13.3 Treatment of Vanadium Raw Materials

13.4 Technology of Ferrovanadium

13.5 Technology of Other Ferrovanadium Alloys

13.6 The Technology of Nitrided Ferrovanadium


Chapter 14. Technology of Niobium Ferroalloys

14.1 Properties of Niobium

14.2 Sources of Niobium and Its Reduction

14.3 Technology of Niobium Ferroalloys


Chapter 15. Technology of Titanium Ferroalloys

15.1 Properties of Titanium and Its Compounds

15.2 Sources of Titanium and Methods of Its Reduction

15.3 Technology of Titanium Ferroalloys


Chapter 16. Technology of Zirconium Ferroalloys

16.1 Properties of Zirconium and Its Main Compounds

16.2 Sources of Zirconium and Its Reduction

16.3 Technology of Zirconium Ferroalloys


Chapter 17. Boron Ferroalloys

17.1 Properties of Boron and Its Compounds

17.2 Boron Sources and Its Reduction

17.3 Technology of Boron Alloys


Chapter 18. Technology of Ferroalloys with Rare-Earth Metals

18.1 Properties of Rare-Earth Metals and Their Compounds

18.2 Minerals, Ores, and Concentrates of Rare-Earth Metals

18.3 Technology for Producing Ferroalloys with REM


Chapter 19. Technology of Ferroalloys with Alkaline-Earth Metals

19.1 Calcium and Its Alloys

19.2 Magnesium

19.3 Strontium

19.4 Barium

19.5 Metallurgical Lime


Chapter 20. Complex Ferroalloys and Other Master Alloys

20.1 Complex Ferroalloys

20.2 Ferroalloys with Nonmetallic Elements

20.3 Exothermic Ferroalloys


General References



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© Butterworth-Heinemann 2013
4th May 2013
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:

About the Editor

Michael Gasik

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Materials Science and Engineering, Aalto University, Aalto, Finland

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