This excellent volume combines a great deal of data only previously available from many different sources into a single, informative volume. It presents evaporation technology as it exists today. Although evaporation is one of the oldest unit operations, it is also an area with dramatic changes in the last quarter century. Although other methods of separation are available, evaporation remains the best process for many applications. All factors must be evaluated in order to select the best evaporator type. This book will be extremely useful in evaluating and deciding which evaporation technology will meet a particular set of requirements.


Chemical and biochemical engineers throughout industry.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction 2. Evaporation 3. What an Evaporator Does 4. Evaporator Elements 5. Liquid Characteristics Concentration Foaming Temperature Sensitivity Salting Scaling Fouling Corrosion Product Quality Other Fluid Properties 6. Improvements in Evaporators 7. Heat Transfer in Evaporators Modes of Heat Transfer Types of Heat Transfer Operations Physical Properties 8. Pressure Drop in Evaporators Flow Inside Tubes Flow Across the Tube Banks 9. Flow-Induced Vibration Mechanisms Vortex Shedding Turbulent Buffeting Fluid-Elastic Whirling Parallel Flow Eddy Formation Acoustic Vibration Recommendations Design Criteria Fixing Vibration Problems in the Field Proprietary Designs to Reduce Vibration 10. Natural Circulation Calandrias Operation Surging Flow Instabilities Internal Calandrias Feed Location Summary 11. Evaporator Types and Applications Jacketed Vessels Coils Horizontal Tube Evaporators Short Tube Vertical Evaporators Long Tube Vertical Evaporators Forced Circulation Evaporator Plate Evaporators Mechanically-Aided Evaporators Submerged Combustion Evaporators Flash Evaporators Special Evaporator Types 12. Fouling Cost of Fouling Classification of Fouling Net Rate of Fouling


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© 1987
William Andrew
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About the author

Paul E. Minton

Affiliations and Expertise

Union Carbide, WV, USA