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This excellent volume combines a great deal of data only previously available from many different sources into a single, informative volume. It presents evaporation technology as it exists today. Although evaporation is one of the oldest unit operations, it is also an area with dramatic changes in the last quarter century. Although other methods of separation are available, evaporation remains the best process for many applications. All factors must be evaluated in order to select the best evaporator type. This book will be extremely useful in evaluating and deciding which evaporation technology will meet a particular set of requirements.
Chemical and biochemical engineers throughout industry.
- What an Evaporator Does
- Evaporator Elements
- Liquid Characteristics Concentration Foaming Temperature Sensitivity Salting Scaling Fouling Corrosion Product Quality Other Fluid Properties
- Improvements in Evaporators
- Heat Transfer in Evaporators Modes of Heat Transfer Types of Heat Transfer Operations Physical Properties
- Pressure Drop in Evaporators Flow Inside Tubes Flow Across the Tube Banks
- Flow-Induced Vibration Mechanisms Vortex Shedding Turbulent Buffeting Fluid-Elastic Whirling Parallel Flow Eddy Formation Acoustic Vibration Recommendations Design Criteria Fixing Vibration Problems in the Field Proprietary Designs to Reduce Vibration
- Natural Circulation Calandrias Operation Surging Flow Instabilities Internal Calandrias Feed Location Summary
- Evaporator Types and Applications Jacketed Vessels Coils Horizontal Tube Evaporators Short Tube Vertical Evaporators Long Tube Vertical Evaporators Forced Circulation Evaporator Plate Evaporators Mechanically-Aided Evaporators Submerged Combustion Evaporators Flash Evaporators Special Evaporator Types
- Fouling Cost of Fouling Classification of Fouling Net Rate of Fouling Sequential Events in Fouling Precipitation Fouling Particulate Fouling Chemical Reaction Fouling Corrosion Fouling Biofouling Solidification Fouling Fouling in Evaporation Design Considerations Fouling: Philosophy of Design
- Evaporator Performance Venting Time/Temperature Relation Pressure Versus Vacuum Operation Energy Economy Steam Condensate Recovery
- Vapor-Liquid Separation Entrainment Flash Tanks Wire Mesh Separators Vane Impingement Separators Centrifugal Separators Cyclones Other Separators Comparison Solids Deposition Falling Film Evaporators Flashing Splashing Foaming
- Multiple-Effect Evaporators Forward Feed Backward Feed Mixed Feed Parallel Feed Staging Heat Recovery Systems Calculations Optimization
- Heat Pumps Conventional Heat Pump Overhead Vapor Compression Calandria Liquid Flashing
- Compression Evaporation
- Thermal Compression Thermocompressor Operation Thermocompressor Characteristics Thermocompressor Types Estimating Data Control Application
- Mechanical Vapor Compression Thermodynamics Factors Affecting Costs Compressor Selection Factors Influencing Design Drive Systems Centrifugal Compressor Characteristics System Characteristics Reliability Evaporator Design Application Summary Economics
- Desalination Startup and Operability Complexity Maintenance Energy Efficiency Capital Cost Operating Temperature Materials of Construction Pretreatment Chemicals and Auxiliary Energy
- Evaporator Accessories
- Condensers Direct Contact Condensers Surface Condensers
- Vacuum Producing Equipment Jet Ejectors Mechanical Pumps Vacuum System Reliability/Maintenance Multistage Combinations Sizing Information Estimating Energy Requirements Initial System Evacuation Control of Vacuum Systems Costs of Vacuum Systems Comparisons Energy Conservation
- Condensate Removal Liquid Level Control Steam Traps Mechanical Traps Thermostatic Traps Thermodynamic Traps Steam Trap Specification Common Trap Problems Selection of Steam Traps Installation Effect of Carbon Dioxide Steam Trap Maintenance
- Process Pumps General Types of Pump Designs Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) Cavitation Principles of Pumps and Pumping Systems Avoiding Common Errors
- Process Piping Designing Drain Piping Compressible Fluids Two-Phase Flow Slurry Flow Piping Layout
- Thermal Insulation
- Pipeline and Equipment Heat Tracing
- Process Vessels
- Refrigeration Mechanical Refrigeration Steam Jet Refrigeration Absorption Refrigeration
- Control Manual Control Evaporator Control Systems Control of Evaporators Auto-Select Control System Product Concentration Condenser Control Calandria Control Evaporator Base Sections and Accumulators Guidelines for Instruments Process Computers
- Thermal Design Considerations Tube Size and Arrangement Extended Surfaces Shellside Impingement Protection Flow Distribution
- Installation Venting Siphons in Cooling Water Piping U-Bend Exchangers Equipment Layout Piping
- Design Practices for Maintenance Standard Practices Repair Features Chemical Cleaning Equipment Mechanical Cleaning Equipment Backwashing Air Injection
- Mechanical Design Maximum Allowable Working Pressure and Temperature Upset Conditions Thermal Expansion Tube-to-Tubesheet Joints Double Tubesheets Inspection Techniques
- Safety Common Errors Safety Relief
- Materials of Construction Basic Questions Selection
- Testing Evaporators Planning the Test Causes of Poor Performance
- Troubleshooting Calandrias Condensers Vacuum Fails to Build No Vacuum in Steam Chest Vacuum Builds Slowly Foaming Inadequate Circulation Sudden Loss of Vacuum Vacuum Fluctuates Water Surge in Tail Pipe Barometric Condenser Flooding
- Upgrading Existing Evaporators Areas for Upgrading Existing Evaporators Economic Effects of Improvements Guidelines for Upgrading Program
- Energy Conservation
- Specifying Evaporators Comparing Vendors' Offerings
- New Technology
- Nomenclature Greek Subscripts Bibliography Index
- No. of pages:
- © William Andrew 1987
- 31st December 1987
- William Andrew
- Hardcover ISBN:
- eBook ISBN:
Union Carbide, WV, USA
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