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Handbook of Evaporation Technology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780815510970

Handbook of Evaporation Technology

1st Edition

Author: Paul E. Minton
Hardcover ISBN: 9780815510970
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 31st December 1987
Page Count: 410
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Description

This excellent volume combines a great deal of data only previously available from many different sources into a single, informative volume. It presents evaporation technology as it exists today. Although evaporation is one of the oldest unit operations, it is also an area with dramatic changes in the last quarter century. Although other methods of separation are available, evaporation remains the best process for many applications. All factors must be evaluated in order to select the best evaporator type. This book will be extremely useful in evaluating and deciding which evaporation technology will meet a particular set of requirements.

Readership

Chemical and biochemical engineers throughout industry.

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
    2. Evaporation
    3. What an Evaporator Does
    4. Evaporator Elements
    5. Liquid Characteristics
    Concentration
    Foaming
    Temperature Sensitivity
    Salting
    Scaling
    Fouling
    Corrosion
    Product Quality
    Other Fluid Properties
    6. Improvements in Evaporators
    7. Heat Transfer in Evaporators
    Modes of Heat Transfer
    Types of Heat Transfer Operations
    Physical Properties
    8. Pressure Drop in Evaporators
    Flow Inside Tubes
    Flow Across the Tube Banks
    9. Flow-Induced Vibration
    Mechanisms
    Vortex Shedding
    Turbulent Buffeting
    Fluid-Elastic Whirling
    Parallel Flow Eddy Formation
    Acoustic Vibration
    Recommendations
    Design Criteria
    Fixing Vibration Problems in the Field
    Proprietary Designs to Reduce Vibration
    10. Natural Circulation Calandrias
    Operation
    Surging
    Flow Instabilities
    Internal Calandrias
    Feed Location
    Summary
    11. Evaporator Types and Applications
    Jacketed Vessels
    Coils
    Horizontal Tube Evaporators
    Short Tube Vertical Evaporators
    Long Tube Vertical Evaporators
    Forced Circulation Evaporator
    Plate Evaporators
    Mechanically-Aided Evaporators
    Submerged Combustion Evaporators
    Flash Evaporators
    Special Evaporator Types
    12. Fouling
    Cost of Fouling
    Classification of Fouling
    Net Rate of Fouling
    Sequential Events in Fouling
    Precipitation Fouling
    Particulate Fouling
    Chemical Reaction Fouling
    Corrosion Fouling
    Biofouling
    Solidification Fouling
    Fouling in Evaporation
    Design Considerations
    Fouling: Philosophy of Design
    13. Evaporator Performance
    Venting
    Time/Temperature Relation
    Pressure Versus Vacuum Operation
    Energy Economy
    Steam Condensate Recovery
    14. Vapor-Liquid Separation
    Entrainment
    Flash Tanks
    Wire Mesh Separators
    Vane Impingement Separators
    Centrifugal Separators
    Cyclones
    Other Separators
    Comparison
    Solids Deposition
    Falling Film Evaporators
    Flashing
    Splashing
    Foaming
    15. Multiple-Effect Evaporators
    Forward Feed
    Backward Feed
    Mixed Feed
    Parallel Feed
    Staging
    Heat Recovery Systems
    Calculations
    Optimization
    16. Heat Pumps
    Conventional Heat Pump
    Overhead Vapor Compression
    Calandria Liquid Flashing
    17. Compression Evaporation
    18. Thermal Compression
    Thermocompressor Operation
    Thermocompressor Characteristics
    Thermocompressor Types
    Estimating Data
    Control
    Application
    19. Mechanical Vapor Compression
    Thermodynamics
    Factors Affecting Costs
    Compressor Selection
    Factors Influencing Design
    Drive Systems
    Centrifugal Compressor Characteristics
    System Characteristics
    Reliability
    Evaporator Design
    Application
    Summary
    Economics
    20. Desalination
    Startup and Operability
    Complexity
    Maintenance
    Energy Efficiency
    Capital Cost
    Operating Temperature
    Materials of Construction
    Pretreatment
    Chemicals and Auxiliary Energy
    21. Evaporator Accessories
    22. Condensers
    Direct Contact Condensers
    Surface Condensers
    23. Vacuum Producing Equipment
    Jet Ejectors
    Mechanical Pumps
    Vacuum System Reliability/Maintenance
    Multistage Combinations
    Sizing Information
    Estimating Energy Requirements
    Initial System Evacuation
    Control of Vacuum Systems
    Costs of Vacuum Systems
    Comparisons
    Energy Conservation
    24. Condensate Removal
    Liquid Level Control
    Steam Traps
    Mechanical Traps
    Thermostatic Traps
    Thermodynamic Traps
    Steam Trap Specification
    Common Trap Problems
    Selection of Steam Traps
    Installation
    Effect of Carbon Dioxide
    Steam Trap Maintenance
    25. Process Pumps
    General Types of Pump Designs
    Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)
    Cavitation
    Principles of Pumps and Pumping Systems
    Avoiding Common Errors
    26. Process Piping
    Designing Drain Piping
    Compressible Fluids
    Two-Phase Flow
    Slurry Flow
    Piping Layout
    27. Thermal Insulation
    28. Pipeline and Equipment Heat Tracing
    29. Process Vessels
    30. Refrigeration
    Mechanical Refrigeration
    Steam Jet Refrigeration
    Absorption Refrigeration
    31. Control
    Manual Control
    Evaporator Control Systems
    Control of Evaporators
    Auto-Select Control System
    Product Concentration
    Condenser Control
    Calandria Control
    Evaporator Base Sections and Accumulators
    Guidelines for Instruments
    Process Computers
    32. Thermal Design Considerations
    Tube Size and Arrangement
    Extended Surfaces
    Shellside Impingement Protection
    Flow Distribution
    33. Installation
    Venting
    Siphons in Cooling Water Piping
    U-Bend Exchangers
    Equipment Layout
    Piping
    34. Design Practices for Maintenance
    Standard Practices
    Repair Features
    Chemical Cleaning Equipment
    Mechanical Cleaning Equipment
    Backwashing
    Air Injection
    35. Mechanical Design
    Maximum Allowable Working Pressure and Temperature
    Upset Conditions
    Thermal Expansion
    Tube-to-Tubesheet Joints
    Double Tubesheets
    Inspection Techniques
    36. Safety
    Common Errors
    Safety Relief
    37. Materials of Construction
    Basic Questions
    Selection
    38. Testing Evaporators
    Planning the Test
    Causes of Poor Performance
    39. Troubleshooting
    Calandrias
    Condensers
    Vacuum Fails to Build
    No Vacuum in Steam Chest
    Vacuum Builds Slowly
    Foaming
    Inadequate Circulation
    Sudden Loss of Vacuum
    Vacuum Fluctuates
    Water Surge in Tail Pipe
    Barometric Condenser Flooding
    40. Upgrading Existing Evaporators
    Areas for Upgrading Existing Evaporators
    Economic Effects of Improvements
    Guidelines for Upgrading Program
    41. Energy Conservation
    42. Specifying Evaporators
    Comparing Vendors' Offerings
    43. New Technology
    44. Nomenclature
    Greek
    Subscripts
    Bibliography
    Index

Details

No. of pages:
410
Language:
English
Copyright:
© William Andrew 1987
Published:
31st December 1987
Imprint:
William Andrew
Hardcover ISBN:
9780815510970

About the Author

Paul E. Minton

Affiliations and Expertise

Union Carbide, WV, USA

Ratings and Reviews