Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128007563, 9780128008270

Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies

1st Edition

Biology, Pharmacology, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Editors: Victor Preedy
eBook ISBN: 9780128008270
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128007563
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 23rd January 2017
Page Count: 1170
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Description

Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies: Biology, Pharmacology, Diagnosis, and Treatment is the first book to take an interdisciplinary approach to the understanding of cannabis use and misuse. Recent worldwide trends toward decriminalizing marijuana for medical use have increased legal use of the drug and recreational use remains high, making cannabis one of the most commonly used drugs.

Cannabis has a wide range of adverse neurological effects, and use and abuse can lead to physical, social, and psychopathological issues that are multifarious and complex. Effective understanding and treatment requires knowledge of the drug’s effects from across scientific disciplines.

This book provides an overview of the biological and pharmacological components of the cannabis plant, outlines its neurological, social, and psychopathological effects, assists in the diagnosis and screening for use and dependency, and aids researchers in developing effective treatments for cannabis-related issues and disorders.

Fully illustrated, with contributions from internationally recognized experts, it is the go-to resource for neuroscientists, pharmacologists, pathologists, public-health workers, and any other researcher who needs an in-depth and cross-disciplinary understanding of cannabis and its effects.

Key Features

  • Comprehensive chapters include an abstract, key facts, mini dictionary of terms, and summary points
  • Presents illustrations with at least six figures, tables, and diagrams per chapter
  • Provides a one-stop-shopping synopsis of everything to do with cannabis and its related pathology, from chemicals and cells, individuals and communities, and diagnosis and treatment
  • Offers an integrated and informed synopsis of the complex issues surrounding cannabis as a substance, its use, and its misuse

Readership

Researchers and advanced students in neuroscience, pharmacology, psychopathology, and addiction, as well as drug-abuse workers, public-health workers, and physicians treating addiction

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Part I: Setting the Scene, Botanical, General and International Aspects
    • Chapter 1: The Cannabis Plant: Botanical Aspects
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Botany of Cannabis
      • Mini-Dictionary
    • Chapter 2: The Biosynthesis of Cannabinoids
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Cannabinoid precursor biosynthesis
      • Cannabinoid pathway
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 3: Increasing Plant Concentrations of THC and Implications on Health Related Disorders
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Cannabis plants: has the potency changed?
      • Does higher cannabis potency lead to increased exposure to THC?
      • Does higher exposure to THC increase the risk of adverse health effects?
      • Different explanations for increased risk of adverse health effects
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 4: Age as a Predictor of Cannabis Use
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 5: Lifetime Cannabis Use and Cognition in Psychosis Spectrum Disorders
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Cognitive effects of long-term use of cannabis in psychotic patients
      • Superior cognitive functioning of psychotic patients who use cannabis: explicative hypothesis
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 6: A Profile of Synthetic Cannabinoid Users
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 7: Dual Disorders in Cannabis Misuse
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • The cannabinoid system in psychiatric disorders
      • Cannabis dependence and mental disorders
      • Madrid study on the prevalence of dual pathology in cannabis addicts in treatment
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 8: Cannabis Use and Cognitive Function
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Effects of cannabis on cognition
      • Effects of cannabis on executive functioning
      • Cannabis use in adolescents
      • Additional effect of polysubstance use and psychiatric comorbidity
      • Gender differences for the effect of cannabis use on cognitive functions
      • Treatment
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 9: Cannabis, Migration, and Psychosis Onset
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Cannabis and psychosis
      • Migration and psychosis
      • Migration, cannabis use, and psychosis onset
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 10: The Global Epidemiology and Disease Burden of Cannabis Use and Dependence
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Details of the burden of disease study methods
      • Comparative risk assessment (CRA): cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia
      • Prevalence of cannabis dependence
      • Burden of cannabis dependence
      • Additional burden attributable to cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia
      • What are the implications of these findings?
      • Limitations
      • Conclusion
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 11: International Aspects of Cannabis Use and Misuse: the Australian Perspective
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • A brief history of cannabis law in Australia
      • Effects of cannabis use on Australian communities
      • Strategies for reducing misuse
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 12: International Aspects of Cannabis Use and Misuse: Egypt
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction and historical perspectives
      • Current status of cannabis use in Egypt
      • Source of cannabis
      • Prevalence of factors associated with, and affecting, cannabis abuse
      • Cannabis abuse in selected population groups
      • Gender and demographic differences in cannabis abuse
      • Initiation of drug/cannabis abuse
      • Cigarette smoking and cannabis
      • Social and economic factors
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 13: Cannabis Body Packing: A Caribbean Perspective
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviation
      • Introduction
      • Body packing as a means of smuggling
      • Demographics of the drug trade
      • Demographics of the body packer
      • Legal considerations
      • Clinical considerations: symptomatic patients
      • Ethical considerations
      • Security considerations
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter e1: Tetrahydrocannabinol Concentration and Genetic Characterization of Cannabis
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Cannabinoids biosynthesis
      • Cannabis genome
      • Genetic markers for forensic identification
      • Applications of genotyping
      • Mini-dictionary
  • Part II: Personal, Social and Community Aspects of Cannabis use
    • Chapter 14: Gender Differences in Cannabis Use Disorders
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Prevalence of cannabis use and CUD
      • Clinical features of CUD
      • Treatment services
      • Treatment effectiveness
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 15: The Role of Age in the Onset and Further Development of Cannabis Use Disorders
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • High-risk age periods for CU and CUD incidence
      • Young age at CU onset and its association with CUD risk
      • Escalation of CU
      • How specific is earlier CU as a risk factor for CUD?
      • The role of early CU in CUD risk in the context of etiological models for substance use disorders
      • An integrative model of the role of younger age at CU onset in CUD risk
      • Age at first CU and CUD onset and the course of CUD
      • Summary and outlook
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 16: Effects of Cannabis Use on Neurocognition in Adolescents and Emerging Adults
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Rising rates of use
      • The developing brain
      • Neurocognitive implications of cannabis use
      • Structural implications of cannabis use
      • Functional implications of cannabis use
      • Clinical implications and future directions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 17: Correlates and Consequences of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure (PCE): Identifying and Characterizing Vulnerable Maternal Populations and Determining Outcomes for Exposed Offspring
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Prevalence of PCE and behavioral patterns of cannabis use across pregnancy
      • PCE detection methods and accuracy of prevalence estimates
      • Characteristics of women who use cannabis during pregnancy
      • The effects of PCE on offspring
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 18: Cannabis and Clubbing: Relevance of Cannabis and Polydrug Use in the Clubbing Culture Today
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Drug use in the general population
      • Rates of multiple substance use, including cannabis
      • Problems associated with polydrug use
      • The reasons for cannabis use in the clubbing community
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 19: Cannabis and Sexual Behavior
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Drugs and sexual behavior
      • Cannabis and sexual behavior
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 20: Friendships and Cannabis Use
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • The nature of peer influence
      • How do friends influence marijuana use?
      • American court responses to shared use
      • Future directions of research and conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 21: Students’ Knowledge of Cannabis
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Cannabis-related knowledge, attitude, and risk perception in the context of recreational use
      • Cannabis-related knowledge in the context of substance use prevention programs
      • Cannabis-related knowledge and attitudes in the context of medical use of cannabis
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 22: Childhood Trauma and Cannabis: Risk Factors in Severe Mental Disorders?
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Childhood trauma and mental disorders
      • Cannabis and mental disorders
      • Are people who experience childhood trauma more prone to illicit drug use, including cannabis, later in life?
      • What is the link between a history of childhood trauma, cannabis use, and severe mental disorders?
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 23: Parent’s Influence on Children’s Cannabis Use
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Parental influence on adolescent cannabis use
      • Recency of parents’ cannabis use and children’s initiation
      • Parental warmth and monitoring (knowledge of child’s actions and whereabouts)
      • Parental warmth and parenting style: some conceptual overlap
      • Parental communication and children’s substance use
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 24: Cannabis Users and Premorbid Intellectual Quotient
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Cannabis and cognition: approaching the “pre” problem
      • Longitudinal studies on premorbid IQ: which “pre” predicts what “post”
      • Cannabis and premorbid IQ: what’s the real risk?
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 25: Cannabis and Traffic Accidents
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiology of driving under the influence of cannabis
      • Cannabis detection and traffic
      • Legislation
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter e2: Cannabis Use in Youth Subcultures
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Hip-hop
      • Jam band
      • Rave culture and electronic dance music
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
  • Part III: Cannabis, Behavior, Psychopathology and Neuropathology
    • Chapter 26: Drug-Related Pictures, Attentional Bias, and Cannabis Use
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Methods used in addiction research
      • Cannabis picture presentations: behavioral, ERP, and fMRI findings
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 27: Cannabis Use and First-Episode Psychosis Patients (FEP)
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Cannabis use as a risk factor for psychosis
      • Influence of cannabis use on clinical and functional outcomes, and the role of depressive symptoms in FEP
      • Impact of cannabis use on cognitive functioning in FEP
      • Treatment for FEP cannabis users
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 28: Cannabis, Associative Memory, fMRI, and the Implicit Association Test
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Overview of associative memory
      • Neuroscience of dual systems and associative memory processes in habit formation
      • Linking associative effects to cannabis-related neural substrates
      • Associative memory assessments, the implicit association test, and cannabis use
      • Imaging the implicit association test
      • Imaging the marijuana-IAT
      • Concluding remarks
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 29: Stress Response in Cannabis Users and Psychosis
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Stress and mental disorders
      • Stress study, induction, and evaluation
      • Dopamine response to psychosocial stress in chronic cannabis users
      • Stress-induced dopamine release in psychosis
      • Endocannabinoid system: a possible link between stress, continuous cannabis use, and psychosis
      • Cannabis use, endocannabinoid system, and psychosis
      • Endocannabinoid system, stress regulation, and psychosis risk
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 30: Motivation in Chronic Cannabis Use
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Motivation: achievement and self-report
      • Motivation: laboratory measures
      • Concluding remarks
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 31: Cannabis Use and Its Association to Mental Illness: A Focus on Mood and Anxiety Disorders
      • Abstract
      • List of Abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Cooccurrence of cannabis use and mental illness
      • Cannabis and mood disorders
      • Cannabis and anxiety disorders
      • Summary
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 32: Cannabis Use and Well-Being
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Cannabis and positive well-being
      • Motivations for cannabis use
      • Cannabis and ill-being
      • Cannabis and depression
      • Cannabis and anxiety
      • Confounding factors
      • Dose–response theory
      • Self-medication theory
      • Cannabis use for therapeutic purposes
      • Limitations and future directions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 33: Craving and Cannabis: A Potential Paradox
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Function of craving in drug abuse
      • Theoretical etiology
      • Craving and cue-reactivity
      • Cue-reactivity paradigm
      • Theoretical issues with cannabis craving
      • Cue-reactivity studies with cannabis
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 34: Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Catalepsy-Like Immobilization
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Involvement of the CB1 receptor in THC-induced catalepsy-like immobilization
      • Involvement of the nucleus accumbens in THC-induced catalepsy-like immobilization
      • Involvement of the serotonergic neuronal system in THC-induced catalepsy-like immobilization
      • Involvement of the glutamatergic neuronal system in THC-induced catalepsy-like immobilization
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 35: The Interactive Nature of Cannabis and Schizophrenia Risk Genes
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Schizophrenia
      • Gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia
      • Cannabis and schizophrenia
      • Studies examining genetic vulnerability to cannabis-induced psychosis
      • Major candidates for gene–cannabis interactions in schizophrenia
      • Do genes also modulate the effects of other phytocannabinoids like CBD?
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 36: Neuroimaging Findings in Adolescent Cannabis Use and Early Phase Psychosis
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • What does diffusion tensor imaging tell us?
      • What does magnetic resonance spectroscopy tell us?
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 37: Cannabis Smoking in Adult Schizophrenia: A Cognitive and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Perspective
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Cognition in schizophrenia
      • Cannabis and psychosis outcomes
      • The cognitive effects of cannabis in nonpsychosis individuals
      • Cognitive performance in cannabis-using patients with schizophrenia
      • Schizophrenia, cannabis, and cognition: the functional imaging studies
      • Explanatory models
      • Study limitations
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 38: The Long-Lasting Effects of Cannabis Use on Movement and Brain Regions that Control Movement
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Acute effects of cannabis on movement
      • Changes in movement following long-term cannabis use
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 39: Assessment of Cannabis Acute Effects on Driving Skills: Laboratory, Simulator, and On-Road Studies
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Driving ability after acute cannabis exposure
      • Detection of drivers under the influence of cannabis (DUIC)
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 40: Chronic Cannabis Use and Axonal Fiber Connectivity
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Mounting evidence for dysconnectivity in cannabis users
      • An investigation of axonal fiber connectivity in long-term heavy cannabis users
      • Further evidence
      • Mechanisms of axonal disturbance
      • Future directions
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 41: Microglial Activation and Cannabis Exposure
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Overview of microglia
      • Microglial activation process
      • Endogenous cannabinoid system in microglia
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 42: Cannabis and Psychosis: Correlation, Causality, and Consequences
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Correlation
      • Causality
      • Consequences
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 43: Cannabis Use in Bipolar Disorder
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Why do bipolar disorder and cannabis use disorders often cooccur?
      • The consequences of cannabis use in bipolar disorder
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 44: Cannabis Use in Epilepsy—Risks and Benefits
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Some facts on seizures and epilepsy
      • Does cannabis use affect seizures and epilepsy?
      • Is cannabis safe and well tolerated in epilepsy patients?
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 45: Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Visceral Pain
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Visceral pain
      • Cannabinoids and visceral pain
      • Concluding remarks
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 46: Cannabis and Postoperative Analgesia
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Mechanism of chronic pain
      • Mechanism of acute postoperative pain
      • The endocannabinoid system
      • Clinical trials using cannabinoids to treat acute postoperative pain
      • Synergism between cannabinoids and opioids
      • Analgesic requirements in the chronic cannabis user, postoperatively
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter e3: Aggressive Behavior and Cannabis Use
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Theories and empirical support
      • Conclusions
      • Disclaimer
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter e4: COMT Genotypes, Cannabis Use, and Psychosis: Gene-Environment Interaction Evidence from Human Populations, and Its Methodological Concerns
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • The role of cannabis use as a risk factor for psychosis
      • The COMT gene molecular variability and the risk for psychosis
      • Evidences of COMT gene and cannabis use interactions, and the effect on the risk for psychosis
      • Considerations for the interpretation of the studies on COMT and cannabis use interaction
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter e5: Neuroimaging and Genetics of the Acute and Chronic Effects of Cannabis
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Acute effects of cannabinoids on brain function
      • Chronic effects of cannabis use on brain structure and function
      • Methodological limitations of neuroimaging studies
      • Some pointers for future studies
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter e6: Gray Matter, Lateral Ventricle Volumes, and Executive Functioning in Cannabis Users with First-Episode Psychosis
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Cannabis effects on the brain and impact on cognition
      • Cannabis, psychosis, and the brain: complex mechanisms and premorbid functioning
      • Ventricular alterations in cannabis users with first-episode psychosis
      • Brain changes and cognitive functioning in psychotic cannabis users over time
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter e7: Cannabis Use and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Potential Moderators
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and cannabis use comorbidity
      • Impact of THC and CBD content
      • Conclusions and future directions
      • Mini-dictionary
  • Part IV: Cannabis, Organs, Tissues and Non-cns Aspects
    • Chapter 47: Chronic Cannabis Abuse and Thyroid Function
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Effect of chronic cannabis use on human thyroid function
      • Discussion
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Conflict of interest
    • Chapter 48: Cannabis Hyperemesis Syndrome
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Pathogenesis
      • Diagnosis, complications, and treatment
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Conflict of interest
    • Chapter 49: Cannabis and Cannabinoids and the Effects on Gastrointestinal Function: An Overview
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Localization of ECS components in the gut
      • Cannabinoids in physiological states
      • Cannabinoids in pathophysiological states
      • Cannabis herbal leaf and resin usage in the gastrointestinal tract
      • Concluding remarks
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 50: Cardiovascular Effects of Cannabis Usage
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Physiological effects
      • Cardiovascular consequences of marijuana usage
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 51: Cannabis and Stroke
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • The association between cannabis use and stroke
      • A causal link between cannabis and stroke is plausible
      • Reversible cerebral cannabis arteriopathy
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 52: Cannabis Smoking and the Lung
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Acute effects of cannabis on airway dynamics
      • Chronic effects of cannabis on the lung
      • Relationship to lung cancer
      • Association with lower respiratory infection (Table 52.5)
      • Association with pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and bullous lung disease (Table 52.6)
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 53: Cannabis and Hepatic Injury
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Human studies
      • Animal studies
      • Ischemia-reperfusion injury
      • Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage
      • Cannabinoids and hemodynamic changes in liver cirrhosis
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 54: Cannabis Allergy: More Than a Bad Trip
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • The allergic reaction
      • The IgE-mediated reaction
      • Cannabis allergy
      • Clinical manifestations
      • Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Natural history
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 55: Marijuana and Breastfeeding
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Routes of maternal ingestion
      • Factors that influence initiation and continuation of breastfeeding
      • Marijuana use, milk production, and willingness to breastfeed
      • Levels of neonatal exposure through breastfeeding
      • Marijuana and sudden infant death syndrome
      • Short and long-term effects on the neonate
      • Legal concerns
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 56: Hypocretins/Orexins and Addiction: Role in Cannabis Dependence
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • The hypocretin/orexin system
      • Role of the hypocretin/orexin system in the addictive properties of drugs of abuse
      • Neurobiological mechanisms of cannabinoid dependence
      • Interaction between hypocretin/orexin and endocannabinoid systems
      • Role of hypocretins/orexins in cannabinoid dependence
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 57: Regulatory Role of Cannabinoids for Skin Barrier Functions and Cutaneous Inflammation
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • The skin as a barrier organ
      • The endogenous cannabinoid system in keratinocytes
      • Allergic contact dermatitis
      • The endogenous cannabinoid system attenuates contact allergic inflammation
      • CB1 receptors on keratinocytes downregulate the secretion of proinflammatory chemokines in contact allergic inflammation
      • Atopic dermatitis associated with impaired barrier functions
      • CB1 receptors on keratinocytes participate in the regulation of atopic-like inflammation
      • Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for the treatment of allergic skin diseases
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter e8: Cannabis and Oral Health: Deleterious Effects on Periodontitis and Dental Implants
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Studies
      • Final considerations
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter e9: Does Cannabis Use Increase the Risk of Developing Cancer in Humans?
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • How were all relevant studies identified?
      • What were the inclusion/exclusion criteria for eligible studies?
      • What were the steps in the identification process of eligible studies?
      • Narrative assessment of eligible studies
      • Lung cancer
      • Head and neck cancers
      • Testicular germ cell tumors
      • Miscellaneous: critical analysis of Chacko et al. (2006); Bluhm, Daniels, Pollock, and Olshan (2006); Chen et al. (2008)
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter e10: Cannabis and the Use of Amphetamine-Like Substances
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Amphetamine-like substances: AMPH, METH, MDMA, and Cathinones
      • ALS + cannabis
      • Mini-dictionary
  • Part V: Pharmacology and Cellular Activities of Cannabinoids and Endocannabinoids
    • Chapter 58: Cannabinoids and the Cannabinoid Receptors: An Overview
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Cannabis and cannabinoids
      • Cannabinoid receptors: what they are
      • The cannabinoid receptors: where they are
      • Cannabinoid receptors: what they do
      • Concluding remarks
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 59: Signaling and Regulation of the Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • CB1 Gαi protein coupling and canonical signaling
      • CB1 constitutive signaling
      • CB1 G protein coupling promiscuity
      • CB1 regulation
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 60: Allosteric Modulation of the Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Allosteric modulation of GPCRs
      • Potential advantages of allosteric modulators for CB1
      • Allosteric ligands of CB1
      • Allosteric modulators alter the binding of orthosteric ligands to CB1
      • Allosteric modulation of CB1 receptor signaling
      • Allosteric modulation of CB1 receptor regulation
      • Allosteric agonism
      • Probe dependence
      • Elucidation of ORG27569 binding site in CB1
      • In vivo studies of ORG27569
      • Proposed allosteric modulators of CB1
      • CB1 dimerization as a form of allosteric modulation
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 61: Polymorphisms of the CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • CB2 cannabinoid receptor: distribution and function
      • Genetic polymorphisms
      • Genotyping methods
      • Types of investigations
      • The Single nucleotide polymorphism database (dbSNP) and “rs” numbers
      • CNR2 gene location and structure
      • Nonsynonymous SNPs in CNR2
      • Functional consequences of nonsynonymous SNPs in CNR2
      • CB2 polymorphism genetic association studies
      • Possible role of CNR2 in personalized medicine?
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 62: Chemistry of Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Tricyclic and bicyclic analogs of tetrahydrocannabinol
      • Endogenous cannabinoids and synthetic analogs
      • Indoles
      • Monocyclic cores
      • Bicyclic cores
      • Tricyclic cores
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 63: The Endocannabinoid System as a Target for New Antiseizure Drugs
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Epilepsy—definitions, classifications, and mechanisms
      • The current treatment of epilepsies
      • The endocannabinoid system
      • Cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system in seizures and epilepsy
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 64: Pharmacological Aspects of Anandamide and 2-Arachidonoyglycerol as Bioactive Lipids
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Overview of the effects of anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol
      • Classical metabolism of anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol
      • Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglcerol at the center of a network of bioactive lipids
      • Receptors and targets of anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and their derivatives
      • Tools and consequences of endocannabinoid levels modulation
      • Concluding remarks
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 65: Pharmacological Aspects of NMDA Receptors, mGluR5, and Endocannabinoids
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Overview of glutamate receptors and the CNS eCB system
      • Synaptic plasticity and mGluR5
      • eCBs and NMDARs
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 66: Peripheral CB1 Receptors and Ghrelin in Feeding Regulation: Pharmacological Implications
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction: feeding regulation by peripheral signals
      • The peripheral endocannabinoid system and feeding regulation
      • Ghrelin and integrative signals for appetite
      • Interactions between ghrelin and peripheral CB1 receptors in feeding regulation
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 67: Pharmacological Aspects of Novel Antiobesity Agents Related to Cannabinoids
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Obesity and weight-loss drugs
      • Endocannabinoid system and obesity
      • Antiobesity drugs structurally related to rimonabant
      • Antiobesity agents not related to rimonabant
      • Conclusions and perspectives
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 68: Cannabinoid Reward and Dependence: Focus on the Main Psychoactive Ingredients of Marijuana in Preclinical Studies
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 69: Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors and Cannabinoids
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 70: The Protein–Protein Interactions of Cannabinoid Receptor Interacting Protein 1a (CRIP1a) and Cannabinoid 1 Receptor: The Molecular Mechanism Study Through an Integrated Molecular Modeling Approach
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • CRIP1a secondary structure predication
      • CRIP1a 3D structure prediction
      • CB1R C-terminus modeling
      • CRIP1a–CB1R protein–protein docking
      • Molecular dynamics
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 71: Synthetic Cannabinoids: a Summary of Selected Phenomena With Respect to Behavioral Pharmacology and Abuse Liability
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • CB1 receptor mediated characteristic tetrad effects in laboratory animals following exposure to SCBs
      • Discriminative stimulus effects of SCBs, relative to THC
      • Tolerance and cross-tolerance to the effects of SCBs
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter e11: Cannabinoid Signaling in Glioma Cells and Therapeutic implications
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Endocannabinoid system in human gliomas
      • Intracellular mechanisms underlying antiproliferative activity of cannabinoids
      • Multimodal action of cannabinoids against glial tumors
      • Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids against human gliomas
      • Mini-dictionary
  • Part VI: Effects of Specific Natural and Synthetic Cannabinoids
    • Chapter 72: The Role of 5-HT1A Receptor, and Nausea and Vomiting Relief by Cannabidiol (CBD), Cannabidiolic Acid (CBDA), and Cannabigerol (CBG)
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Nausea and vomiting
      • Animal models of nausea
      • Serotonin1A (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT1A) receptors and nausea and vomiting
      • Phytocannabinoids and nausea and vomiting
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 73: Genetic and Molecular Aspects of Addiction with Tetrahydrocannabinol
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • The role of the dopaminergic system in the development of THC addiction
      • Molecular mechanisms of addiction
      • The molecular basis of long-term brain plasticity
      • Genetic links to dependence
      • Significance of recent findings of molecular and genetic effects of chronic cannabinoid administration, and prospects of new strategies to treat cannabinoid dependence
      • The structures and biological activities of THC and its analogs—own considerations
    • Chapter 74: Effects of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Human Breast Cancer
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Interplay between ∆9-THC and cannabinoid receptors in breast cancer cell growth
      • Interplay between ∆9-THC and estrogen signaling in breast cancer cell growth
      • Interplay between ∆9-THC and estrogen signaling in breast cancer cell growth: possible involvement of ERβ
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 75: ∆9-THC and COX-2 Signaling
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • PGE2 is a signaling molecule in THC-induced behavioral responses
      • THC-elevated PGE2 is derived from the COX-2 pathway
      • COX-2 induction by THC is mediated via the CB1 receptor, and its coupled Gβγ subunits
      • THC-stimulated COX-2 expression is via activation of NF-κB
      • THC raises extracellular glutamate through COX-2 derived PGE2
      • THC exposure-impaired synaptic plasticity and cognitive function are associated with reduced functional glutamate receptor subunits, and dendritic spines
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 76: Cannabinoids and the Addictive Effects of Nicotine
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Simultaneous THC and nicotine use
      • Lasting effects of THC exposure
      • Possible avenues to the development of treatments for addiction
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 77: Cannabinoid Regulation of Intraocular Pressure: Human and Animal Studies, Cellular and Molecular Targets
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Glaucoma and intraocular pressure
      • Current treatment of glaucoma
      • Cannabinoids and intraocular pressure
      • Molecular targets for the IOP-lowering effects of cannabinoids
      • Cellular mechanisms of cannabinoid-induced reduction of IOP
      • Problems and future directions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 78: Ocular Delivery of Tetrahydrocannabinol
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Therapeutic potential of the cannabinoids in ocular disorders
      • Ocular delivery of tetrahydrocannabinol
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 79: The Role of γ-Aminobutyric Acid in the Interoceptive Effects of Oral ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Humans
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Cannabinoid and GABA neuropharmacology and the gap in our understanding of the interactions of these neurotransmitter systems related to the interoceptive effects of cannabis
      • Drug discrimination as an in vivo method for detecting CNS interactions between neurotransmitter systems
      • The influence of global CNS elevation of GABA on ∆9-THC discrimination
      • The influence of GABAB activation on ∆9-THC discrimination
      • The influence of positive allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors on ∆9-THC discrimination
      • Summary and future considerations
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 80: The Role of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Diabetes Mellitus
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • ∆9-THC in oxidative stress in diabetes
      • ∆9-THC in dyslipidemia in diabetes
      • ∆9-THC in the secretion of insulin in diabetes
      • ∆9-THC in food intake and energy homeostasis in diabetes
      • Immunosuppressive effects of ∆9-THC
      • Excretion of ∆9THC metabolites in the urine of diabetics
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 81: Cannabidiol: An Overview of its Antipsychotic Properties
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Endocannabinoid system and schizophrenia
      • CBD as an antipsychotic drug
      • Side effects of CBD
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 82: Cannabidiol for the Treatment of Epilepsy: An Overview of Possible Mechanisms of Action and Preclinical and Human Studies
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • CBD’s mechanisms of action
      • Preclinical studies supporting CBD’s anticonvulsant effects
      • Human studies supporting CBD’s anticonvulsant effects
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 83: Cannabidiol and Neuroprotection: Evidence from Preclinical Studies
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Excitotoxicity and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury
      • Neurodegenerative disorders
      • Other models of neurodegeneration
      • Summary of the mechanisms of action of CBD
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 84: Cannabinoids as Potent Inhibitors of Human CYP1 Enzymes
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Inhibition of CYP1 enzymes by major phytocannabinoids
      • Mechanism-based inhibition of CYP1 enzymes by major phytocannabinoids
      • Interactions between major phytocannabinoids and CYP1 enzymes
      • Significance of CYP1 inhibition by major phytocannabinoids
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 85: The Synthetic Analog of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): Nabilone. Pharmacology and Clinical Application
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Pharmacology
      • Cognitive and subjective effects
      • Cannabis use disorder
      • Analgesia
      • Motor disorders
      • Anxiety
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 86: Synthetic Cannabinoids in Dementia
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Background
      • Mechanisms of action of cannabinoids in dementia
      • Tauopathies and cannabinoids
      • Cannabinoids in subcortical dementias and Parkinson disease
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 87: Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists (Spice) as New Recreational Psychoactive Substances
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Herbal smoking mixtures
      • First identification of the psychoactive components in “Spice”
      • Effect of legislation of synthetic cannabinoids
      • Clinical consequences of synthetic cannabinoids
      • Drug testing for synthetic cannabinoids
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 88: Accidents and Synthetic Cannabinoids in Blood of Drivers
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Published cases of driving under the influence of synthetic cannabinoids
      • Clinical presentation of intoxication due to synthetic cannabinoids
      • Findings among apprehended drivers
      • Concentrations of synthetic cannabinoids in blood from suspected drivers
      • Variants of synthetic cannabinoids detected among apprehended drivers
      • The prevalence of synthetic cannabinoids in traffic accidents
      • Analytical challenges
      • Tolerance
      • Legislation
      • Discussion and conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter e12: Cannabidiol as an Antioxidant
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Conformational studies
      • Frontier molecular orbitals on antioxidant capacity of cannabidiol
      • Antioxidant capacity by electron transfer using ionization potential
      • Antioxidant capacity by hydrogen transfer using bond dissociation energy
      • Antioxidant mechanisms in biological system, and their applications
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter e13: The Anxiolytic Effects of Cannabidiol (CBD)
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • CBD effects in animal models of anxiety
      • Anxiolytic effects of CBD in humans
      • Mechanisms of CBD effects
      • Pharmacological mechanisms of the anxiolytic effects of CBD
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter e14: New Ethological and Morphological Perspectives for the Investigation of Panicolytic-Like Effects of Cannabidiol
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • New ethological models for the study of antipanic-like effects of cannabidiol
      • Anatomical targets for the antipanic-like effects of cannabidiol
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter e15: Spice Use Among United States Military Personnel
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • History
      • Synthetic cannabinoids or “Spice”
      • Media coverage of military substance use
      • Policy
      • Mini-dictionary
  • Part VII: Medicinal Cannabis use
    • Chapter 89: Cannabis and Synthetic Cannabinoids for Cancer Patients: Multiple Palliative Indications Together With Promising Laboratory Antineoplastic Effects
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
      • Anorexia–cachexia syndrome
      • Pain
      • Mood disorder and insomnia
      • Antitumor effects
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 90: The Use of Medical Marijuana in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Medical marijuana
      • Mood disorders
      • Anxiety disorders
      • Sleep disorders
      • Psychosis
      • Substance use disorders
      • Cognitive disorders and dementia
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 91: Beneficial Effects of Cannabis and Related Compounds on Sleep
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 92: Cannabinoid-Based Medicines for the Treatment of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Gilles de la Tourette syndrome
      • Treatment strategies
      • A Rationale for the Treatment of GTS with Cannabinoids
      • Treatment with Cannabis sativa L
      • Treatment with THC
      • Adverse effects
      • Practical aspects for treatment
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 93: Cannabidiol and Multiple Sclerosis
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • CBD pharmacology and mechanisms of action
      • CBD toxicity and pharmacokinetic
      • CBD and animal models of MS
      • CBD and MS: perspectives
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 94: Cannabinoids and Their Effects on Painful Neuropathy
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Neuropathic pain mechanisms
      • Pathophysiology of neuropathic pain
      • Pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain
      • Cannabinoids and neuropathic pain
      • Multiple sclerosis central painful neuropathy
      • HIV painful neuropathy
      • Diabetic distal symmetrical sensorimotor polyneuropathy
      • Spinal cord injury
      • Side effects
      • Future clinical studies
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 95: Cannabis for Basal Ganglia Disorders (Parkinson Disease and Huntington Disease)
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • The endocannabinoid system in Parkinson disease
      • Effect of cannabinoids in Parkinson disease
      • 6-Hydroxydopamine model of Parkinson disease
      • 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine model of Parkinson disease
      • Rotenone model of Parkinson disease
      • Primate models of Parkinson disease
      • Cannabinoids and l-dopa-induced dyskinesia
      • Experimental data
      • Cannabinoid signaling in Huntington disease
      • Effect of cannabinoids in Huntington disease
      • 3-Nitropropionic acid-induced striatal damage
      • Malonate-induced striatal damage
      • Quinolinic acid-induced striatal damage
      • Genetic models of Huntington disease
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 96: Medical Cannabis for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
      • Abstract
      • List of Abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Cannabis treatment in IBD
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 97: Cannabidiol for the Treatment of Drug Use Disorders
      • Abstract
      • List of Abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Cannabidiol
      • CBD versus opiates/opioids
      • CBD versus stimulants
      • CBD versus nicotine
      • CBD versus cannabis
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 98: Cannabinoids and Effects on the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Focus on Motility
      • Abstract
      • List of Abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • The ECS and gut innervation controlling motility
      • Cannabinoids and gastrointestinal motility
      • Potential therapeutic applications of cannabinoids
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 99: Potential Medical Uses of Cannabigerol: A Brief Overview
      • Abstract
      • List of Abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Pharmacokinetics and pharmacology of cannabigerol
      • Potential medical uses of cannabigerol
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter e16: Cannabis Use in Fibromyalgia
      • Abstract
      • List of Abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Cannabinoids and fibromyalgia
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Acknowledgments
  • Part VIII: Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment
    • Chapter 100: The Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) and Its Applications
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • The cannabis abuse screening test and applications
      • What is the cannabis abuse screening test?
      • Application of the CAST: an Italian experience
      • The main evidence
      • Second phase: multivariate multinomial analysis
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 101: Screening of Synthetic Cannabinoids
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Analytical techniques
      • Analytical challenges
      • Analysis of plant material and pure substances
      • Analysis of biological samples
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 102: On-Site Drug Testing for Cannabis
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • On-site drug testing for cannabis
      • Drug detection kits
      • Matrices
      • Detection limits
      • On-site urine testing
      • On-site oral fluid testing
      • Use of on-site testing
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 103: Cannabinoids in Oral Fluid: Identification and Interpretation of Analytical Results
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Collection devices, marijuana recovery, and drug stability
      • Analytical issues
      • Disposition of cannabinoids in oral fluid
      • Interpretation of results
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Financial disclosures
    • Chapter 104: Cannabinoids in Exhaled Breath
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Manolis study from 1983
      • Exhaled breath for drug testing
      • Particles in breath
      • Studies on cannabinoids in breath
      • Sampling of exhaled breath
      • Analytical aspects
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 105: Barriers to Treatment Seeking for Cannabis Dependence
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Barriers to seeking cannabis treatment
      • Implications of the barriers to treatment
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary of terms
    • Chapter 106: Pharmacotherapies for Cannabis Use Disorders
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Pharmacotherapy for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal syndrome
      • Pharmacotherapy for the treatment of cannabis use disorders
      • Pharmacotherapy for the treatment of comorbid disorders in individuals with cannabis use disorders
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 107: Self-Initiated Cannabis Use Cessation in Adolescents and Emerging Adults
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Self-initiated cannabis cessation in adolescents and emerging adults
      • Theory of triadic influence and cannabis cessation
      • Intrapersonal predictors
      • Cultural/attitudinal
      • Interpersonal predictors
      • Strategies noted to have been used for self-initiated cessation
      • Implications for future interventions
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 108: Treating Cannabis-Dependent Adolescents with Family Therapy: The case of Multidimensional Family Therapy
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Do cannabis dependent youth need treatment?
      • Which treatments are effective in youth with a cannabis use disorder?
      • Multidimensional family therapy in a nutshell
      • The effects of multidimensional family therapy
      • Implementation of MDFT in europe
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 109: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Cannabis Use Disorder
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Cannabis use as a learned behavior
      • Approaches in CUD
      • Cognitive-behavioral approach for CUD treatment
      • CBT methods for CUD
      • Cognitive behavioral approaches to stages of CUD
      • Case examples
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 110: The Cannabis Withdrawal Syndrome— Symptoms and Time Course
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Symptoms of cannabis withdrawal in the DSM-5
      • Variations in time course of withdrawal symptoms
      • Clinical implications
      • Conclusions
      • Mini Dictionary
    • Chapter 111: School-Based Cannabis Prevention Programs
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Influence of the natural history of cannabis consumption on prevention
      • Main characteristics of school-based cannabis prevention programs
      • Best practices in school-based cannabis prevention programs
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 112: The CapOpus Trial for Cannabis Use Disorders
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Interventions
      • Effect of intervention on cannabis consumption
      • Contact with treatment facilities
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 113: Treating Cannabis Use Disorders Through Technology-Assisted Interventions: the Telephone and Internet
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Delivering a high-tech cannabis use intervention
      • Delivering a low-tech cannabis use intervention
      • Comparing technology-assisted cannabis use interventions
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter 114: Reducing Cannabis Use With a Real-Time Intervention Using Mobile Technology
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Frequent marijuana use among adolescents and young adults
      • Need for brief treatment in primary care
      • Momentary and contextual factors related to marijuana use
      • Ecological momentary assessment and intervention
      • The momentary self-monitoring and feedback + motivational enhancement therapy (moment) intervention
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter e17: Short Instruments to Screen for “Problematic” Cannabis Use in General Population Surveys
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Why and how to estimate the prevalence of “problematic” cannabis use in the general population
      • Selection of adequate instruments from the literature
      • Characteristics of selected screening instruments
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter e18: Self-report of Cannabis Use
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Methods for self-report
      • Prevalence data based on self-report
      • Validity of self-report
      • Discussion and conclusion
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter e19: CANDIS Program: Modular Treatment of Cannabis Use Disorders
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • What is the CANDIS treatment program?
      • Scientific evaluation
      • Conclusions
      • Mini-dictionary
    • Chapter e20: Engaging Cannabis Users in Treatment
      • Abstract
      • List of abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Why is engagement particularly important for cannabis users?
      • What is unique about cannabis users that may influence treatment engagement?
      • What can be done to minimize the impact of these challenges associated with cannabis use?
      • Mini-dictionary
  • Cannabis Neuropathology Resources and Recommended Reading
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
1170
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2017
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128008270
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128007563

About the Editor

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is a senior member of King's College London. He is also Director of the Genomics Centre and a member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine.

Professor Preedy has longstanding academic interests in substance misuse especially in relation to health and well being. He is a member of the Editorial Board of Drug and Alcohol Dependence and a founding member of the Editorial Board of Addiction Biology. In his career Professor Preedy was Reader at the Addictive Behaviour Centre at The University of Roehampton, and also Reader at the School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London; UCL). Professor Preedy is Editor of the influential works The Handbook Of Alcohol Related Pathology, The Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse and The Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies (all published by Academic Press-Elsevier).

Professor Preedy graduated in 1974 with an Honours Degree in Biology and Physiology with Pharmacology. He gained his University of London PhD in 1981. In 1992, he received his Membership of the Royal College of Pathologists and in 1993 he gained his second doctoral degree (DSc). Professor Preedy was elected as a Fellow of the Institute of Biology in 1995 and also as a Fellow to the Royal College of Pathologists in 2000. He was then elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (2004) and The Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene (2004). In 2009, Professor Preedy became a Fellow of the Royal Society for Public Health and in 2012 a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 600 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Dietetics, King's College London, UK