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Handbook of Cane Sugar Engineering - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483231907, 9781483274942

Handbook of Cane Sugar Engineering

1st Edition

Author: E. Hugot
eBook ISBN: 9781483274942
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1960
Page Count: 892
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Handbook of Cane Sugar Engineering focuses on the technologies, equipment, methodologies, and processes involved in cane sugar engineering. The handbook first underscores the delivery, unloading, and handling of cane, cane carrier and knives, and tramp iron separators. The text then examines crushers, shredders, combinations of cane preparators, and feeding of mills and conveying bagasse. The manuscript takes a look at roller grooving, pressures in milling, mill speeds and capacity, and mill settings. Topics include setting of feed and delivery openings and trash plate, factors influencing capacity, formula for capacity, fiber loading, tonnage records, linear speed and speed of rotation, sequence of speeds, hydraulic pressure, and types of roller grooving. The book then elaborates on electric and turbine mill drives, mill gearing, construction of mills, extraction, milling control, purification of juice, filtration, evaporation, sugar boiling, and centrifugal separation. The handbook is a valuable source of data for engineers involved in sugar cane engineering.

Table of Contents

Preface to the First French Edition

Preface to the English Edition

Translator's Foreword

List of Books and Journals Cited in References

Abbreviations Used

Units of Measurement

1. Delivery, Unloading and Handling of Cane

Organisation of Cane Supply Throughout the Day

Unloading of Cane

Cane Handling Equipment

Lateral Feeding Tables and Carriers

2. The Cane Carrier

3. Cane Knives

4. Tramp Iron Separators

5. Crushers


Types of Crusher

Inclination of the Housing




Mean Power Absorbed and Power to be Installed

Double Crusher

Three Roller Crusher

6. Shredders



7. The Combinations of Cane Preparators

8. Feeding of Mills and Conveying of Bagasse

9. Roller Grooving


Types of Roller Grooving

Wear of Rollers

10. Pressures in Milling

I. Hydraulic Pressure


Piping for Hydraulic Pressure

Hydraulic Pump

Caps and Hydraulic Pistons

Maximum Values of the Hydraulic Pressure

Maximum Values of Total Pressure

II. Pressure Considered from the Operating Viewpoint

Measure of the Pressure on the Bagasse

Specific Pressure

Resolution of the Pressures in the Mill while Operating


Relation Between the Compression of the Bagasse and the Pressure Necessary to Effect It

Graph of Pressure in the Mill

Calculation of the Resultant Reaction

Calculation of the Maximum Compression C

Calculation of Settings

Hydraulic Pressure and Maximum Pressure

Ratio Between Feed and Delivery Pressures

Friction of Brasses in Housings

Pinion Reaction

Mean Values of the t.h.p

Variation of Extraction as a Function of the Pressure

Sequence of Pressures in the Train

Variation of Hydraulic Pressure as Function of the Length of the Tandem

Recent Researches and Discoveries

11. Mill Speeds

Linear Speed and Speed of Rotation

Maximum Speeds

Sequence of Speeds

12. Mill Capacity


Factors influencing Capacity

Capacity Formulae Proposed

Formula for Capacity

Fibre Loading


13. Mill Settings


I. Setting of Feed and Delivery Openings

Java Method

Method of Calculating Operating Openings

II. Setting of the Trash Plate

14. Power Requirements of Mills

15. Steam Engines for Mill Drives

16. Electric and Turbine Mill Drives

Electric Drive

Direct Drive by Steam Turbine

17. Mill Gearing

18. Construction of Mills

19. Imbibition

20. Extraction

21. Milling Control

22. Fine Bagasse Separators

23. Purification of Juice

Clarification of Juices

24. Defecation

25. Sulphitation

26. Clarification with Phosphoric Acid

27. Carbonatation

28. Subsidation

A. Defecators

B. Decanters

C. Clarifiers or Subsiders

29. Juice Heating

30. Filtration

Filter Presses

Mechanical or Leaf Filters

Continuous Rotary Vacuum Filters

31. Evaporation


Multiple Effect Evaporation


Construction of Multiple Effects

Circulation of Vapour


Incondensable Gases

Juice Circulation


Inversion Losses

Heat Losses


Prevention of Scaling

Operation in Parallel

Vapour Bleeding




Operation of Multiple Effects

Heating Surface

Calculations and Design of a Multiple Effect

Multiple Effect Calculations

Evaporator Operation

Special Multiple Effects

Evaporation Under Pressure

32. Sugar Boiling

Vacuum Pans

Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure

Circulation of the Massecuite

Evaporation Coefficient

Steam for Heating

Steam Consumption at the Pan Stage

Heating Surface and Ratio Heating Surface to Volume

Height of Massecuite, Circulation, Heating Surface and Graining Volume

Capacity of Pans

Sugar Boiling Procedures

Distribution of the Pans Between the Various Massecuites


Conduct of the Sugar Boiling

Disposition of C Sugar

A and B Massecuites

Pan Feed

Storage Tanks for Syrups and Molasses

Proportions of Syrup and Molasses

Pans with Mechanical Circulation

Boiling House Recovery

33. Crystallisation

Types of Crystalliser

34. Centrifugal Separation

A. Water Turbines

B. Belt-Driven Centrifugals

C. Electrically Driven Centrifugals

Operation of Centrifugals

35. Storage and Drying of Sugar

36. Sugar

37. Molasses

38. Vacuum Equipment

The Condenser

Air Pumps

The Barometric Column

Water Pumps

Spray Ponds

Jet Condensers

Steam Ejector Condensers

39. Steam Production



Combustion of Bagasse

Fuels Other than Bagasse


The Grate

Horseshoe Furnace

Ward Furnace

Heating Surface

Superheat and Superheaters



Boiler Settings



Boiler Feed Water

Steam Accumulators

Steam-Reducing Valves


Types of Boiler

Construction of Boilers

Maintenance of Boilers

Steam Balance

40. Steam Engines

41. Steam Turbines

Concise Theory of the Steam Turbine

42. Electricity


Electric Motors



43. Pumps

A. Reciprocating Pumps

B. Centrifugal Pumps

C. Rotary Pumps

44. Fluid Flow in Pipes

A. Flow of Water

B. Flow of Steam

45. Lubricants

46. Buildings

47. Lay-Out of a Factory

48. Accounting in the Sugar Factory

Conversion Tables - Metric to British Units

Conversion Tables - British to Metric Units

Equivalents of Foreign, British and Metric Units

Author Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 1960
1st January 1960
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

E. Hugot

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