Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics

Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics

Properties, Processing and Applications

1st Edition - September 19, 2012

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  • Editor: Sina Ebnesajjad
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781455728343
  • eBook ISBN: 9781455730032

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Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics are a hot issue across the Plastics industry, and for many of the industry sectors that use plastic, from packaging to medical devices and from the construction indusry to the automotive sector. This book brings together a number of key biopolymer and biodegradable plastics topics in one place for a broad audience of engineers and scientists, especially those designing with biopolymers and biodegradable plastics, or evaluating the options for switching from traditional plastics to biopolymers. Topics covered include preparation, fabrication, applications and recycling (including biodegradability and compostability). Applications in key areas such as films, coatings controlled release and tissue engineering are discussed. Dr Ebnesajjad provides readers with an in-depth reference for the plastics industry – material suppliers and processors, bio-polymer producers, bio-polymer processors and fabricators – and for industry sectors utilizing biopolymers – automotive, packaging, construction, wind turbine manufacturers, film manufacturers, adhesive and coating industries, medical device manufacturers, biomedical engineers, and the recycling industry.

Key Features

  • Essential information and practical guidance for engineers and scientists working with bioplastics, or evaluating a migration to bioplastics.
  • Includes key published material on biopolymers, updated specifically for this Handbook, and new material including coverage of PLA and Tissue Engineering Scaffolds.
  • Coverage of materials and applications together in one handbook enables engineers and scientists to make informed design decisions.


Plastics engineers, product designers, packaging engineers and materials scientists, medical device and packaging designers and users; polymer and coatings chemists; producers and users of biopolymers; Sectors: food, beverage and pharmaceutical packaging, medical devices, chemical processing, construction, automotive

Table of Contents

  • Series Page


    1. Overview of Plant Polymers: Resources, Demands, and Sustainability

    1.1 Plant Proteins

    1.2 Plant Oils

    1.3 Plant Starches

    1.4 Agricultural Fibers and Cellulose

    1.5 Market Potential for Plant Polymers

    1.6 Sustainable Agriculture Industry of the Future

    1.7 Conclusion



    2. Overview of Poly(lactic Acid)

    2.1 Background to Biodegradable Polymers

    2.2 Market Potential of Biodegradable Polymers and PLA

    2.3 General Properties and Applications of PLA

    2.4 Environmental Profile of PLA

    2.5 Eco-profile of PLA in Mass Production

    2.6 Environmental Impact of PLA at the Postconsumer Stage

    2.7 Conclusion


    3. Applications of Poly(lactic Acid)

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Poly(lactic Acid) for Domestic Applications

    3.3 Poly(lactic Acid) for Engineering and Agricultural Applications

    3.4 Poly(lactic Acid) for Biomedical Applications

    3.5 Conclusion


    4. The State of the Art of Polymers from Renewable Resources

    4.1 The Context

    4.2 Vegetable Resources

    4.3 Animal Resources

    4.4 Bacterial Polymers

    4.5 Conclusions


    5. Polymeric Biomaterials

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Polymeric Biomaterials in Ophthalmology

    5.3 Polymeric Biomaterials in Orthopedics

    5.4 Polymeric Biomaterials in Cardiovascular Diseases

    5.5 Polymeric Biomaterials for Wound Closure

    5.6 Polymeric Biomaterials in Extracorporeal Artificial Organs

    5.7 Polymeric Biomaterials for Nerve Regeneration

    5.8 Conclusions and Future Outlook


    6. Biodegradable Polymers and Polymer Blends

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Naturally Occurring Biodegradable Polymers

    6.3 Biodegradable Polymers Derived from Renewable Resources

    6.4 Biodegradable Polymers Derived from Petroleum

    6.5 Biobased Polymers Derived from Plant Oil

    6.6 Rosin-Based Epoxy Curing Agents

    6.7 Concluding Remarks


    7. Starch: Major Sources, Properties and Applications as Thermoplastic Materials

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Main Sources of Starch

    7.3 Structure of Starch Granules

    7.4 Disruption of Starch Granules

    7.5 Applications of Starch as a Raw Material for Plastic Production

    7.6 Thermoplastic Starch

    7.7 Conclusions



    8. Cellulose-Based Composites and Nanocomposites

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Natural Fibers

    8.3 Composites

    8.4 Composite Processing

    8.5 Composite Properties

    8.6 Nanocomposites

    8.7 Conclusions


    9. Synthesis, Properties, Environmental and Biomedical Applications of Polylactic Acid

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Synthesis of PLA

    9.3 PLA Properties

    9.4 Degradation

    9.5 Processing

    9.6 Applications


    10. Compostable Polymer Materials: Definitions, Structures, and Methods of Preparation

    10.1 Biodegradable Polymers from Renewable Resources

    10.2 Other Compostable Polymers from Renewable Resources

    10.3 Biodegradable Polymers from Petrochemical Sources


    11. Biodegradability Testing of Compostable Polymer Materials

    11.1 Definitions Related to Biodegradation Testing

    11.2 International Standards Related to Composting

    11.3 Principles of Main Standards Related to Composting and Biodegradability Testing

    11.4 Composting at Laboratory Scale

    11.5 Biodegradability Testing Methods

    11.6 Biodegradation of Biodegradable Polymers from Renewable Resources

    11.7 Biodegradation of Biodegradable Polymers from Petrochemical Sources

    11.8 Biodegradation of Blends

    11.9 Summary of Composting


    12. Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives, Elastomers, and Coatings from Plant Oil

    12.1 Introduction to Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives

    12.2 Macroemulsion and Miniemulsion Polymerization

    12.3 Polymer Characterization

    12.4 Polymer Properties

    12.5 Polymer–Solid Adhesion Modification of PSAs

    12.6 Bio-Based Elastomers

    12.7 Bio-Based Coatings


    13. Biopolymer Films and Composite Coatings

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Mechanisms of Film Formation

    13.3 Obtaining a Well-Matched Coating

    13.4 Film-Application Stages and Methods for Testing Films

    13.5 Selecting Biopolymers for Specific Applications

    13.6 Edible Protective Films

    13.7 Novel Products

    13.8 Nonfood Gum Coatings

    13.9 Next Generation of Edible Films


    14. Biopolymers in Controlled-Release Delivery Systems

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Drug Loading and Release

    14.3 Modeling Diffusion

    14.4 Higuchian Model

    14.5 Swelling

    14.6 Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels

    14.7 Equilibrium Swelling and the Flory–Rehner Theory

    14.8 Approaches to Cross-Linking

    14.9 Glutaraldehyde

    14.10 Genipin

    14.11 Quinones and Phenols

    14.12 Polyelectrolyte Cross-Linking and Complexes

    14.13 Polymer–Drug Interactions

    14.14 Collagen

    14.15 Gelatin

    14.16 Chitin and Chitosan

    14.17 Celluloses

    14.18 Alginates

    14.19 Summary



    15. Hydrocolloids and Medicinal Chemistry Applications

    15.1 Drug Delivery

    15.2 Tissue Engineering

    15.3 Future Horizons



    16. Natural Polymers in Tissue Engineering Applications


    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Natural Polymers

    16.3 Polysaccharides

    16.4 Proteins

    16.5 Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    16.6 Future Developments

    16.7 Summary


    17. Fabrication of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    17.3 Scaffold Manufacturing Methods



Product details

  • No. of pages: 472
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2012
  • Published: September 19, 2012
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781455728343
  • eBook ISBN: 9781455730032

About the Editor

Sina Ebnesajjad

Sina Ebnesajjad
Sina Ebnesajjad is the series editor of Plastics Design Library (PDL) published in the William Andrew imprint of Elsevier. This Series is a unique series, comprising technology and applications handbooks, data books and practical guides tailored to the needs of practitioners. Sina was the editor-in-chief of William Andrew Publishing from 2005 to 2007, which was acquired by Elsevier in 2009.

He retired as a Senior Technology Associate in 2005 from the DuPont fluoropolymers after nearly 24 years of service. Sina founded of FluoroConsultants Group, LLC in 2006 where he continues to work. Sina earned his Bachelor of Science from the School of Engineering of the University of Tehran in 1976, Master of Science and PhD from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, all in Chemical Engineering.

He is author, editor and co-author of fifteen technical and data books including five handbooks on fluoropolymers technology and applications. He is author and co-author of three books in surface preparation and adhesion of materials, two of which are in their second editions. Sina has been involved with technical writing and publishing since 1974.

His experiences include fluoropolymer technologies (polytetrafluoroethylene and its copolymers) including polymerization, finishing, fabrication, product development, failure analysis, market development and technical service. Sina holds six patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Fluoroconsultants Group, Chadds Ford, PA, USA

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