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Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781455728343, 9781455730032

Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics

1st Edition

Properties, Processing and Applications

Editor: Sina Ebnesajjad
Hardcover ISBN: 9781455728343
eBook ISBN: 9781455730032
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 19th September 2012
Page Count: 472
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Table of Contents

Series Page


1. Overview of Plant Polymers: Resources, Demands, and Sustainability

1.1 Plant Proteins

1.2 Plant Oils

1.3 Plant Starches

1.4 Agricultural Fibers and Cellulose

1.5 Market Potential for Plant Polymers

1.6 Sustainable Agriculture Industry of the Future

1.7 Conclusion



2. Overview of Poly(lactic Acid)

2.1 Background to Biodegradable Polymers

2.2 Market Potential of Biodegradable Polymers and PLA

2.3 General Properties and Applications of PLA

2.4 Environmental Profile of PLA

2.5 Eco-profile of PLA in Mass Production

2.6 Environmental Impact of PLA at the Postconsumer Stage

2.7 Conclusion


3. Applications of Poly(lactic Acid)

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Poly(lactic Acid) for Domestic Applications

3.3 Poly(lactic Acid) for Engineering and Agricultural Applications

3.4 Poly(lactic Acid) for Biomedical Applications

3.5 Conclusion


4. The State of the Art of Polymers from Renewable Resources

4.1 The Context

4.2 Vegetable Resources

4.3 Animal Resources

4.4 Bacterial Polymers

4.5 Conclusions


5. Polymeric Biomaterials

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Polymeric Biomaterials in Ophthalmology

5.3 Polymeric Biomaterials in Orthopedics

5.4 Polymeric Biomaterials in Cardiovascular Diseases

5.5 Polymeric Biomaterials for Wound Closure

5.6 Polymeric Biomaterials in Extracorporeal Artificial Organs

5.7 Polymeric Biomaterials for Nerve Regeneration

5.8 Conclusions and Future Outlook


6. Biodegradable Polymers and Polymer Blends

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Naturally Occurring Biodegradable Polymers

6.3 Biodegradable Polymers Derived from Renewable Resources

6.4 Biodegradable Polymers Derived from Petroleum

6.5 Biobased Polymers Derived from Plant Oil

6.6 Rosin-Based Epoxy Curing Agents

6.7 Concluding Remarks


7. Starch: Major Sources, Properties and Applications as Thermoplastic Materials

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Main Sources of Starch

7.3 Structure of Starch Granules

7.4 Disruption of Starch Granules

7.5 Applications of Starch as a Raw Material for Plastic Production

7.6 Thermoplastic Starch

7.7 Conclusions



8. Cellulose-Based Composites and Nanocomposites

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Natural Fibers

8.3 Composites

8.4 Composite Processing

8.5 Composite Properties

8.6 Nanocomposites

8.7 Conclusions


9. Synthesis, Properties, Environmental and Biomedical Applications of Polylactic Acid

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Synthesis of PLA

9.3 PLA Properties

9.4 Degradation

9.5 Processing

9.6 Applications


10. Compostable Polymer Materials: Definitions, Structures, and Methods of Preparation

10.1 Biodegradable Polymers from Renewable Resources

10.2 Other Compostable Polymers from Renewable Resources

10.3 Biodegradable Polymers from Petrochemical Sources


11. Biodegradability Testing of Compostable Polymer Materials

11.1 Definitions Related to Biodegradation Testing

11.2 International Standards Related to Composting

11.3 Principles of Main Standards Related to Composting and Biodegradability Testing

11.4 Composting at Laboratory Scale

11.5 Biodegradability Testing Methods

11.6 Biodegradation of Biodegradable Polymers from Renewable Resources

11.7 Biodegradation of Biodegradable Polymers from Petrochemical Sources

11.8 Biodegradation of Blends

11.9 Summary of Composting


12. Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives, Elastomers, and Coatings from Plant Oil

12.1 Introduction to Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives

12.2 Macroemulsion and Miniemulsion Polymerization

12.3 Polymer Characterization

12.4 Polymer Properties

12.5 Polymer–Solid Adhesion Modification of PSAs

12.6 Bio-Based Elastomers

12.7 Bio-Based Coatings


13. Biopolymer Films and Composite Coatings

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Mechanisms of Film Formation

13.3 Obtaining a Well-Matched Coating

13.4 Film-Application Stages and Methods for Testing Films

13.5 Selecting Biopolymers for Specific Applications

13.6 Edible Protective Films

13.7 Novel Products

13.8 Nonfood Gum Coatings

13.9 Next Generation of Edible Films


14. Biopolymers in Controlled-Release Delivery Systems

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Drug Loading and Release

14.3 Modeling Diffusion

14.4 Higuchian Model

14.5 Swelling

14.6 Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels

14.7 Equilibrium Swelling and the Flory–Rehner Theory

14.8 Approaches to Cross-Linking

14.9 Glutaraldehyde

14.10 Genipin

14.11 Quinones and Phenols

14.12 Polyelectrolyte Cross-Linking and Complexes

14.13 Polymer–Drug Interactions

14.14 Collagen

14.15 Gelatin

14.16 Chitin and Chitosan

14.17 Celluloses

14.18 Alginates

14.19 Summary



15. Hydrocolloids and Medicinal Chemistry Applications

15.1 Drug Delivery

15.2 Tissue Engineering

15.3 Future Horizons



16. Natural Polymers in Tissue Engineering Applications


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Natural Polymers

16.3 Polysaccharides

16.4 Proteins

16.5 Polyhydroxyalkanoates

16.6 Future Developments

16.7 Summary


17. Fabrication of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

17.3 Scaffold Manufacturing Methods




Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics are a hot issue across the Plastics industry, and for many of the industry sectors that use plastic, from packaging to medical devices and from the construction indusry to the automotive sector.

This book brings together a number of key biopolymer and biodegradable plastics topics in one place for a broad audience of engineers and scientists, especially those designing with biopolymers and biodegradable plastics, or evaluating the options for switching from traditional plastics to biopolymers.

Topics covered include preparation, fabrication, applications and recycling (including biodegradability and compostability). Applications in key areas such as films, coatings controlled release and tissue engineering are discussed.

Dr Ebnesajjad provides readers with an in-depth reference for the plastics industry – material suppliers and processors, bio-polymer producers, bio-polymer processors and fabricators – and for industry sectors utilizing biopolymers – automotive, packaging, construction, wind turbine manufacturers, film manufacturers, adhesive and coating industries, medical device manufacturers, biomedical engineers, and the recycling industry.

Key Features

  • Essential information and practical guidance for engineers and scientists working with bioplastics, or evaluating a migration to bioplastics.
  • Includes key published material on biopolymers, updated specifically for this Handbook, and new material including coverage of PLA and Tissue Engineering Scaffolds.
  • Coverage of materials and applications together in one handbook enables engineers and scientists to make informed design decisions.


Plastics engineers, product designers, packaging engineers and materials scientists, medical device and packaging designers and users; polymer and coatings chemists; producers and users of biopolymers; Sectors: food, beverage and pharmaceutical packaging, medical devices, chemical processing, construction, automotive


No. of pages:
© William Andrew 2012
19th September 2012
William Andrew
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editor

Sina Ebnesajjad

Sina Ebnesajjad

Sina Ebnesajjad is the series editor of Plastics Design Library (PDL) published in the William Andrew imprint of Elsevier. This Series is a unique series, comprising technology and applications handbooks, data books and practical guides tailored to the needs of practitioners. Sina was the editor-in-chief of William Andrew Publishing from 2005 to 2007, which was acquired by Elsevier in 2009.

He retired as a Senior Technology Associate in 2005 from the DuPont fluoropolymers after nearly 24 years of service. Sina founded of FluoroConsultants Group, LLC in 2006 where he continues to work. Sina earned his Bachelor of Science from the School of Engineering of the University of Tehran in 1976, Master of Science and PhD from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, all in Chemical Engineering.

He is author, editor and co-author of fifteen technical and data books including five handbooks on fluoropolymers technology and applications. He is author and co-author of three books in surface preparation and adhesion of materials, two of which are in their second editions. Sina has been involved with technical writing and publishing since 1974.

His experiences include fluoropolymer technologies (polytetrafluoroethylene and its copolymers) including polymerization, finishing, fabrication, product development, failure analysis, market development and technical service. Sina holds six patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Fluoroconsultants Group, Chadds Ford, PA, USA