Handbook of Biofuels

Handbook of Biofuels

1st Edition - October 31, 2021

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  • Editor: Sanjay Sahay
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128228104
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128231333

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Handbook of Biofuels looks at the many new developments in various type of bioenergy, along with the significant constraints in their production and/or applications. Beyond introducing current approaches and possible future directions of research, this title covers sources and processing of raw materials to downstream processing, constraints involved and research approaches to address and overcome these needs. Different combinations of products from the biorefinery are included, along with the material to answer questions surrounding the optimum process conditions for conversion of different feedstocks to bioenergy, the basis for choosing conversion technology, and what bioenergy products make economic sense. With chapters on the techno-economic analysis of biofuel production and concepts and step-by-step approaches in bioenergy processing, the objective of this book is to present a comprehensive and all-encompassing reference about bioenergy to students, teachers, researchers and professionals.

Key Features

  • Reviews all existing and emerging technologies surrounding the production of advanced biofuels, including biodiesel and bioethanol
  • Includes biofuel applications with compatible global application case studies
  • Offers new pathways for converting biomass


Academics, students and researchers in Biotechnology and Bioenergy

Table of Contents

  • A. Introduction
    1. An economic analysis of biofuels: policies, trade, and employment opportunities
    1.1 Introduction and the current scenario
    1.2 Issues and limitations related to biofuel production: first-versus next-generation biofuels
    1.3 Biofuel policies in action
    1.4 International trade of biofuels
    1.5 Poverty, welfare, and employment aspects of biofuel production
    1.6 Concluding comments
    Further reading
    2. Technoeconomic analysis of biofuel production: concept, steps, and tools
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Necessity of biofuels
    2.3 Different tools for technoeconomic analysis
    2.4 Different process for downstream separation of bio-EtOH
    2.5 Case study: PI achieved using novel multistaged membrane scheme for biofuels production
    2.6 Conclusion
    B. Bioenergy: Potential feedstock
    3. Plants: a sustainable platform for second-generation biofuels and biobased chemicals
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Biomass composition and primary platform chemicals
    3.3 Biotechnological approaches to improve plants for various applications
    Further reading
    4. Energy plants (crops): potential natural and future designer plants
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Potential natural energy plants (crops)
    4.3 Biomass feedstocks for biorefinery use
    4.4 Genetic applications to improve productivity
    4.5 Concluding remarks
    Further reading
    5. Algal biorefinery: technoeconomic analysis
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Microalgae
    5.3 Microalgal biorefinery
    5.4 Technoeconomic analysis
    5.5 Analytical tools
    5.6 Case study
    5.7 Conclusions
    Further reading
    6. Tapping wastewater resource: why and how?
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Wastewater treatment and resource recovery
    6.3 Wastewater6.4 Nutrients recovery from wastewater
    6.5 Emerging wastewater treatment and nutrient recovery technologies
    6.6 Conclusions
    Further reading
    7. Bioenergy from food waste
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Circular economy in bioenergy
    7.3 Sources of food wastes, global status, and their energy values
    7.4 Food waste to bioenergy production
    7.5 Techniques for the production of bioenergy
    7.6 Value-added products from food wastes
    7.7 Future perspectives
    7.8 Conclusion
    Further reading
    C. Bioethanol: 2G and 3G
    8. Biorefinery involving terrestrial and marine lignocellulosics: concept, potential, and current status
    8.1 Biorefinery: an emerging concept
    8.2 Biomass for biorefineries: availability, cost, and supply logistics
    8.3 Biorefinery technologies for energy security and renewable chemicals: concept, potential, and current status
    8.4 Challenges in accomplishing the goal
    8.5 Environmental impact of biorefineries
    8.6 Conclusion
    9. Decongestion of lignocellulosics: critical assessment of physicochemical approaches
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Lignocellulose structure
    9.3 Physical and chemical pretreatment methods
    9.4 Physicochemical methods
    9.5 Conclusion and future directions
    Further reading
    10. Deconstruction of lignocellulosics: potential biological approaches
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Physicochemical features of LCB
    10.3 Need for pretreatment
    10.4 Available pretreatment methods
    10.5 Nonbiological versus biological pretreatment methods
    10.6 Objectives of biological pretreatment
    10.7 Tools of biological pretreatment
    10.8 Biological approaches to pretreat LCB
    10.9 Importance of biological approaches
    10.10 Factors affecting biological pretreatment
    10.11 Conclusion
    Further reading
    11. Lignin: value addition is key to profitable biomass biorefinery
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Lignocellulose biomass compositions
    11.3 Sources and types of lignin
    11.4 Lignin fragmentation
    11.5 Biological processing of lignin
    11.6 Current application of lignin
    11.7 The economic perspective of lignin
    11.8 Conclusion
    Further reading
    12. Downstream process: toward cost/energy effectiveness
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Selection of economical feedstocks
    12.3 Novel approaches for biomass utilization for Bio-EtOH production
    12.4 Tradition routes used for the production of biofuels
    12.5 Different traditional routes of downstream processing of bio-EtOH and their limitations
    12.6 Potential of novel membrane-based separation technology
    12.7 Downstream processing using membrane-based separation technology
    12.8 A novel concept of a membrane-integrated hybrid system for downstream processing
    12.9 Conclusions and prospects
    13. Process integration: hurdles and approaches to overcome
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Reaction improvements leading to reduced energy consumption
    13.3 Heat recovery in bioethanol processes
    13.4 Thermal integration of distillation columns
    13.5 Combined heat and power
    13.6 Process development challenges
    13.7 Conclusions
    14. Community-level second-generation bioethanol plant: a case study focused on a safety issue
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 The case study: the bioethanol production plant
    14.3 Hazards related to bioethanol: the flammability
    14.4 Pool fire: predictive models of thermal radiation
    14.5 The case study: pool fire deriving from pump leakage
    14.6 Bioethanol pool fire: results and discussion
    14.7 Conclusions
    List of abbreviations
    15. Third-generation bioethanol: status, scope, and challenges
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Bioethanol production from algal biomass
    15.3 Case study: bioethanol from Enteromorpha intestinalis
    15.4 Economic prospects of macroalgae biorefinery
    15.5 Scope for further research
    15.6 Conclusion
    D. Biobutanol: renewed interest
    16. Biobutanol, the forgotten biofuel candidate: latest research and future directions
    16.1 Advantages of biobutanol production
    16.2 Microbial producers
    16.3 Feedstocks for butanol production
    16.4 Strain improvement
    16.5 Process improvement
    16.6 Conclusions
    E. Biodiesel: potential sources and prospect
    17. Algal biodiesel: technology, hurdles, and future directions
    17.1 Introduction
    17.2 Biodiesel
    17.3 Technologies for biodiesel production
    17.4 Solvents used for oil extraction
    17.5 Hurdles
    17.6 Future prospects
    Further reading
    18. Microbial biodiesel: a comprehensive study toward sustainable biofuel production
    18.1 Introduction
    18.2 Fundamentals of biodiesel processing techniques
    18.3 Microbial lipid synthesis using various types of oleaginous microorganisms
    18.4 Summary and future prospects
    Further reading
    19. Assessment of farm-level biodiesel unit—a potential alternative for sustainable future
    19.1 Introduction
    19.2 Biodiesel production methodology
    19.3 Commercial-level biodiesel units
    19.4 Farm-level biodiesel units
    19.5 Life cycle assessment of farm-level biodiesel unit
    19.6 Case studies conducted across the globe for analysis of the feasibility of farm-level biodiesel production units
    19.7 Future prospective and challenges
    F. Biohydrogen: The cleanest fuel
    20. Biohydrogen: potential applications, approaches, and hurdles to overcome
    20.1 Introduction
    20.2 Various feedstocks for biohydrogen
    20.3 Biohydrogen generation from biophotolysis
    20.4 Potential applications of biohydrogen
    20.5 Challenges associated with biohydrogen
    20.6 Approaches to overcome the challenges related to biohydrogen
    20.7 Conclusion
    21. Biological routes of hydrogen production: critical assessment
    21.1 Introduction
    21.2 Mechanism of biological H2 production
    21.3 Routes of biohydrogen production
    21.4 Substrates as feedstocks for biohydrogen
    21.5 Technical challenges of biological routes
    21.6 Strategies to enhance microbial hydrogen production
    21.7 Future perspectives and conclusion
    22. Thermochemical routes applying biomass: critical assessment
    22.1 Introduction
    22.2 Circular economy approach to sustainability
    22.3 Thermochemical valorization processes for biomass
    22.4 Challenges and future prospects
    22.5 Conclusion
    Further reading
    23. Splitting of water: biological and nonbiological approaches
    23.1 Introduction
    23.2 Hydrogen production
    23.3 Application of nanotechnology in hydrogen production
    23.4 Water-splitting approaches
    23.5 Biological approaches
    23.6 Nonbiological approaches
    23.7 Conclusion and future aspects
    G. Biogas: the decentralised fuel
    24. Decentralized biogas plants: status, prospects, and challenges
    24.1 Introduction
    24.2 The role of renewable energy
    24.3 Biogas formation process
    24.4 Factors controlling anaerobic digestion
    24.5 Anaerobic digesters
    24.6 Types of organic matter used as feedstock to biodigesters
    24.7 Biogas technology overview and status
    24.8 The history of biogas
    24.9 Potential of small-scale biogas plants to improve livelihood
    24.10 Challenges to biogas commercialization in developing countries (e.g., African countries) and possible measures
    24.11 Challenges of small-scale digesters penetration
    24.12 Conclusion
    Further reading
    25. Biogas: microbiological research to enhance efficiency and regulation
    25.1 Introduction
    25.2 Conceptual framework
    25.3 Process parameters
    25.4 Practices to enhance efficiency and regulation of anaerobic digestion
    25.5 Research and development agenda for enhancing efficiency and regulation of AD
    25.6 Conclusion
    Further reading
    H. Syngas
    26. Biogas technology implementation in rural areas: a case study of Vhembe District in Limpopo Province, South Africa
    26.1 Introduction
    26.2 Objectives
    26.3 Study area
    26.4 Methods
    26.5 Findings
    26.6 Challenges of biogas technology penetration in rural areas
    26.7 Conclusion
    Further reading
    27. A biotechnological overview of syngas fermentation
    27.1 Introduction
    27.2 Syngas as feedstock
    27.3 Syngas fermentation
    27.4 Conclusion
    I. Bioelectricity
    28. Biofuel cell: existing formats, production level, constraints, and potential uses
    28.1 Introduction
    28.2 Production levels of bioelectricity through microbial fuel cells
    28.3 Production levels of hydrogen and other fuels employing microbial electrolysis cells
    28.4 Biofuel production level using microbial carbon-capture cells and microbial electrosynthesis cells
    28.5 Potential uses of microbial electrochemical technologies
    28.6 Major constraints and future outlook
    28.7 Conclusion
    29. Enzymatic and microbial biofuel cells: current developments and future directions
    29.1 Introduction
    29.2 A brief history of biofuel cell development
    29.3 Types of biofuel cells
    29.4 Characteristics of enzymatic and microbial fuel cells
    29.5 Recent development and new approaches in enzymatic as well as microbial fuel cell
    29.6 Application and challenges
    29.7 Future aspect of biofuel cells
    30. Biomass-based electrification
    30.1 Introduction
    30.2 Advantages of biomass-based electrification
    30.3 Primary routes for biomass-based electrification
    30.4 Economics of biomass-based electrification
    30.5 Biomass-based electrification in India: prospects and challenges
    30.6 Conclusions
    Further reading
    J. New directions
    31. Nanotechnological interventions in biofuel production
    31.1 Introduction
    31.2 Production around the globe
    31.3 Biofuel production
    31.4 Challenges in biofuel production
    31.5 Nanotechnology in biofuel production
    31.6 Nanocellulose in biofuel production
    31.7 Conclusion
    Further reading
    32. Carbon dioxide capture for biofuel production
    32.1 Introduction
    32.2 Carbon capture and storage
    32.3 Microbial application for biofuels
    32.4 Carbon dioxide capture using microalgae
    32.5 Carbon concentrating mechanism
    32.6 Biofuels
    32.7 Value-added products
    32.8 Concluding remarks and future perspectives
    Further reading
    33. Solar intervention in bioenergy
    33.1 Introduction
    33.2 Solar intervention in biodiesel production
    33.3 Solar intervention in bioethanol production
    33.4 Conclusion
    34. The pursuits of solar application for biofuel generation
    34.1 Introduction
    Further reading

Product details

  • No. of pages: 690
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2021
  • Published: October 31, 2021
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128228104
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128231333

About the Editor

Sanjay Sahay

Prof. Sanjay Sahay, Professor and Head, Department Of Botany, Government Postgraduate College. Dr Sahay obtained his PhD degree in fungal genetics from Patna University, and has post-doctoral research experience in yeast molecular biology from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Currently, he is working as Professor and head, Department of Botany, Government Postgraduate College, Biaora, India. His main research interest is 2G Bioethanol, cold-active enzymes and psychrophilic fungi. He has 26 years of teaching experience, guided 18 PhD students in Botany and Biotechnology, published more than 30 papers in peer reviewed journals, contributed 3 book chapters and submitted two patent applications in 2G bioethanol. He has been selected as Biotechnology National Associate by Department of Science and Technology, Government of India and Research Awardee by University Grants Commission, India

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Head, Department of Botany, Government Postgraduate College

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