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Handbook of Alkali-Activated Cements, Mortars and Concretes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781782422761, 9781782422884

Handbook of Alkali-Activated Cements, Mortars and Concretes

1st Edition

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Editors: Fernando Pacheco-Torgal Joao Labrincha C Leonelli A Palomo P Chindaprasit
Hardcover ISBN: 9781782422761
eBook ISBN: 9781782422884
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 3rd November 2014
Page Count: 852
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Table of Contents

    <li>List of contributors</li> <li>Woodhead Publishing Series in Civil and Structural Engineering</li> <li>Foreword</li> <li>1: Introduction to <i>Handbook of Alkali-activated Cements, Mortars and Concretes</i><ul><li>Abstract</li><li>1.1 Brief overview on alkali-activated cement-based binders (AACB)</li><li>1.2 Potential contributions of AACB for sustainable development and eco-efficient construction</li><li>1.3 Outline of the book</li></ul></li> <li>Part One: Chemistry, mix design and manufacture of alkali-activated, cement-based concrete binders<ul><li>2: An overview of the chemistry of alkali-activated cement-based binders<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>2.1 Introduction: alkaline cements</li><li>2.2 Alkaline activation of high-calcium systems: (Na,K)<sub>2</sub>O-CaO-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-SiO<sub>2</sub>-H<sub>2</sub>O</li><li>2.3 Alkaline activation of low-calcium systems: (N,K)<sub>2</sub>O-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-SiO<sub>2</sub>-H<sub>2</sub>O</li><li>2.4 Alkaline activation of hybrid cements</li><li>2.5 Future trends</li></ul></li><li>3: Crucial insights on the mix design of alkali-activated cement-based binders<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>3.1 Introduction</li><li>3.2 Cementitious materials</li><li>3.3 Alkaline activators: choosing the best activator for each solid precursor</li><li>3.4 Conclusions and future trends</li></ul></li><li>4: Reuse of urban and industrial waste glass as a novel activator for alkali-activated slag cement pastes: a case study<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>4.1 Introduction</li><li>4.2 Chemistry and structural characteristics of glasses</li><li>4.3 Waste glass solubility trials in highly alkaline media</li><li>4.4 Formation of sodium silicate solution from waste glasses dissolution: study by <sup>29</sup>Si NMR</li><li>4.5 Use of waste glasses as an activator in the preparation of alkali-activated slag cement pastes</li><li>4.6 Conclusions</li><li>Acknowledgements</li></ul></li></ul></li> <li>Part Two: The properties of alkali-activated cement, mortar and concrete binders<ul><li>5: Setting, segregation and bleeding of alkali-activated cement, mortar and concrete binders<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>5.1 Introduction</li><li>5.2 Setting times of cementitious materials and alkali-activated binder systems</li><li>5.3 Bleeding phenomena in concrete</li><li>5.4 Segregation and cohesion in concrete</li><li>5.5 Future trends</li><li>5.6 Sources of further information and advice</li></ul></li><li>6: Rheology parameters of alkali-activated geopolymeric concrete binders<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>6.1 Introduction: main forming techniques</li><li>6.2 Rheology of suspensions</li><li>6.3 Rheometry</li><li>6.4 Examples of rheological behaviors of geopolymers</li><li>6.5 Future trends</li></ul></li><li>7: Mechanical strength and Young's modulus of alkali-activated cement-based binders<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>7.1 Introduction</li><li>7.2 Types of prime materials &#x2013; solid precursors</li><li>7.3 Compressive and flexural strength of alkali-activated binders</li><li>7.4 Tensile strength of alkali-activated binders</li><li>7.5 Young's modulus of alkali-activated binders</li><li>7.6 Fiber-reinforced alkali-activated binders</li><li>7.7 Conclusions and future trends</li><li>7.8 Sources of further information and advice</li></ul></li><li>8: Prediction of the compressive strength of alkali-activated geopolymeric concrete binders by neuro-fuzzy modeling: a case studys<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>8.1 Introduction</li><li>8.2 Data collection to predict the compressive strength of geopolymer binders by neuro-fuzzy approach</li><li>8.3 Fuzzy logic: basic concepts and rules</li><li>8.4 Results and discussion of the use of neuro-fuzzy modeling to predict the compressive strength of geopolymer binders</li><li>8.5 Conclusions</li></ul></li><li>9: Analysing the relation between pore structure and permeability of alkali-activated concrete binders<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>9.1 Introduction</li><li>9.2 Alkali-activated metakaolin (AAM) binders</li><li>9.3 Alkali-activated fly ash (AAFA) binders</li><li>9.4 Alkali-activated slag (AAS) binders</li><li>9.5 Conclusions and future trends</li></ul></li><li>10: Assessing the shrinkage and creep of alkali-activated concrete binders<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>10.1 Introduction</li><li>10.2 Shrinkage and creep in concrete</li><li>10.3 Shrinkage in alkali-activated concrete</li><li>10.4 Creep in alkali-activated concrete</li><li>10.5 Factors affecting shrinkage and creep</li><li>10.6 Laboratory work and standard tests</li><li>10.7 Methods of predicting shrinkage and creep</li><li>10.8 Future trends</li></ul></li></ul></li> <li>Part Three: Durability of alkali-activated cement-based concrete binders<ul><li>11: The frost resistance of alkali-activated cement-based binders<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>11.1 Introduction</li><li>11.2 Frost in Portland cement concrete</li><li>11.3 Frost in alkali-activated binders &#x2013; general trends and remarks</li><li>11.4 Detailed review of frost resistance of alkali-activated slag (AAS) systems</li><li>11.5 Detailed review of frost resistance of alkali-activated alumino-silicate systems</li><li>11.6 Detailed review of frost resistance of mixed systems</li><li>11.7 Future trends</li><li>11.8 Sources of further information</li></ul></li><li>12: The resistance of alkali-activated cement-based binders to carbonation<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>12.1 Introduction</li><li>12.2 Testing methods used for determining carbonation resistance</li><li>12.3 Factors controlling carbonation of cementitious materials</li><li>12.4 Carbonation of alkali-activated materials</li><li>12.5 Remarks about accelerated carbonation testing of alkali-activated materials</li></ul></li><li>13: The corrosion behaviour of reinforced steel embedded in alkali-activated mortar<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>13.1 Introduction</li><li>13.2 Corrosion of reinforced alkali-activated concretes</li><li>13.3 Corrosion resistance in alkali-activated mortars</li><li>13.4 New palliative methods to prevent reinforced concrete corrosion: use of stainless steel reinforcements</li><li>13.5 New palliative methods to prevent reinforced concrete corrosion: use of corrosion inhibitors</li><li>13.6 Future trends</li><li>13.7 Sources of further information and advice</li><li>Acknowledgements</li></ul></li><li>14: The resistance of alkali-activated cement-based binders to chemical attack<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>14.1 Introduction</li><li>14.2 Resistance to sodium and magnesium sulphate attack</li><li>14.3 Resistance to acid attack</li><li>14.4 Decalcification resistance</li><li>14.5 Resistance to alkali attack</li><li>14.6 Conclusions</li><li>14.7 Sources of further information and advice</li></ul></li><li>15: Resistance to alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) of alkali-activated cement-based binders<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>15.1 Introduction</li><li>15.2 Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in Portland cement concrete</li><li>15.3 Alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in alkali-activated binders &#x2013; general remarks</li><li>15.4 AAR in alkali-activated slag (AAS)</li><li>15.5 AAR in alkali-activated fly ash and metakaolin</li><li>15.6 Future trends</li><li>15.7 Sources of further information</li></ul></li><li>16: The fire resistance of alkali-activated cement-basedconcrete binders<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>16.1 Introduction</li><li>16.2 Theoretical analysis of the fire performance of pure alkali-activated systems (Na<sub>2</sub>O/K<sub>2</sub>O)-SiO<sub>2</sub>-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub></li><li>16.3 Theoretical analysis of the fire performance of calcium containing alkali-activated systems CaO-(Na<sub>2</sub>O/K<sub>2</sub>O)-SiO<sub>2</sub>-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub></li><li>16.4 Theoretical analysis of the fire performance of iron containing alkali-activated systems FeO-(Na<sub>2</sub>O/K<sub>2</sub>O)-SiO<sub>2</sub>-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub></li><li>16.5 Fire resistant alkali-activated composites</li><li>16.6 Fire resistant alkali-activated cements, concretes and binders</li><li>16.7 Passive fire protection for underground constructions</li><li>16.8 Future trends</li><li>16.9 Sources of further information</li></ul></li><li>17: Methods to control efflorescence in alkali-activated cement-based materials<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>17.1 An introduction to efflorescence</li><li>17.2 Efflorescence formation in alkali-activated binders</li><li>17.3 Efflorescence formation control in alkali-activated binders</li><li>17.4 Conclusions</li></ul></li></ul></li> <li>Part Four: Applications of alkali-activated cement-based concrete binders<ul><li>18: Reuse of aluminosilicate industrial waste materials in the production of alkali-activated concrete binders<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>18.1 Introduction</li><li>18.2 Bottom ashes</li><li>18.3 Slags (other than blast furnace slags (BFS)) and other wastes from metallurgy</li><li>18.4 Mining wastes</li><li>18.5 Glass and ceramic wastes</li><li>18.6 Construction and demolition wastes (CDW)</li><li>18.7 Wastes from agro-industry</li><li>18.8 Wastes from chemical and petrochemical industries</li><li>18.9 Future trends</li><li>18.10 Sources of further information and advice</li><li>Acknowledgement</li></ul></li><li>19: Reuse of recycled aggregate in the production of alkali-activated concrete<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>19.1 Introduction</li><li>19.2 A brief discussion on recycled aggregates</li><li>19.3 Properties of alkali-activated recycled aggregate concrete</li><li>19.4 Other alkali-activated recycled aggregate concrete</li><li>19.5 Future trends</li><li>19.6 Sources of further information and advice</li></ul></li><li>20: Use of alkali-activated concrete binders for toxic waste immobilization<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>20.1 Introduction and EU environmental regulations</li><li>20.2 Definition of waste</li><li>20.3 Overview of inertization techniques</li><li>20.4 Cold inertization techniques: geopolymers for inertization of heavy metals</li><li>20.5 Cold inertization techniques: geopolymers for inertization of anions</li><li>20.6 Immobilization of complex solid waste</li><li>20.7 Immobilization of complex liquid waste</li><li>20.8 Conclusions</li></ul></li><li>21: The development of alkali-activated mixtures for soil stabilisation<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>21.1 Introduction</li><li>21.2 Basic mechanisms of chemical soil stabilisation</li><li>21.3 Chemical stabilisation techniques</li><li>21.4 Soil suitability for chemical treatment</li><li>21.5 Traditional binder materials</li><li>21.6 Alkali-activated waste products as environmentally sustainable alternatives</li><li>21.7 Financial costs of traditional versus alkali-activated waste binders</li><li>21.8 Recent research into the engineering performance of alkali-activated binders for soil stabilisation</li><li>21.9 Recent research into the mineralogical and microstructural characteristics of alkali-activated binders for soil stabilisation</li><li>21.10 Conclusions and future trends</li></ul></li><li>22: Alkali-activated cements for protective coating of OPC concrete<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>22.1 Introduction</li><li>22.2 Basic properties of alkali-activated metakaolin (AAM) coating</li><li>22.3 Durability/stability of AAM coating</li><li>22.4 On-site trials of AAM coatings</li><li>22.5 The potential of developing other alkali-activated materials for OPC concrete coating</li><li>22.6 Conclusions and future trends</li></ul></li><li>23: Performance of alkali-activated mortars for the repair and strengthening of OPC concrete<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>23.1 Introduction</li><li>23.2 Concrete patch repair</li><li>23.3 Strengthening concrete structures using fibre sheets</li><li>23.4 Conclusions and future trends</li></ul></li><li>24: The properties and durability of alkali-activated masonry units<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>24.1 Introduction</li><li>24.2 Alkali activation of industrial wastes to produce masonry units</li><li>24.3 Physical properties of alkali-activated masonry units</li><li>24.4 Mechanical properties of alkali-activated masonry units</li><li>24.5 Durability of alkali-activated masonry units</li><li>24.6 Summary and future trends</li></ul></li></ul></li> <li>Part Five: Life cycle assessment (LCA) and innovative applications of alkali-activated cements and concretes<ul><li>25: Life cycle assessment (LCA) of alkali-activated cements and concretes<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>25.1 Introduction</li><li>25.2 Literature review</li><li>25.3 Development of a unified method to compare alkali-activated binders with cementitious materials</li><li>25.4 Discussion: implications for the life cycle assessment (lCa) methodology</li><li>25.5 Future trends in alkali-activated mixtures:considerations on global warming potential (GWP)</li><li>25.6 Conclusion</li><li>25.7 Sources of further information and advice</li></ul></li><li>26: Alkali-activated concrete binders as inorganic thermal insulator materials<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>26.1 Introduction</li><li>26.2 The various ways to prepare foam-based alkali-activated binders</li><li>26.3 Investigation of the foam network</li><li>26.4 Microstructures and porosity</li></ul></li><li>27: Alkali-activated cements for photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>Acknowledgements</li><li>27.1 Introduction</li><li>27.2 Experimental technique</li><li>27.3 Microstructure and hydration mechanism of alkali-activated granulated blast furnace slag (AGBFS) cements</li><li>27.4 Alkali-activated slag-based cementitious material (ASCM) coupled with Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> for photocatalytic degradation of Congo red (CR) dye</li><li>27.5 Alkali-activated steel slag-based (ASS) cement for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye</li><li>27.6 Alkali-activated fly ash-based (AFA) cement for photocatalytic degradation of MB dye</li><li>27.7 Conclusions</li><li>27.8 Future trends</li><li>27.9 Sources of further information and advice</li></ul></li><li>28: Innovative applications of inorganic polymers (geopolymers)<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>28.1 Introduction</li><li>28.2 Techniques for functionalising inorganic polymers</li><li>28.3 Inorganic polymers with electronic properties</li><li>28.4 Photoactive composites with oxide nanoparticles</li><li>28.5 Inorganic polymers with biological functionality</li><li>28.6 Inorganic polymers as dye carrying media</li><li>28.7 Inorganic polymers as novel chromatography media</li><li>28.8 Inorganic polymers as ceramic precursors</li><li>28.9 Inorganic polymers with luminescent functionality</li><li>28.10 Inorganic polymers as novel catalysts</li><li>28.11 Inorganic polymers as hydrogen storage media</li><li>28.12 Inorganic polymers containing aligned nanopores</li><li>28.13 Inorganic polymers reinforced with organic fibres</li><li>28.14 Future trends</li><li>28.15 Sources of further information and advice</li></ul></li></ul></li> <li>Index</li>


This book provides an updated state-of-the-art review on new developments in alkali-activation. The main binder of concrete, Portland cement, represents almost 80% of the total CO2 emissions of concrete which are about 6 to 7% of the Planet’s total CO2 emissions. This is particularly serious in the current context of climate change and it could get even worse because the demand for Portland cement is expected to increase by almost 200% by 2050 from 2010 levels, reaching 6000 million tons/year. Alkali-activated binders represent an alternative to Portland cement having higher durability and a lower CO2 footprint.

Key Features

  • Reviews the chemistry, mix design, manufacture and properties of alkali-activated cement-based concrete binders
  • Considers performance in adverse environmental conditions.
  • Offers equal emphasis on the science behind the technology and its use in civil engineering.


civil engineers, contractors working in construction and materials scientists in both industry and academia.


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2015
3rd November 2014
Woodhead Publishing
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:


"This handbook is a great impetus for an accelerated commercialization of an eco-friendly alternative binder technology with more in-depth understanding of its strength, weakness, opportunities and threats...will go a long way to fulfil the essential requirements of transferring the technology from the laboratory to the field."

Dr Anjan K. Chatterjee, Fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering and Chairman of Conmat Technologies Pvt Ltd., Kolkata (From the foreword)

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editors

Fernando Pacheco-Torgal

F.Pacheco Torgal is a Principal Investigator at C-TAC Research Centre, University of Minho. He holds the Counsellor title of the Portuguese Engineers Association. Authored almost 350 publications some that were cited by Highly Cited authors (SCI h-index>60) and in high impact factor journals like Nature Reviews Mat. (IF=52), Nature Energy (IF=47), Progress in Mater. Science (I.F=24), Physics Reports (IF=20) and Nature Climate Change (I.F=19). Citations received in ISI WoS journals-2819 (h-index=29), citations received in Scopus journals- 3580 (h-index=31). Citations prediction for the year 2029 (around 5.500 citations on WoS, 7.500 on Scopus (already has 7000 MR, h=45) and 16.000 citations on scholar google). Member of the editorial board of 9 international journals, 4 referenced on the Web of Science and three referenced on Scopus. Grant assessor for several scientific institutions in 14 countries, UK, US, Netherlands, China, France, Australia, Croatia, Kazakhstan, Belgium, Spain, Czech Republic, Saudi Arabia, UA.Emirates, Poland and also the EU Commission. Invited reviewer for 133 international journals for which he reviewed so far almost 900 papers. Lead Editor of 19 international books (9 being on the Master Book List of Web of Science).

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Researcher, C-TAC Research Centre, University of Minho, Portugal

Joao Labrincha

João Labrincha is Associate Professor in the Materials and Ceramics Engineering Department of the University of Aveiro, Portugal, and member of the CICECO research unit. He has registered 22 patent applications, and has published over 170 papers.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Aveiro, Portugal

C Leonelli

Affiliations and Expertise

Universitá degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy

A Palomo

Affiliations and Expertise

Torroja Institute, Spain

P Chindaprasit

Affiliations and Expertise

Khon Kaen University, Thailand