Handbook of Advanced Ceramics - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123854698, 9780123854704

Handbook of Advanced Ceramics

2nd Edition

Materials, Applications, Processing, and Properties

Editor-in-Chiefs: Shigeyuki Somiya
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123854698
eBook ISBN: 9780123854704
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st May 2013
Page Count: 1258
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This new handbook will be an essential resource for ceramicists. It includes contributions from leading researchers around the world and includes sections on Basic Science of Advanced Ceramics, Functional Ceramics (electro-ceramics and optoelectro-ceramics) and engineering ceramics.

Key Features

  • Contributions from more than 50 leading researchers from around the world
  • Covers basic science of advanced ceramics, functional ceramics (electro-ceramics and optoelectro-ceramics), and engineering ceramics
  • Approximately 750 illustrations


Ceramicists, Materials Scientists

Table of Contents


Preface to the First Edition

Preface to the Second Edition

Acknowledgments to the First Edition

Acknowledgments to the Second Edition

List of Editors

List of Contributors

Fine Ceramics

Part 1: Methods for Characterization of Advanced Ceramics

1.1: Electron Microscopy

Chapter 1.1.1. The Latest Analytical Electron Microscope and its Application to Ceramics

1 Introduction

2 General Overview of Analytical Electron Microscope

3 Transmission Electron Microscopy

4 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

5 Analysis Method

6 Application of Analytical Electron Microscopy to Ceramics

7 Conclusion


Part 2: Advanced Carbons

Chapter 2.1. Advanced Carbon Materials

1 Carbon Materials

2 Chemical Bonding and Carbon Families

3 Structure

4 Carbonization and Graphitization

5 Various Carbon Materials

6 Importance of Textures in Carbon Materials


Chapter 2.2. Novel Carbon-Based Nanomaterials: Graphene and Graphitic Nanoribbons

1 Introduction

2 Theoretical Studies on Physical–Chemical Properties of Graphene Nanoribbons

3 Defects in Graphene and Graphene Nanoribbons

4 Synthesis Methods of Graphene and Graphitic Nanoribbons

5 Role of Chemical Doping in Graphene Nanoribbons

6 Experimental Detection of Edge-States in Graphene Nanoribbons

7 Graphene Applications

8 Future Work



Chapter 2.3. Nanodiamond—An Emerging Nano-carbon Material

1 Diamond as ceramics

2 Discovery of Nano Single-Crystalline Diamond

3 Characteristic Properties and Behaviors of NSCD

4 Potential Applications of NSCD

5 Summary and Perspectives



Chapter 2.4. Catalytic Carbons – Cathode Catalytic Carbons

1 Introduction

2 Carbon Alloys


Chapter 2.5. Nuclear Graphite

1 Introduction

2 Outline of HTGRS

3 R&DS for VHTR Developments

4 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 2.6. Carbon Materials for Si Semiconductor Manufacturing

1 Introduction

2 Silicon Semiconductor Manufacturing Processes

3 Manufacturing Processes for Polycrystalline Silicon

4 Manufacturing Process for Monocrystalline Silicon

5 Processes of Machining a Silicon Single-Crystal Ingot

6 Manufacturing Process of Epitaxial Wafers

7 CVD Membrane Forming Process

8 Dry-Etching Process

9 Ion Implantation Process

10 Thermal Diffusion Process

Chapter 2.7. Isotropic Graphite for Electric Discharge Machining

1 What is Electric Discharge Machining?

2 What is a Mold?

3 Choice Between Electric Discharge Machining and Cutting to Best Suit the Purpose

4 Principle of Electric Discharge Machining

5 Kinds of Electrode used in Electric Discharge Machining

6 Kinds of Graphite Electrode Material for Electrical Discharge Machining

7 High-performance Graphite

8 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 2.8. Carbon Fibers

1 Background

2 PAN-based Carbon Fibers

3 Pitch-based Carbon Fibers

4 Rayon and Bio-based Precursors



Chapter 2.9. Activated Carbon Fibers

1 Introduction

2 Preparation of ACFS

3 Activated Carbon Nanofibers (ACNFs) and Activated Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (AMWCNTS)

4 Some Examples on ACF Applications

5 Conclusions



Chapter 2.10. Carbon–Carbon Composites

1 Fibrous Preforms

2 Processing of C/CS

3 Properties of C/CS

4 Oxidation Protection of C/CS

5 Applications of C/CS


Chapter 2.11. Carbon Materials used for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

1 Introduction

2 Operating Principles and Characteristics of PEFCs

3 Separators

4 Current Collectors

5 Electrocatalyst

6 Proton Conductor

7 Conclusion


Chapter 2.12. Carbons for Supercapacitors

1 Electric Double-Layer Capacitors

2 General Aspects of Carbons for EDLCs

3 Template Method for Pore Structure Control of Electrode Carbons

4 Nitrogen-Enriched Carbons

5 Exfoliated Carbon Fibers

6 Carbon-Coated Transition-Metal Carbides

7 Carbon Xerogels with Conductive Polymer Nano-Coating

8 Summary


Part 3: Advanced Non-Oxide Ceramics

Chapter 3.1. Silicon Carbide and Other Carbides: From Stars to the Advanced Ceramics

1 Introduction

2 Carbides in Nature

3 Transition Metal Carbides

4 Covalent Carbides

5 Synthesis

6 Extreme Environment Application

7 Importance of Natural and Synthetic Carbides


Chapter 3.2. Review and Overview of Silicon Nitride and SiAlON, Including their Applications


Sub Chapter 1 High Thermal Conductivity Silicon Nitride Ceramics

Sub Chapter 2 Development of Silicon Nitride for High-Temperature Use

Sub Chapter 3 Low-Friction Si3N4 Ceramics with Carbon Fiber

Sub Chapter 4 Frictional Properties and Microstructure of Si3N4 Containing Mo and Fe Compounds Prepared by Hot Pressing [1,2]

Sub Chapter 5 Low-cost Fabrication of Silicon Nitride Ceramics

Sub Chapter 6 High-Strength and High-Toughness Silicon Nitride Ceramics

Sub Chapter 7 Development of Fine-Grained Silicon Nitride Ceramics with a Small Amount of Sintering Additive

Sub Chapter 8 Development of Advanced α-SiAlON Ceramics

Sub Chapter 9 Applications

9.1 Automotive Applications

9.2 Industrial Applications

Chapter 3.3. Recent Progress in Zr(Hf)B2 Based Ultrahigh Temperature Ceramics

1 Introduction

2 Processing of Zr(Hf)B2-Based UHTCs and their Composites

3 Oxidation Behavior of Zr(Hf)B2 Ceramics and Composites

4 Mechanical Properties

5 Deformation Behavior of UHTCs

6 Summary



Chapter 3.4. Ceramic Bearings and Seals

1 Introduction

2 Ceramic Bearings

3 Ceramic Sliding Bearings and Mechanical Seals

4 Corrosion of Ceramic Sealing and Bearing Materials


Part 4: Advanced Ceramics Related to Energy Generation and Storage

Chapter 4.1. Hydrogen-Production Technologies Using Amorphous Silica Membranes

1 Introduction

2 Pore-Size Control of Silica Membranes Prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition

3 Membrane Performance Under Hydrothermal Conditions

4 Prediction of the Performance of Membrane Reactors

5 Dehydrogenating Organic Hydrides

6 Decomposing Hydrogen Sulfide

7 Methane Steam Reforming

8 Summary


Chapter 4.2. All-Solid-State Li Battery for Future Energy Technology

1 Introduction

2 Honeycomb-Type 3D Battery

3 All-Solid-State Battery With 3DOM Structure

4 Summary


Chapter 4.3. Advanced Ceramics for Nuclear Applications

1 Introduction

2 Basics of Neutron Irradiation Effects with Matter

3 Radiation Damage of Advanced Ceramics

4 Advanced Ceramics for Fission Reactors and Fuel Cycle

5 Advanced Ceramics for Fusion Reactors

6 Conclusion


Part 5: Advanced Optical Ceramics

Chapter 5.1. Glass-Ceramics

1 Introduction

2 Glass-Ceramics With Minimal Thermal Expansion

3 Glass-Ceramics With Special Optical Properties

4 Machinable Glass-Ceramics

5 High-strength and High-toughness Glass-ceramics

6 Biomaterials

7 Products With Special Electrical and Magnetic Properties

8 Applications in Energy Technology


Chapter 5.2. New Glasses for Photonics

1 Introduction

2 Nonlinear Optical Glass

3 Magneto-optical Glass

4 Other Important Glasses for Photonics

5 Summary


Chapter 5.3. Optical Resonators and Amplifiers: Fiber, Waveguide, and Spherical Lasers

1 Introduction

2 Fiber Lasers and Fiber Amplifiers

3 Spherical Cavity Glass Lasers

4 Concluding Remarks


Part 6: Advanced Electroceramics

Chapter 6.1. Multi-layered Ceramic Capacitors

1 High-Capacitance MLCCs With Nickel Internal Electrodes

2 Nonlinear Dielectricity of MLCCs

3 Capacitance Aging in MLCCs

4 Size Effect of BaTiO3 Ceramics

5 Reliability of MLCCS – Lifetime in HALT

6 Computer Simulation and Further Prospective of MLCC Technology


Chapter 6.2. Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics

1 Introduction

2 Perovskite-structured Piezoelectric Ceramics

3 Summary


Chapter 6.3. Heat Capacity Study of Functional Ceramics

1 Introduction

2 Thermodynamic Properties of Formation and Growth of Ferroelectric Nanoregion in Relaxors

3 Thermodynamic Studies of Giant Particle-Size Effect on the Phase Transition in Dielectric Crystals

4 Conclusion


Chapter 6.4. New Frontiers Opened Up Through Function Cultivation in Transparent Oxides

1 Introduction

2 Research Concept and Strategy

3 Light metal TCO: 12CaO·7Al2O3 with Built-in Nano-Porous Structure

4 Transparent Amorphous Oxide Semiconductors

5 Iron-Pnictide Superconductors

6 Future Challenge: Ubiquitous Element Strategy



Chapter 6.5. Rapid Prototyping of Ceramics

1 Introduction

2 Process Chain in Ceramic Solid Freeform Fabrication

3 3D Additive Manufacturing Techniques

4 Data File Formats

5 Applications of RP Techniques


Part 7: Advanced Bio- and Medical Ceramics

Chapter 7.1. Biomorphous Ceramics from Lignocellulosic Preforms

1 Introduction

2 Lignocellulosic Cellular Preforms

3 Processing

4 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

5 Applications

6 Conclusions


Chapter 7.2. Application of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation for In Situ Monitoring of Interfacial Phenomena between Bioceramics and Cells

1 Introduction

2 Interface Between Bioceramics and Cells

3 In Situ Monitoring of Interfacial Phenomena

4 Summary


Chapter 7.3. Anticancer Diagnoses and Treatments Using Ferrite Nanoparticles and Bulk

1 Introduction

2 High-Performance MRI Contrast Agent

3 Mediators for Self-controlled Induction Heating

4 Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping for Monitoring Cancer Metastasis


Part 8: Advanced Combustion Engine Parts

Chapter 8.1. Diesel Particulate Filters

1 Introduction

2 Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM)

3 Limits

4 Working Principle of DPFS

5 Design and Properties of DPFS

6 Ceramic DPFS

7 Market Situation

8 Outlook


Part 9: Advanced Ceramics Related to Mechanical Properties and Fracture Mechanics

Chapter 9.1. Mechanical Properties of Ceramics

1 Important Properties

2 Elastic Properties

3 Plasticity, Compressive Strength, Yield Strength, and Hardness

4 Thermal Strains and Thermal Stresses

5 Thermal Diffusion

6 Toughness

7 Strength

8 Strength Degradation with Time

9 Final Remarks


Chapter 9.2. Testing and Evaluation of Mechanical Properties

1 Introduction

2 Fracture Strength

3 Fatigue and Slow Crack Growth

4 Creep and Creep Rupture


Chapter 9.3. Microstructural Control and Mechanical Properties

1 Introduction

2 Grain Morphology Control

3 Fibrous Grain Alignment

4 Grain Boundary Phase Control

5 Porous Structure Control


Chapter 9.4. Determination of the Mechanical Reliability of Brittle Materials

1 Introduction

2 Lifetime Prediction Expressions

3 Measurement Procedures

4 Uncertainty Calculations

5 Summary



Chapter 9.5. Fracture Mechanics

1 Introduction

2 Linear-elastic Fracture Mechanics

3 Methods for the Determination of Fracture Toughness KIc

4 Mode-II and Mixed-Mode Fracture Toughness

5 Fracture of Piezoelectric Ceramics

6 R-Curve Behavior

7 Subcritical Crack Growth

8 The Loading Parameter C∗


Chapter 9.6. Fracture Mechanics Measurements


1 Introduction

2 Fracture Mechanics Background

3 Fracture Mechanics Specimens

4 Double Torsion Test

5 Tests Based on Flexural Loading

6 Indentation Methods

7 Double Cleavage Drilled Compression

8 Interpretation and Use of Fracture Mechanics Data

9 Summary



Chapter 9.7. Layered Ceramics

1 Introduction

2 Residual Stresses in Layered Ceramics

3 Mechanical Behavior

4 Design Guidelines to Optimize Strength and Toughness

5 Outlook


Chapter 9.8. Environmentally Enhanced Fracture of Glasses and Ceramics

1 Introduction

2 Early Studies

3 Direct Crack Growth Studies

4 Mathematical Modeling

5 Polycrystalline Materials

6 Summary

7 What is yet Unknown



Chapter 9.9. Development of Superplastic Ceramics

1 Introduction

2 Mechanical Properties and Mechanism of Superplasticity

3 Superplastic Ceramics

4 Application of Superplasticity


Part 10: Advanced Ceramic Coating: Science and Technology

Chapter 10.1. Joining Ceramics and Metals

1 Introduction

2 Interface Chemistries

3 Physical Contact at Interface

4 Surface Roughness and Damage of Bond Face of Ceramics

5 Thermal Stress

6 Joining Process

7 Summary


Chapter 10.2. Heat-Resistant Coating Technology for Gas Turbines

1 Introduction

2 Development of Heat-Resistant Superalloys for Gas Turbines

3 Development of Heat-Resistant Coatings for Gas Turbines

4 Development of Thermal Barrier Coatings

5 Damage Modes Observed in Thermal Barrier Coatings

6 Heat-Resistant Evaluation Technology

7 Conclusions


Chapter 10.3. Application of High-Temperature Corrosion-Resistant Ceramics and Coatings under Aggressive Corrosion Environment in Waste-To-Energy Boilers

1 Introduction

2 Corrosion Environments of Waste-To-Energy Boilers

3 Application of Advanced Refractory Materials

4 Advances in High-Temperature Corrosion-resistant Materials and Coatings

5 Field Experiences of Cermet and Ceramic Coatings for Superheaters

6 Deterioration Mechanisms of Coatings

7 Summary


Chapter 10.4. A New Thick Film Coating Technology-Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition

1 Introduction

2 CVD for High-Speed Deposition

3 YSZ Thermal Barrier Coating

4 α-Al2O3 Coating for Cutting Tools

5 HAp Coating for Dental Implants

6 Summary


Chapter 10.5. Aerosol Deposition Method for Room-Temperature Ceramic Coating and Its Applications

1 Introduction

2 Aerosol Deposition Method

3 Room-Temperature Impact Consolidation (RTIC)

4 Deposition Properties and Layer Patterning

5 Electrical Properties and Recovering Properties by Heat Treatment

6 Antiplasma Corrosion Components Using AD-yttrium Oxide Layer [18]

7 Application to MEMS Devices

8 Potential of Energy Application

9 Future Prospects for Using AD Methods in Material Integration Technology


Part 11: Processing, and Related Materials, and Their Applications and Properties

11.1: Advanced Powder

Chapter 11.1.1. Ceramic Powders for Advanced Ceramics: What are Ideal Ceramic Powders for Advanced Ceramics?

1 Introduction

2 Characteristics of Powders [8,11,12,15]

3 Methods to Produce Fine Ceramic Powders [1,5,11,12,15,19–23][1,5,11,12,15,19–23]

4 Hydrothermal Syntheses and Characteristics of Hydrothermal Powders [4,5,11,25,36–45][4,5,11,25,36–45]

5 Summary



Chapter 11.1.2. Sol–Gel Process and Applications

1 Introduction

2 Chemical Reactions in Sol–Gel Solutions

3 Formation of Shapes and Microstructures

4 Applications

5 Recent Topics on Sol–Gel Method

6 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 11.1.3. Colloidal Processing Fundamentals

1 Introduction of Powder Processing

2 Colloidal Processing Concepts and Theories

3 Rheological Properties of Ceramic Slurries

4 Processing Additives

5 Forming Techniques

6 Summary and Outlook


Chapter 11.1.4. Solvothermal Synthesis of Metal Oxides

1 Introduction

2 Safety Consideration

3 Solvothermal Synthesis of Metal Oxides – Case Studies

4 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 11.1.5. Supercritical Hydrothermal Synthesis

1 Introduction

2 Basic Principles of Supercritical Hydrothermal Synthesis

3 Apparatus

4 NP Synthesis by Supercritical Hydrothermal Synthesis

5 Supercritical Hydrothermal Synthesis of Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Nanoparticles

6 Self-assembly of Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Nanoparticles

7 Hybrid Nanomaterials

8 Summary


Chapter 11.1.6. Controlled Thermal Plasma Processing of Ceramic Nanopowders

1 Introduction

2 Controlled RF Thermal Plasma Processing of TiO2-based Ultrafine Particles

3 Summary


Chapter 11.1.7. Development of Easy-Handling Ceramic Nanoparticles: Present and Future

1 Introduction

2 Experimental

3 Core–Shell-Type Ceria/Polymer Nanoparticles

4 Control of Particle Size

5 Change of Row Materials

6 Formation Mechanism

7 Application of Nanoparticle

8 Core–Shell-Type Other Oxide

9 Future

10 Summary


Chapter 11.1.8. Sonoprocess of Ceramic Materials

1 Introduction

2 Apparatus for Sonoprocess –How to Create Sonochemical Field

3 Sonochemical Effects on Ceramic Process in Practice



Chapter 11.1.9. Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Materials Prepared Through Supramolecular Assembly

1 Introduction

2 Cerasome as a Liposomal Organic–Inorganic Nanohybrid Hollow Spheres

3 Nanohybrid Coatings via Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Water-Soluble Precursor

4 Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Hollow Capsules Prepared by Colloid Templating

5 Summary



Chapter 11.1.10. Precursor-Derived Ceramics

1 Introduction

2 Precursor Synthesis

3 Polymer-to-Ceramic Transformation

4 High Temperature Properties

5 Applications

6 Conclusions


Chapter 11.1.11. Combinatorial Nanoscience and Technology for Solid-State Materials

1 The Why and How of Combinatorial Technology in Materials Research

2 Instrumentation of Combinatorial Technology

3 Combinatorial Methods Applied to Ceramics Research

4 Discoveries Made by Combinatorial Technology

5 High-Tech Venture: Combinatorial Material Business

6 Conclusion



11.2: Advanced Non-Powder

Chapter 11.2.1. Stereo Fabric Modeling Technology in Manufacturing Ceramics


Chapter 11.2.2. Porous Ceramic Materials

1 Introduction

2 Partial Sintering

3 Sacrificial Fugitives

4 Replica Templates

5 Direct Foaming

6 Gas Permeability

7 Summary


Chapter 11.2.3. Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) Method, Systems, and Applications

1 Introduction

2 Historical Background

3 Suitable Materials For SPS Process

4 Principles of the SPS Process

5 Examples of SPS Process Applications

6 Summary and Outlook


Chapter 11.2.4. Functionally Graded Materials

1 Fundamentals of FGMS

2 Natural Materials with Graded Structures

3 Fabrication Processes

4 Typical Applications of FGMS

5 Future of FGMS


Chapter 11.2.5. Nature Technology for the Creation of Innovative Life

1 LifeStyles and Technologies Based on Environmental Issues [1]

2 A System to Create Nature Technology [1]

3 Some Present Examples [1]

4 Creation of the Functional Materials by Hydrothermal Reaction which Support the Earth Circulation


Chapter 11.2.6. Recent Advances in HIP Technology and Atmosphere Control in HIP Treatment

1 Introduction

2 HIP Technology

3 Conclusions and Future Perspectives




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© Academic Press 2013
Academic Press
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About the Editor-in-Chief

Shigeyuki Somiya


"This handbook contains extensive amounts of data and property information on a broad range of advanced ceramic materials along with a variety of applications.  It is primarily a handbook for those working with new cutting edge ceramic materials and processing technologies rather than traditional ceramics, since its focus is on certain types of non-traditional materials."--IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, March-April 2014
"Coverage encompasses methods for characterization; carbons, non-oxide ceramics; ceramics related to energy generation and storage, optical applications, bio- and medical applications, combustion engine parts, and fracture mechanics; the science and technology of coating; and processing and related materials."--Reference & Research Book News, October 2013