Handbook of Academic Learning

Handbook of Academic Learning

Construction of Knowledge

1st Edition - December 20, 1996

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  • Author: Gary Phye
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080532936

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The Handbook of Academic Learning provides a comprehensive resource for educational and cognitive psychologists, as well as educators themselves, on the mechanisms and processes of academic learning. Beginning with general themes that cross subject and age level, the book discusses what motivates students to learn and how knowledge can be made personal for better learning and remembering. Individual chapters identify proven effective teaching methods for the specific domains of math, reading, writing, science, and critical problem solving, how students learn within those domains, and how learning can be accurately assessed for given domains and age levels. The Handbook takes a constructivist perspective to academic learning, emphasizing the construction of personal knowledge of an academic nature. Constructivism within the context of learning theory is viewed as involving an active learner that constructs an academic knowledge base through the development of cognitive strategies and metacognition. The book discusses the development of basic literacy skills that provide the foundation for higher order thinking and problem solving. Constructivism recognizes the social dimension of classroom learning and emphasizes the motivational elements of self-regulation and volition as essential learner characteristics. Written by authors who have first-hand experience with both theory development and the development of authentic classroom instructional techniques, the Handbook empowers educators to develop, implement, and field-test authentic instructional practices at their school site. The book provides a review of the literature, theory, research, and skill techniques for effective teaching and learning.

Key Features

  • Identifies effective teaching with specific techniques
  • Covers elementary school through high school
  • Discusses teaching methods for all main subject areas: reading, writing, math, science, and critical thinking
  • Identifies how students learn to learn
  • Reviews theory, research, techniques, and assessment
  • Contains field tested examples for the educational professional at the school site
  • Provides a resource for staff development


Educational psychologists, cognitive psychologists, psychologists in test and measurement. Educators.

Table of Contents

  • Academic Learning: Perspectives, Theory, and Models.
    The Social Construction of Learning:

    Functional Psychology.
    Situated Learning.
    Learning and Remembering: The Basis for Personal Knowledge Construction:
    Theory and Practice.
    Classroom Learning.
    Personal Knowledge Construction.
    Remembering and Academic Problem Solving.
    Developing a Problem-Solving Environment.
    Promoting Personal Knowledge Construction.
    School Learning and Motivation:
    Perspectives on Motivation.
    Overview of the Model.
    Teacher-Directed Interventions.
    Student Self-Regulation Strategies.
    Self-Regulatory Dimensions of Academic Learning and Motivation:
    Self-Regulation of Achievers and Underachievers.
    Dimensions of Academic Self-Regulation.
    Research on Self-Regulatory Beliefs and Processes.
    Constructing the Concept of Aptitude:
    Implications for the Assessment of Analogical Reasoning.
    Changing Conceptualization of Aptitude.
    Current Approaches to the Assessment of Analogical Reasoning.
    New Directions in Assessing Analogical Reasoning.
    Teaching "How to Learn" within Domains:
    Elementary Reading Instruction:

    Excellent Reading as Constructively Responsive Reading.
    The Information Processing Components That Interact to Produce Constructively Responsive Reading.
    Emergent Reading during the Preschool Years: Promoting the Development of Language Competence.
    Phonemic Awareness: An Important Metalinguistic Competence that Can Be Developed through Instruction during Kindergarten and Grade 1.
    Experimental Research on Primary-Grades Instruction: Whole Language versus Explicit Teaching of Decoding.
    Comprehension Strategies Instruction.
    What Excellent Elementary Literacy Teachers Do.
    Primary Grades 5 Instruction.
    Postscript for the Elementary Years.
    A Cognitive Perspective on the Assessment, Diagnosis, and Remediation of Reading Skills:
    An Overview of the LATAS Model of Assessment and Educational Intervention.
    The Theoretical Underpinnings of the LATAS Diagnoses and Interventions.
    Five Characteristics of Teacher-Useful Reading Diagnosis and Remediation.
    The Results of Instructional Interventions Based on LATAS Assessments.
    Other Intervention Strategies Used at LATAS.
    User-Friendly Properties of the LATAS Procedures.
    Final Comments.
    Psychological Foundations of Elementary Writing Instruction:
    Endogenous Development.
    Exogenous Learning.
    Dialectical Constructivism.
    An Eclectic Approach to Elementary Writing Instruction.
    Teaching Composition: Current Theories and Practices:
    Conventional Approaches to Teaching Writing.
    Current Theoretical Perspectives About Teaching Writing.
    Situations for Teaching Writing.
    Managing Complexities and Complications in Teaching Writing.
    Support for Teaching Writing.
    Developing Student Understanding in Elementary School Mathematics: A Cognitive Perspective:
    Children's Thinking.
    Mathematics (Grades 7-12):
    A New Look at Mathematics.
    Constructivism and Reform in Mathematics Education.
    A Few Exemplary Studies.
    Some Cautionary Tales.
    The Teaching and Learning of Elementary Science.
    Learning Science through Coparticipation.
    Contextual Issues.
    Focusing on the Learner.
    Organizing Students for Learning.
    Equity Issues.
    Meaningful Learning in Science: The Human Constructivist Perspective:
    Classroom Learning in Science.
    Research in Science Learning: The Context of Metacognition.
    Human Constructivism: The New Synthesis.
    The Practice of Science Teaching: how Metacognitive Strategies Can Help.
    A Look toward the Future of Science Teaching.
    Learning to Learn:
    Inductive Reasoning and Problem Solving: The Early Grades:

    Higher-Order Thinking Skills.
    Cognitive Intervention.
    Cognitive Training for Children: A Developmental Program of Inductive Reasoning and Problem Solving.
    Incorporating Problem Solving into Secondary School Curricula:
    Introduction to Problem Solving.
    Historical Overview: Three Theories of Problem Solving.
    Four Recommendations Based on a Commonsense Approach to Problem Solving.
    Four Recommendations Based on Cognitive Constructivist Research.
    An Exemplary Program.
    Critical Thinking: Learning to Talk About Talk and Text:
    Literate or Schooled Modes of Thought.
    Speech Act and Mental State Verbs.
    The Role of the School.
    Assessment of Classroom Learning:
    Classroom Assessment:

    Dimensions of High-Quality Assessment.
    Paper-Pencil Assessments.
    Performance Assessments.
    Interpersonal Communication.
    Assessing Classroom Learning Potential:
    Learning Potential Assessment.
    Initial Studies.
    Learning Potential Tests for Minority Groups.
    The Learning Potential Test for Ethnic Minorities.
    New Developments in Learning Potential Assessment.
    Further Educational Implications.
    Reflections on Portfolios:A Working Definition.
    Assessment, Instruction-or Both?
    State and District Goals.
    Words of Wisdom.
    Everyone Is Doing It; Shouldn't I?
    What Kinds of Portfolios Make Most Sense in My Classroom?
    Epilogue: Classroom Learning, Looking Ahead:
    Constructivist Movement.
    The Learning Process.
    Meeting the Authors.

Product details

  • No. of pages: 607
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1996
  • Published: December 20, 1996
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080532936

About the Author

Gary Phye

Gary D. Phye, Past President of the Iowa Educational Research and Evaluation Association, is the new editor of the Academic Press Educational Psychology Book Series. He has published numerous research articles and book chapters in the areas of classroom learning and transfer. He previously co-edited two of the bestselling volumes in the book series: School Psychology with Dan Reschly and Cognitive Classroom Learning with Tom Andre. In addition to being the co-author of an undergraduate educational psychology text, Dr. Phye has also co-authored (with K. Josef Klauer) a newly-published program designed to teach and assess the inductive reasoning and metacognitive strategies of young children. Dr. Phye is currently working with the Ames Community public schools in the training and assessment of inductive reasoning strategies of special needs children in primary and intermediate grades.

Affiliations and Expertise

Iowa State University, Ames, U.S.A.

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