Guide to Food Safety and Quality During Transportation

Guide to Food Safety and Quality During Transportation

Controls, Standards and Practices

1st Edition - December 30, 2013

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  • Author: John M. Ryan
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124078956
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124077751

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Guide to Food Safety and Quality During Transportation provides a sound foundation for the improvement of the transportation sector responsible for the movement of food. While food safety agencies have been focused on producer, processor, retail, and restaurant food safety, the industry that moves the food has been largely overlooked. Ensuring trucks and containers are properly cleaned and disinfected, proper maintenance of refrigeration temperatures during transport, and avoiding paperwork delays are all areas of concern. Lack of government oversight has resulted in multiple, non-standardized approaches to food safety that are inspection-dependent. This book focuses specifically on the food movers normally overlooked by today's food safety auditors, compliance schemes, government agencies, quality control personnel, and transportation executives. It outlines delivery control solutions and provides basic standards designed to protect the transportation industry, as well as addressing problems associated with food transportation and practical solutions that are focused on container sanitation and traceability food safety and quality needs.

Key Features

  • Explores food transportation in transition including science, research, current writings and law, bringing the reader quickly up to date on industry practices and trends
  • Presents case studies of the latest resources for identifying, tracking, and addressing safe transport issues
  • Includes FDA and USDA Guidance information , standards and certification, and food safety and quality planning procedures to establish a foundation for transportation system prevention, implementation, standardization, measurement and improvement


Those involved in ensuring the safe transport of food commodities, including Supply Chain Management, Food Safety Management and Quality Management Personnel

Table of Contents

  • Dedication


    Chapter one. Introduction to Transporter Container Sanitation, Traceability and Temperature Controls


    Inspection as the Primary Basis for Food Quality and Safety

    The Need for Technology and Hard Data to Enter the Certification Arena

    Moving to Measurement and Causal Analysis


    Risk Factors in Real Time

    The Forgotten Element: Food on the Move

    Some Definitions

    International Guidance Related to Food Safety in Transportation Processes

    Chapter two. Current and Emerging Transportation Food Safety Models


    Return on Investment and Financial Benefits for Emerging Transportation Monitors

    Basic Traceability and Monitoring Models

    Examples of Transportation Process Quality Measurement

    Inter- and Intra-State Shipping

    Air and Ocean Food Shipments

    Emerging Monitoring Models: Intelligent Delivery Control Systems, RFID, ILC and RH

    ILC Devices

    RFID Systems

    Other Radiofrequency Systems

    Sanitation Issues

    Automation in Interior Wash and Sanitation


    Chapter three. Introduction to In-Transit Food Safety Auditing and Standards


    Quality in Food Safety Transportation

    Internal Audits and Teams: Organizing for System Implementation

    Continuous Improvement Team Concepts

    Internal Audit Team Causal Analysis and Management Reporting

    External Audits and Auditors

    In-transit Standards: Introduction and Organization

    Certification Rules

    Certification Categories

    Chapter four. System Management and Record Keeping


    Management System (M)

    M 101 Food In-Transit Policy

    M 102 Manual

    M 103 Organization Chart

    M 104 Assignment of Responsibility

    M 105 Annual Review (Monitoring)

    Ambient Atmosphere Pick and Delivery Times and Procedures

    M 106 Container Sanitation and Traceability Plan

    M 107 HACCP Records Exist

    M 108 System for Organizing and Maintaining Procedures

    M 109 Management, Sanitation, Traceability and Training Procedures

    M 110 Container Sanitation and Traceability Record Maintenance

    M 111 Preventive Action System

    M 112 Preventive Action Records

    M 113 A Causal Analysis Procedure

    M 114 Corrective Action Records

    M 115 Fast Record and Data Recall

    M 116 Container Shipping and Holding Record Retention

    Chapter five. In-Transit HACCP Planning and Implementation: Concepts and Standards


    Contaminant Migration through the Supply Chain

    HACCP Exclusions in the Transportation Maintenance Sector

    New Hazard Prevention Thinking: Short Transportation Processes

    Preventive Planning

    HACCP Planning, Implementation and Certification

    HACCP 101 Plan

    Preliminary HACCP Planning

    Flowcharts and Zones

    Moving the Preliminary Plan to the HACCP Forms

    HACCP 102 HACCP Plan is Supported by Procedures

    HACCP 103 Support Team

    HACCP 104 Training

    HACCP 105 Location-Specific Information

    HACCP 106 Identification of Hazards

    HACCP 107 Identification of Critical Control Points

    HACCP 108 Establish Critical Limits

    HACCP 109 Monitoring Procedures

    HACCP 110 Corrective Action

    HACCP 111 Record Keeping

    HACCP 112 Verification Activities

    HACCP 113 Monitoring Record-keeping Procedures

    HACCP 114 Signatures and Dates

    HACCP Implementation Standards and Requirements

    HACCP 115 Monitoring and Record Keeping Procedures

    HACCP 116 Records Contain Actual Readings

    HACCP 117 Data are Recorded in a Timely Manner

    HACCP 118 Records and Recording Timeframes are Reviewed

    HACCP 119 Record Formats

    HACCP 120 Record Reviews are Performed and Documented

    HACCP 121 Corrective Action

    HACCP 122 Design of Corrective Actions

    HACCP 123 Documentation of Corrective Actions

    HACCP 124 Corrective Action Reviews

    HACCP 125 Preventive Actions

    HACCP 126 Preventive Action Documentation

    HACCP 127 Preventive Action Records are Reviewed Within Timelines

    HACCP 128 Record Completeness Review

    HACCP 129 Instrument Calibration

    HACCP 130 Calibration Procedures

    HACCP 131 Calibration Records

    HACCP 132 Calibration Activities Match Procedures

    HACCP 133 Verification Activities

    HACCP 134 Verification Completeness

    HACCP 135 Verification Documentation

    HACCP 136 Verification of Corrective Actions

    HACCP 137 Maintenance of HACCP Records

    HACCP 138 Record Maintenance Period

    HACCP 139 Availability of HACCP Records for Duplication

    HACCP for In-transit Food

    Chapter six. In-Transit Container Sanitation Standards: Packaging and Control of Packaging


    Holes in the Research Base

    Container Sanitation (S)

    S 101 Container Adulteration Preventive Planning

    S 102 Management Review and Responsibilities

    S 103 Training, Competency and Certification

    S 104 Container Sanitation Monitoring Procedures

    S 105 Unique Container Identification

    S 106 Records Maintenance

    S 107 Container 2-Year Sanitation Record Maintenance

    S 108 Container Inspection Records

    S 109 Maintenance of Pre- and Post-Wash Inspection Records

    S 110 Corrective Actions

    S 111 Container Testing and Retesting (ATP)

    S 112 Container ATP Test Data

    S 113 The Water Source is Recorded

    S 114 Wash Water Testing

    S 115 Wash Water Quality

    S 116 Wash Water Temperatures

    S 117 Evidence of Pests

    S 118 Temperature Measurement Devices are Calibrated

    S 119 Container Dedication to Transporting Food


    Chapter seven. In-Transit Traceability Standards


    Traceability System Considerations

    Container Traceability Standards

    T 101 System

    T 102 Plan

    T 103 Procedures

    ILC Container or Pallet Tracker Procedures

    Recording Training Events

    T 104 Responsibilities

    T 105 Training

    T 106 Competency

    T 107 Monitoring

    T 108 Records

    T 109 Performance

    T 110 Internal Audits

    T 111 Management Review

    T 112 Corrective Action

    T 113 Recall Procedures

    T 114 Recall System Test

    T 115 Pallet or Multi-level Container Traceability

    T 116 Container Tampering

    T 117 Container Accident Control

    T 118 Accident Control Records

    T 119 Traceability Records Maintenance


    Chapter eight. System Implementation


    Ten Rules for Guiding Food Transportation Management

    Applying Through-Put Thinking

    Addressing Container Maintenance Issues at an Early Date

    How Should We Start Implementing Food Safety and Quality Controls for Food Movement Processes?

    Considerations for Data Systems

    Controlling Risk and Liability: A Vertically Integrated Vision of the Supply Chain

    Risk Analysis

    Electronic Traceability

    Recall Controls

    Ranking Transportation Suppliers: Reducing Risk using Cause and Effect Thinking

    Putting an Integrated Transportation Food Safety System Together

    Useful Forms

    Preparing for Certification Audits

    External Auditor Readiness Checklist

    Notes on External Audit Scoring

    The Importance of Corrective and Preventive Actions


    Chapter nine. The Future


    One Up and One Down is Dead

    A Path

    Some New Technologies

    Tests and Monitoring: The Dilemma

    Aluminum Pallets on the Rise

    New Needs for the Food Transportation Sector


    Trade Groups Take the Lead

    The Use of Statistical Procedures for Analysis of Mega Databases


    FSMA Impact on the International Food Safety Community

    Homeostasis: Achieving Stability in Food Transportation Processes



Product details

  • No. of pages: 288
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
  • Published: December 30, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124078956
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124077751

About the Author

John M. Ryan

Dr. John Ryan was the Administrator for the Hawaii State Department of Agriculture's Quality Assurance Division. He was responsible for developing food safety and traceability systems within the state of Hawaii. Dr. Ryan piloted the USA's first farm-to-fork award winning internet-enabled RFID food traceability system and one of America's early high-technology sensor based temperature control supply chain food safety system. He has recently worked with a number of international companies to establish real-time international food traceability that reports trans-Pacific transportation temperatures and tests for bacteria, explosives and container tampering. He spent two years as co-team leader for President Obama's FDA/CDC Information Technology team and also served on the FDA Performance Management and Standards Developments team. He is the president of Ryan Systems, located in Canyon Lake, CA.

Affiliations and Expertise

Ryan Systems, Inc. Palm Bay, FL, USA

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