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Guide to Food Safety and Quality During Transportation - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124077751, 9780124078956

Guide to Food Safety and Quality During Transportation

1st Edition

Controls, Standards and Practices

Author: John M. Ryan
Paperback ISBN: 9780128101100
eBook ISBN: 9780124078956
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124077751
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 30th December 2013
Page Count: 288
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Guide to Food Safety and Quality During Transportation provides a sound foundation for the improvement of the transportation sector responsible for the movement of food. While food safety agencies have been focused on producer, processor, retail, and restaurant food safety, the industry that moves the food has been largely overlooked. Ensuring trucks and containers are properly cleaned and disinfected, proper maintenance of refrigeration temperatures during transport, and avoiding paperwork delays are all areas of concern. Lack of government oversight has resulted in multiple, non-standardized approaches to food safety that are inspection-dependent.

This book focuses specifically on the food movers normally overlooked by today's food safety auditors, compliance schemes, government agencies, quality control personnel, and transportation executives. It outlines delivery control solutions and provides basic standards designed to protect the transportation industry, as well as addressing problems associated with food transportation and practical solutions that are focused on container sanitation and traceability food safety and quality needs.

Key Features

  • Explores food transportation in transition including science, research, current writings and law, bringing the reader quickly up to date on industry practices and trends
  • Presents case studies of the latest resources for identifying, tracking, and addressing safe transport issues
  • Includes FDA and USDA Guidance information , standards and certification, and food safety and quality planning procedures to establish a foundation for transportation system prevention, implementation, standardization, measurement and improvement


Those involved in ensuring the safe transport of food commodities, including Supply Chain Management, Food Safety Management and Quality Management Personnel

Table of Contents



Chapter one. Introduction to Transporter Container Sanitation, Traceability and Temperature Controls


Inspection as the Primary Basis for Food Quality and Safety

The Need for Technology and Hard Data to Enter the Certification Arena

Moving to Measurement and Causal Analysis


Risk Factors in Real Time

The Forgotten Element: Food on the Move

Some Definitions

International Guidance Related to Food Safety in Transportation Processes

Chapter two. Current and Emerging Transportation Food Safety Models


Return on Investment and Financial Benefits for Emerging Transportation Monitors

Basic Traceability and Monitoring Models

Examples of Transportation Process Quality Measurement

Inter- and Intra-State Shipping

Air and Ocean Food Shipments

Emerging Monitoring Models: Intelligent Delivery Control Systems, RFID, ILC and RH

ILC Devices

RFID Systems

Other Radiofrequency Systems

Sanitation Issues

Automation in Interior Wash and Sanitation


Chapter three. Introduction to In-Transit Food Safety Auditing and Standards


Quality in Food Safety Transportation

Internal Audits and Teams: Organizing for System Implementation

Continuous Improvement Team Concepts

Internal Audit Team Causal Analysis and Management Reporting

External Audits and Auditors

In-transit Standards: Introduction and Organization

Certification Rules

Certification Categories

Chapter four. System Management and Record Keeping


Management System (M)

M 101 Food In-Transit Policy

M 102 Manual

M 103 Organization Chart

M 104 Assignment of Responsibility

M 105 Annual Review (Monitoring)

Ambient Atmosphere Pick and Delivery Times and Procedures

M 106 Container Sanitation and Traceability Plan

M 107 HACCP Records Exist

M 108 System for Organizing and Maintaining Procedures

M 109 Management, Sanitation, Traceability and Training Procedures

M 110 Container Sanitation and Traceability Record Maintenance

M 111 Preventive Action System

M 112 Preventive Action Records

M 113 A Causal Analysis Procedure

M 114 Corrective Action Records

M 115 Fast Record and Data Recall

M 116 Container Shipping and Holding Record Retention

Chapter five. In-Transit HACCP Planning and Implementation: Concepts and Standards


Contaminant Migration through the Supply Chain

HACCP Exclusions in the Transportation Maintenance Sector

New Hazard Prevention Thinking: Short Transportation Processes

Preventive Planning

HACCP Planning, Implementation and Certification

HACCP 101 Plan

Preliminary HACCP Planning

Flowcharts and Zones

Moving the Preliminary Plan to the HACCP Forms

HACCP 102 HACCP Plan is Supported by Procedures

HACCP 103 Support Team

HACCP 104 Training

HACCP 105 Location-Specific Information

HACCP 106 Identification of Hazards

HACCP 107 Identification of Critical Control Points

HACCP 108 Establish Critical Limits

HACCP 109 Monitoring Procedures

HACCP 110 Corrective Action

HACCP 111 Record Keeping

HACCP 112 Verification Activities

HACCP 113 Monitoring Record-keeping Procedures

HACCP 114 Signatures and Dates

HACCP Implementation Standards and Requirements

HACCP 115 Monitoring and Record Keeping Procedures

HACCP 116 Records Contain Actual Readings

HACCP 117 Data are Recorded in a Timely Manner

HACCP 118 Records and Recording Timeframes are Reviewed

HACCP 119 Record Formats

HACCP 120 Record Reviews are Performed and Documented

HACCP 121 Corrective Action

HACCP 122 Design of Corrective Actions

HACCP 123 Documentation of Corrective Actions

HACCP 124 Corrective Action Reviews

HACCP 125 Preventive Actions

HACCP 126 Preventive Action Documentation

HACCP 127 Preventive Action Records are Reviewed Within Timelines

HACCP 128 Record Completeness Review

HACCP 129 Instrument Calibration

HACCP 130 Calibration Procedures

HACCP 131 Calibration Records

HACCP 132 Calibration Activities Match Procedures

HACCP 133 Verification Activities

HACCP 134 Verification Completeness

HACCP 135 Verification Documentation

HACCP 136 Verification of Corrective Actions

HACCP 137 Maintenance of HACCP Records

HACCP 138 Record Maintenance Period

HACCP 139 Availability of HACCP Records for Duplication

HACCP for In-transit Food

Chapter six. In-Transit Container Sanitation Standards: Packaging and Control of Packaging


Holes in the Research Base

Container Sanitation (S)

S 101 Container Adulteration Preventive Planning

S 102 Management Review and Responsibilities

S 103 Training, Competency and Certification

S 104 Container Sanitation Monitoring Procedures

S 105 Unique Container Identification

S 106 Records Maintenance

S 107 Container 2-Year Sanitation Record Maintenance

S 108 Container Inspection Records

S 109 Maintenance of Pre- and Post-Wash Inspection Records

S 110 Corrective Actions

S 111 Container Testing and Retesting (ATP)

S 112 Container ATP Test Data

S 113 The Water Source is Recorded

S 114 Wash Water Testing

S 115 Wash Water Quality

S 116 Wash Water Temperatures

S 117 Evidence of Pests

S 118 Temperature Measurement Devices are Calibrated

S 119 Container Dedication to Transporting Food


Chapter seven. In-Transit Traceability Standards


Traceability System Considerations

Container Traceability Standards

T 101 System

T 102 Plan

T 103 Procedures

ILC Container or Pallet Tracker Procedures

Recording Training Events

T 104 Responsibilities

T 105 Training

T 106 Competency

T 107 Monitoring

T 108 Records

T 109 Performance

T 110 Internal Audits

T 111 Management Review

T 112 Corrective Action

T 113 Recall Procedures

T 114 Recall System Test

T 115 Pallet or Multi-level Container Traceability

T 116 Container Tampering

T 117 Container Accident Control

T 118 Accident Control Records

T 119 Traceability Records Maintenance


Chapter eight. System Implementation


Ten Rules for Guiding Food Transportation Management

Applying Through-Put Thinking

Addressing Container Maintenance Issues at an Early Date

How Should We Start Implementing Food Safety and Quality Controls for Food Movement Processes?

Considerations for Data Systems

Controlling Risk and Liability: A Vertically Integrated Vision of the Supply Chain

Risk Analysis

Electronic Traceability

Recall Controls

Ranking Transportation Suppliers: Reducing Risk using Cause and Effect Thinking

Putting an Integrated Transportation Food Safety System Together

Useful Forms

Preparing for Certification Audits

External Auditor Readiness Checklist

Notes on External Audit Scoring

The Importance of Corrective and Preventive Actions


Chapter nine. The Future


One Up and One Down is Dead

A Path

Some New Technologies

Tests and Monitoring: The Dilemma

Aluminum Pallets on the Rise

New Needs for the Food Transportation Sector


Trade Groups Take the Lead

The Use of Statistical Procedures for Analysis of Mega Databases


FSMA Impact on the International Food Safety Community

Homeostasis: Achieving Stability in Food Transportation Processes




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© Academic Press 2014
30th December 2013
Academic Press
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About the Author

John M. Ryan

Dr. John Ryan was the Administrator for the Hawaii State Department of Agriculture's Quality Assurance Division. He was responsible for developing food safety and traceability systems within the state of Hawaii. Dr. Ryan piloted the USA's first farm-to-fork award winning internet-enabled RFID food traceability system and one of America's early high-technology sensor based temperature control supply chain food safety system. He has recently worked with a number of international companies to establish real-time international food traceability that reports trans-Pacific transportation temperatures and tests for bacteria, explosives and container tampering. He spent two years as co-team leader for President Obama's FDA/CDC Information Technology team and also served on the FDA Performance Management and Standards Developments team. He is the president of Ryan Systems, located in Canyon Lake, CA.

Affiliations and Expertise

Ryan Systems, Inc. Palm Bay, FL, USA


"…summary of methods and standards for maintaining food safety during the transportation phases of its journey from production to consumption. The book begins by introducing transport container sanitation, traceability, and temperature control, current models for monitoring and incentivizing good practice including RFID tracking integrated with multiple condition sensors, and auditing and certifications in the industry.", April 2014

Ratings and Reviews