Green Vegetable Oil Processing

Green Vegetable Oil Processing

Revsied First Edition

1st Edition - December 4, 2013

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  • Editors: Walter Farr, Andrew Proctor
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128102169
  • eBook ISBN: 9780983057208

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Alternative green food processing technologies have gained much technical and industrial attention in recent years as a potential means of reducing costs and promoting consumer awareness of corporate environmental responsibility. However, utilizing green principles is now becoming an effective business approach to enhance vegetable oil processing profitability. Two years have passed since the first edition of Green Vegetable Oil Processing was published. The Revised First Edition includes much of the content of the first edition, but incorporates updated data, details, images, figures, and captions.  This book addresses alternative green technologies at various stages of oilseed and vegetable oil processing. This includes oil extraction technologies such as expeller, aqueous and supercritical methods, and green modifications of conventional unit operations such as degumming, refining, bleaching, hydrogenation, winterizing/dewaxing, fractionation, and deodorization. While most chapters describe soy oil processing, the techniques described equally applicable to oils and fats in general.

Key Features

  • Documents the current state of green oil processing technologies available today
  • Addresses alternative green technologies at various stages of oilseed processing
  • Includes technologies already in commercial use and some that are still in developmental stages


processors, food manufacturing, chemical engineers, food processors, food scientists

Table of Contents

    • Preface
    • Chapter 1: Extrusion/Expeller® Pressing as a Means of Processing Green Oils and Meals
      • Introduction
      • Mechanical Screw Presses
      • Extruders
      • Manufacturers of Screw Presses and Extruders
      • Optimizing Energy Use
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 2: Modern Aqueous Oil Extraction—Centrifugation Systems for Olive and Avocado Oils
      • Introduction
      • Centrifugation Systems for Olive Oil
      • Centrifugation Systems for Avocado Oil
      • Other Fruits/Nuts/Seeds for Which Aqueous Extraction Will Work
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 3: Aqueous Extraction of Corn Oil After Fermentation in the Dry Grind Ethanol Process
      • Introduction—A Comparison of Various Processes to Produce Corn Oil
      • The Processes for Obtaining Corn Oil After Fermentation in a Dry Grind Ethanol Plant
      • The Chemical Composition of Corn Oil Extracted from Corn Germ, Ground Corn, and Corn DDGS with Various Organic Solvents and via Centrifugation after Fermentation
      • The Changes in Corn Oil Composition That Occur During the Dry Grind Ethanol Process
      • Current Applications of Corn Oil Obtained After Fermentation in a Dry Grind Ethanol Plant
    • Chapter 4: Drying and Cooling Collets from Expanders with Major Energy Saving
      • Introduction
      • Alternative Techniques for Cooling Collets (Offering Energy Savings)
      • Summary
    • Chapter 5: Algae Drying and Extraction
      • Solvent Extraction
      • Drying
      • Drying Techniques Available Today
      • Preparation
      • Extraction
      • Factors Affecting Extraction
      • Factors Affecting Operating Cost
      • Current Extraction Techniques
      • Extraction Selection Considerations
      • The Solvent Extraction Plant (SEP)
      • Life Cycle Costs
      • Solvent Losses
      • Future
    • Chapter 6: Enzymatic Degumming
      • Introduction
      • Crude Oils
      • Gums
      • Structure
      • Chemistry
      • Phospholipids
      • Traditional Techniques for Removal of Phospholipids
      • Caustic Refining
      • Enzymes
      • Phospholipases
      • Enzymatic Degumming Processing
      • Commercially Available Enzymes
      • Yields
      • Bleaching
      • Deodorization
      • Environmental Impact
      • Industrial Implementations (public announcements)
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 7: Nano Neutralization™
      • Introduction
      • Traditional Oil Neutralization Methodology
      • Neutralization Chemistry
      • Neutralization Process
      • Understanding Nano Reactor Technology
      • The Nano Neutralization™ Process
      • Nano Neutralization™ Results and Benefits
    • Chapter 8: Physical Refining of Vegetable Oils
      • Introduction
      • Definition of Physical Refining
      • A Review of Current Practices in the Refining of Vegetable Oils
      • New Developments Offer Significant Changes in Vegetable Oil Refining
      • Development of Physical Refining of Soybean Oil
      • Physical Refining of Soybean Oil
      • Physical Refining
      • Semi-physical Refining
      • Modified Physical Refining™
      • Expanding the Use of Physical Refining to Other Oils
      • Quality of Physical Refined Vegetable Oils
      • Plants Built with Physical Refining or Semi-Physical Refining of Vegetable Oils
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 9: Conservation of Energy and Resources in Hydrogen Generation and in Hydrogenation
      • Introduction
      • Hydrogen Supply
      • Hydrogenation
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 10: Dry Condensing Vacuum Systems for Deodorizers for Substantial Energy Savings
      • Introduction
      • Types of Vacuum Production Systems Used in Oil Deodorizing
      • Working Principle of Dry Condensing (DC)
      • Available Dry Condensing (DC) Systems
      • Condensation Process Description in a DC System
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 11: Enzymatic Interesterification
      • Introduction
      • Structure
      • Interesterification
      • Chemical Interesterification
      • Chemical Interesterification Process
      • Enzymes
      • Denaturation
      • Lipases
      • Enzymatic Interesterification
      • Commercial Enzymes
      • Environmental Impact
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 12: CLA Production by Photo-isomerization of Linoleic Acid in Linoleic Acid Rich Oils
      • Introduction
      • Health Benefits of CLA
      • CLA Synthesis
      • Photoprocessing to Synthesize CLA
      • CLA Isomerization Chemistry in High Linoleic Acid Oils
      • CLA Measurement
      • Nutritional and Product Development Value of CLA-Rich Oil
      • Conclusions
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 302
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press and AOCS Press 2013
  • Published: December 4, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press and AOCS Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128102169
  • eBook ISBN: 9780983057208

About the Editors

Walter Farr

Walter E. Farr graduated from Mississippi State University in 1960, with a B.S. in Chemistry, Minor in Chemical Engineering. He performed graduate work at UT Medical Center, Memphis, specializing in industrial statistics. He joined Southern Cotton Oil Company, Wesson Oil and Snowdrift Division (later to become Hunt Wesson Foods) in 1960 as a quality control chemist, where he designed and set up the first statistical process control system.

He transferred to the Wesson Oil Refinery in Fullerton CA, where he spent four more years as the refinery superintendent. This was followed by a tour of duty with ADM, Decatur IL; Anderson, Clayton & Co., Houston TX; and Kraft Foods, Memphis TN. He was named Kraft Technology Fellow in 1992, and retired from Kraft in 1993. He then spent 5 years with Owensboro Grain Co., Owensboro KY, and 5 years with Desmet NA, Atlanta, GA. Retiring again, he formed The Farr Group of Companies in Memphis, TN, in 2003.

He joined the American Oil Chemists’ Society in 1973, where he was and he has been co-editor of several books, and chapter author in many more. Farr was named Fellow, AOCS in 2007.

Andrew Proctor

Andrew Proctor, of the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville, was recognized as a leading professor of lipid chemistry and food science, with a focus on lipid analysis, conjugated linoleic acid, and rice oil co-products. He has distinguished himself as a researcher with more than 100 publications to his credit.

He was also instrumental in establishing an ex­-change program between the European Union (E.U.) and United States (U.S.) on renewable resources and clean technology. The program provides grants for international curriculum development and related student exchange.

Proctor has served on close to 30 different AOCS committees or boards, including the Books and Special Publications Committee (2000-2002) and the Governing Board, as a member-at-large (2007-present). He served as chairperson of the Analytical Division Program Committee from 2005-2007 and has been an associate editor or senior associate editor of JAOCS since 1992. In 2008, he organized and chaired the Professional Educators’ Common Interest Group-a group that seeks to provide tools for the teaching of fats, oils, and lipid chemistry. 

Proctor received the AOCS Herbert J. Dutton Award in 2010 and has been a Fellow of the UK’s Royal Society of Chemistry since 2006.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Food Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, United States

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