Green Synthetic Approaches for Biologically Relevant Heterocycles - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128000700, 9780128005903

Green Synthetic Approaches for Biologically Relevant Heterocycles

1st Edition

Authors: Goutam Brahmachari
eBook ISBN: 9780128005903
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128000700
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 12th November 2014
Page Count: 632
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Green Synthetic Approaches for Biologically Relevant Heterocycles reviews this significant group of organic compounds within the context of sustainable methods and processes. Each clearly structured chapter features in-depth coverage of various green protocols for the synthesis of a wide variety of bioactive heterocycles classified on the basis of ring-size and/or presence of heteratoms(s). Techniques covered include microwave heating, ultrasound, ionic liquids, solid phase, solvent-free, heterogeneous catalysis, and aqueous media, along with multi-component reaction strategies. This book also integrates advances in green chemistry research into industrial applications and process developments. Green Synthetic Approaches for Biologically Relevant Heterocycles is an essential resource on green chemistry technologies for academic researchers, R&D professionals, and students working in medicinal, organic, natural product, and agricultural chemistry.

Key Features

  • Includes global coverage of a wide variety of green synthetic techniques
  • Features cutting-edge research in the field of bioactive heterocyclic compounds
  • Focuses extensively on applications, with numerous examples of biologically relevant heterocycles


Chemists (synthetic, medicinal, natural products, combinatorial); pharmacologists; biochemists; researchers in drug discovery and agrochemical industries; advanced and research students in these areas

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • About the Editor
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1. Green Synthetic Approaches for Biologically Relevant Heterocycles: An Overview
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. An Overview of the Book
    • 3. Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 2. Synthesis of Bioactive Five- and Six-Membered Heterocycles Catalyzed by Heterogeneous Supported Metals
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Synthesis of N-Containing Heterocycles
    • 3. Synthesis of Oxygen-Containing Heterocycles
    • 4. Synthesis of Sulfur-Containing Heterocycles
    • 5. Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 3. Transition-Metal-Free Synthesis of Benzo-Fused Five- and Six-Membered Heterocycles Employing Arynes
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Synthesis of Five-Membered Heterocycles
    • 3. Synthesis of Six-Membered Heterocycles
    • 4. Synthesis of Medium-Sized Heterocycles
    • 5. Applications of the Benzo-Fused Heterocycles
    • 6. Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 4. Metal-Catalyzed Routes for the Synthesis of Furocoumarins and Coumestans
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Synthetic Routes to Furocoumarin Derivatives
    • 3. Synthetic Routes to Coumestan Derivatives
    • 4. Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 5. Green Solvents for Eco-friendly Synthesis of Bioactive Heterocyclic Compounds
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Heterocyclic Synthesis in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
    • 3. Heterocyclic Synthesis in PEG
    • 4. Heterocyclic Synthesis in Glycerol
    • 5. Heterocyclic Synthesis in Gluconic Acid Aqueous Solution
    • 6. Heterocyclic Synthesis in Ethyl Lactate
    • 7. Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 6. Green Catalytic Synthesis of Heterocyclic Structures Using Carbon Dioxide and Related Motifs
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Biological Importance of CO2-Based Heterocyclic Compounds
    • 3. Green Synthesis of 1,3-Dioxolan-2-Ones and 1,3-Dioxan-2-Ones Using CO2
    • 4. Green Synthesis of Oxazolidinones and Oxazodinanones Using CO2
    • 5. Related Heterocycles Incorporating CO2 or Related Synthons
    • 6. Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 7. Synthetic Approaches to Small- and Medium-Size Aza-Heterocycles in Aqueous Media
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Three-Membered Ring—Aziridines
    • 3. Four-Membered Rings
    • 4. Five-Membered Rings
    • 5. Six-Membered Rings
    • 6. Seven-Membered Rings
    • 7. Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 8. Green Synthetic Approaches for Biologically Relevant 2-amino-4H-pyrans and 2-amino-4H-pyran-Annulated Heterocycles in Aqueous Media
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Synthetic Approaches for 2-amino-4H-pyrans and 2-amino-4H-pyran-Annulated Heterocycles in Water and Ethanol–Water Media
    • 3. Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 9. Sustainable Synthesis of Benzimidazoles, Quinoxalines, and Congeners
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Methods of Synthesis of Benzimidazoles/Quinoxalines Using Greener Strategies
    • 3. Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 10. Green and Catalytic Methods for γ-Lactone Synthesis
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Constructive Methods for γ-Lactone Structure
    • 3. Functionalization of γ-Lactone Structures
    • 4. Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 11. Green Synthetic Approaches for Medium Ring-Sized Heterocycles of Biological Interest
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Microwave- and Ultrasound-Assisted Synthesis of Medium Ring-Sized Heterocycles
    • 3. Use of Ionic Liquids as Reaction Medium and Catalyst
    • 4. Use of Environmentally Benign Solvents
    • 5. Use of Heterogeneous Catalysis
    • 6. Fluorous Synthesis
    • 7. Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 12. Organocatalyzed Biginelli Reactions: A Greener Chemical Approach for the Synthesis of Biologically Active 3,4-Dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones/-thiones
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Classes of Organocatalysts Used in the Biginelli Reaction
    • 3. Biological Significance of 3,4-Dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones/-thiones
    • 4. Concluding Remarks
    • Abbreviations
  • Chapter 13. Photocatalytic Minisci Reaction: A Promising and Eco-friendly Route to Functionalize Heteroaromatics of Biological Interest
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Minisci Reaction: A Versatile Tool for Medicinal Chemistry
    • 3. Minisci Reaction: The General Mechanism
    • 4. The Photocatalytic Approach
    • 5. Is it a Green Approach?
    • 6. Molecular Dynamics Studies: Toward the Solution?
    • 7. Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 14. Organohypervalent Iodine Reagents in the Synthesis of Bioactive Heterocycles
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Organohypervalent Iodine Promoted Synthesis of Bioactive Heterocycles
    • 3. Concluding Remarks
    • Abbreviations
  • Chapter 15. Porous Catalytic Systems in the Synthesis of Bioactive Heterocycles and Related Compounds
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Porous Catalytic Systems
    • 3. Synthesis of Bioactive Heterocycles Catalyzed by Porous Materials
    • 4. Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 16. High-Pressure Cycloaddition Reactions in the Synthesis of Biologically Relevant Heterocycles
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Diels–Alder Cycloadditions
    • 3. Dipolar Cycloadditions
    • 4. [2 + 2] Cycloadditions
    • 5. Concluding RemarKS
    • Abbreviations
  • Chapter 17. Ionic Liquids-Prompted Synthesis of Biologically Relevant Five- and Six-Membered Heterocyclic Skeletons: An Update
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Properties of ILs
    • 3. Recent Developments in Ionic Liquids Research
    • 4. Application of Ionic Liquids in Heterocyclic Synthesis
    • 5. Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 18. Heterocycles-Based Ionic Liquid-Supported Synthesis of Small Organic Molecules
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Ionic Liquid-Supported Synthesis of Small Molecules
    • 3. Ionic Liquid-Supported Carbohydrate Synthesis
    • 4. Ionic Liquid-Supported Peptide Synthesis
    • 5. Ionic Liquid-Supported Reagents
    • 6. Ionic Liquid-Supported Catalysts
    • 7. Concluding Remarks
    • Abbreviations
  • Chapter 19. Microwave-Induced Synthesis of Heterocycles of Medicinal Interests
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Microwave Irradiation: Mechanism
    • 3. Microwave-Induced Synthesis of Heterocycles of Medicinal Interests
    • 4. Concluding Remarks
    • Abbreviations
  • Chapter 20. Application of Microwave Irradiation in the Synthesis of P-Heterocycles
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Functionalization of Cyclic Phosphinic Acids
    • 3. Diels–Alder Cycloadditions, Fragmentation-Related Phosphorylations, and Inverse Wittig-Type Reactions
    • 4. Phospha-Michael Reactions
    • 5. Kabachnik–Fields Reactions
    • 6. Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 21. Use of Ultrasound in the Synthesis of Heterocycles of Medicinal Interest
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Heterocycles of Medicinal Interest
    • 3. Concluding Remarks
  • Index


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About the Author

Goutam Brahmachari

Professor Dr. Goutam Brahmachari was born at Barala in the district of Murshidabad (West Bengal), India, on April 14, 1969. He received his high school degree in scientific studies in 1986 at Barala R. D. Sen High School under the West Bengal Council of Higher secondary Education (WBCHSE). Then he moved to Visva-Bharati (a central university founded by Rabindranath Tagore at Santiniketan, West Bengal, India) to study chemistry at the undergraduate level. After graduating from this university in 1990, Prof. Brahmachari completed his masters in 1992 with specialization in organic chemistry and thereafter received his PhD degree in 1997 in chemistry from the same university. He was appointed as assistant professor of organic chemistry in the Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati University, in 1998, and became associate professor in 2008. In 2011, he became full professor of organic chemistry in the same faculty. At present, he is responsible for teaching courses in organic chemistry, natural products chemistry, and physical methods in organic chemistry. Several students have received their PhD degree under the supervision of Prof. Brahmachari during this period, and a couple of research fellows are presently working with him both in the fields of natural products and synthetic organic chemistry. He serves as a member of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS) and Indian Science Congress Association (ISCA), Kolkata, and as an Editor-in-Chief, Signpost Open Access Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry. He also serves as an editorial advisory board member for several journals and is the Who’s Who in the World-2015 Listee. He is a recipient of the 3rd Academic Brilliance Award-2015 (Award for Excellence in Research).

Prof. Brahmachari’s research interests include (i) synthetic organic chemistry with special emphasis on green chemistry; (ii) isolation, structural determination, and/or detailed NMR study of new natural products from medicinal plants; (iii) semi-synthetic studies with natural products; and (iv) evaluation of biological activities and pharmacological potential of natural and synthetic compounds. With more than 16 years of teaching experience, he has produced so far nearly 120 scientific publications including original research papers, review articles, and invited book chapters in edited books in the field of natural products and organic synthesis from internationally reputed presses. Prof. Brahmachari has authored/edited a number of text and major reference books that include Organic Name Reactions: A Unified Approach (Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi; co-published by Alpha Science International, Oxford, 2006), Chemistry of Natural Products: Recent Trends & Developments (Research Signpost, 2006), Organic Chemistry Through Solved Problems (Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi; co-published by Alpha Science International, Oxford, 2007), Natural Products: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmacology (Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi; co-published by Alpha Science International, Oxford, 2009), Handbook of Pharmaceutical Natural Products—2 volume-set (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2010), Bioactive Natural Products: Opportunities & Challenges in Medicinal Chemistry (World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore, 2011), Chemistry and Pharmacology of Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds (CRC Press, Taylor & Francis group, USA, 2013), Natural Bioactive Molecules: Impacts & Prospects (Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi; co-published by Alpha Science International, Oxford, 2014), Green Synthetic Approaches for Biologically Relevant Heterocycles (Elsevier Inc., USA, 2014), and Bioactive Natural Products—Chemistry & Biology (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2015).

He is regularly consulted as a referee by leading international journals including Elsevier, Royal Society of Chemistry, American Chemical Society, Wiley, Taylor & Francis, Springer, Bentham Science, Indian Chemical Society, Pakistan Chemical Society, Korean Chemical Society, Brazilian Chemical Society, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and so on, and also various financial commissions.

Prof. Brahmachari enjoys Songs of Rabindranath Tagore and finds interests in Literature as well!

Affiliations and Expertise

Full Professor of Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati (a Central University), Santiniketan, West Bengal, India

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