Green Analytical Chemistry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444537096, 9780444537102

Green Analytical Chemistry, Volume 57

1st Edition

Theory and Practice

Authors: Miguel de la Guardia Sergio Armenta
eBook ISBN: 9780444537102
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444537096
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 27th October 2010
Page Count: 268
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Table of Contents

1. Origins of Green Analytical Chemistry
1.1. The Ecological Paradigm
1.2. The environmental opportunities for Analytical Chemistry
1.3. The bad conscience of consumers of reagents and waste generation
1.4. Clean analytical methods
1.5. Green Chemistry
1.6. The integrated approach of Analytical Chemistry
1.7. The state-of-the-art of Green Analytical Chemistry
1.8. References

2.  The basis of a greener Analytical Chemistry
2.1. The side effects of reagents and solvents
2.2. The energy costs of Analytical Chemistry
2.3. Waste generation and its associated risks
2.4. Strategies for greening Analytical Chemistry
2.5. References

3. A green evaluation of existing analytical methods
3.1. Toxicological data of reagents
3.2. Evaluation of the contact of operators with reagents and wastes
3.3. Evaluation of energy consumption
3.4. Evaluation of reagent consumption and waste generation
3.5. Compatibility of Green Chemistry principles and the main analytical figures of merit
3.6. References

4. Avoiding sample treatments
4.1. Remote sensing
4.2. Noninvasive measurements on blisters, bottles or vials
4.3. Direct analysis without sample damage
4.4. Direct methods with sample damage
4.5. References

5. Greening sample treatments
5.1.  Solid sample extraction techniques
5.2.  Extraction of liquid samples
5.3     Extraction of volatile analytes; direct thermal desorption
5.4. Concluding remarks
5.5. References

6. Multianalyte determination versus one-at-a-time methodologies
6.1.  Multianalyte determination in spectroscopy
6.2.  Multianalyte determination in mass spectrometry
6.3.  Multianalyte determination in chromatography and capillary electrophoresis
6.4.  Mass spectrometry as detector in separation systems
6.5.  References

7. Downsizing the methods
7.1.  Minimization of the reagents consumed through automation
7.2.  Miniaturization of sample preparation systems
7.3.  Miniaturization of analysis systems
7.4.  Electrochemical sensors
7.5.  Spectroscopic sensors
7.6.  UPLC, micro and nanoHPLC
7.7.  References

8. Moving from wastes to clean wastes
8.1.  The problem of analytical wastes
8.2. Replacement of toxic reagents
8.3. Use of alternative solvents (Ionic Liquids)
8.4. On-line decontamination of wastes
8.5. On-line recycling of wastes
8.6. References

9. Ideas for a change of mentality and practices
9.1. Introducing sustainable parameters in the evaluation of methods
9.2. Economic balances of sustainability
9.3. Downsizing the scale of problems
9.4. Creating new relationships between samples and operators
9.5. References

10.  Practical consequences of green analytical chemistry
10.1. The use of green terms
10.2. The need of classification criteria for analytical methods concerning sustainability
10.3. Practices to be avoided in analytical laboratories
10.4. Practices to be improved in analytical laboratories
10.5. Greening the analytical publications
10.6. Teaching Green Analytical Chemistry
10.7. References


This book provides basic coverage of the fundamentals and principles of green chemistry as it applies to chemical analysis. The main goal of Green Analytical Chemistry is to avoid or reduce the undesirable environmental side effects of chemical analysis, while preserving the classic analytical parameters of accuracy, sensitivity, selectivity, and precision. The authors review the main strategies for greening analytical methods, concentrating on minimizing sample preparation and handling, reducing solvent and reagent consumption, reducing energy consumption, minimizing of waste, operator safety and the economic savings that this approach offers.

Suggestions are made to educators and editors to standardize terminology in order to facilitate the identification of analytical studies on green alternatives in the literature because there is not a wide and generalized use of a common term that can group efforts to prevent waste, avoid the use of potentially toxic reagents or solvents and those involving the decontamination of wastes.

Key Features

  • provides environmentally-friendly alternatives to established analytical practice
  • focuses on the cost-saving opportunities offered
  • emphasis on laboratory personnel safety


Researchers and scientists doing chemical analysis in a laboratory environment, teachers and graduate students in academia


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2011
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:


"Green Analytical Chemistry reviews the main strategies for making analytical methods greener through minimizing sample preparation and handling, reduction of solvent and reagent consumption, reduction of energy consumption and minimization of waste, all aimed at avoiding or reducing the undesirable environmental side effects of chemical analysis, while preserving the accuracy, sensitivity, selectivity and precision of the analytical determination. Throughout the book the authors highlight the economic aspects of green analytical chemistry that offer opportunities for saving reagents and reducing energy consumption and waste management costs."--Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

About the Authors

Miguel de la Guardia Author

Prof Dr.Miguel de la Guardia is Full Professor at Valencia University (Department of Analytical Chemistry) from 1991. He has published more than 550 papers in journals of the Science Citation Index with 8747 citations,5 Spanish patents, 3 books on Green Analytical Chemistry (Elsevier, RSC and Wiley) and and 2 books on Food analysis (Elsevier and Wiley) additionally than 15 book chapters. His H index is 39 He has supervised 33 PhD thesis and is member of the Editorial board of TrEAC Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry (The Netherlands), Bioimpacts (Iran) Spectroscopy Letters (USA), Current Green Chemistry (United Arab Emirates) Ciencia (Venezuela), J. Braz. Chem. Soc. (Brazil) Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry and Chemical Speciation & Bioavailability (UK), SOP Transactionson Nano-technology (USA) and SOP Transactions on Analytical Chemistry (USA). Member of the Advisory board of Analytica Chimica Acta (The Netherlands) between 1995 and 2000, and editor of five special issues of the journal Spectroscopy letters(USA) about Quantitative Vibrational Spectrometry (2005), Spectrometry and Automation (2006), Research on Spectroscopy in Morocco (2007), RISO Conference Special issue (2008) and Green Spectroscopy (2009) and a special issue of TrAC on Green Analytical Chemistry(2011)Invited Editor of a special issue on Green Analytical Methods of Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry published in 2012 and co-editor with S. Garrigues of a special issue on Analytical Diagnostics for Analytical Methods (RSC) to be published in 2014. Chevallier dans l’ordre des Palmes Acadèmiquess decorated by the Minister Council of France.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Valencia, Spain

Sergio Armenta Author

Sergio Armenta is professor of the Analytical Chemistry Department of the University of Valencia (Spain). He obtained his PhD in Analytical Chemistry at the Universitat de València in 2006. His research topics included coupling of automated flow systems with infrared and Raman spectroscopy and the development of vibrational spectroscopy based methodologies combined with chemometrics for the quality control of commercial products. His current research field is devoted to the development of fast and sensitive analytical methodologies based on ion mobility spectrometry in forensic and environmental research areas.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Valencia, Spain