Gray's Atlas of Anatomy - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9781455748020, 9780323314138

Gray's Atlas of Anatomy

2nd Edition

Authors: Richard Drake A. Wayne Vogl Adam Mitchell Richard Tibbitts Paul Richardson
Paperback ISBN: 9780702052385
eBook ISBN: 9780323314138
eBook ISBN: 9780323321242
eBook ISBN: 9780702052378
eBook ISBN: 9780323321228
Paperback ISBN: 9781455748020
Imprint: Churchill Livingstone
Published Date: 14th July 2014
Page Count: 648

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Table of Contents



Anatomical position, terms, and planes 2

Anatomical planes and imaging 3

Surface anatomy: anterior view 4

Surface anatomy: posterior view 5

Skeleton: anterior 6

Skeleton: posterior 7

Muscles: anterior 8

Muscles: posterior 9

Vascular system: arteries 10

Vascular system: veins 11

Lymphatic system 12

Nervous system 13

Sympathetics 14

Parasympathetics 15

Dermatomes 16

Cutaneous nerves 17



Surface anatomy 20

Vertebral column 21

Regional vertebrae 22

Cervical vertebrae 23

Thoracic vertebrae 26

Lumbar vertebrae 28

Sacrum 31

Intervertebral foramina and discs 32

Intervertebral disc problems 33

Joints and ligaments 35

Back musculature: surface anatomy 36

Superficial musculature 37

Intermediate musculature 39

Deep musculature 40

Back musculature: transverse section 42

Suboccipital region 43

Spinal nerves 44

Spinal cord 45

Spinal cord vasculature 46

Venous drainage of spinal cord 47

Meninges 48

Spinal cord: imaging 50

Transverse section: thoracic region 52

Dermatomes and cutaneous nerves 53

Tables 54



Surface anatomy with bones 62

Bony framework 63

Ribs 65

Articulations 66

Breast 68

Pectoral region 70

Thoracic wall muscles 72

Diaphragm 73

Arteries of the thoracic wall 74

Veins of the thoracic wall 75

Nerves of the thoracic wall 76

Lymphatics of the thoracic wall 77

Intercostal nerves and arteries 78

Pleural cavities and mediastinum 79

Parietal pleura 80

Surface projections of pleural recesses 81

Right lung 82

Left lung 83

Lung lobes: surface relationship 84

Lung lobes: imaging 85

Bronchial tree 86

Bronchopulmonary segments 87

Pulmonary vessels and plexus 88

Pulmonary vessels: imaging 89

Mediastinum 91

Pericardium 92

Pericardial layers 93

Anterior surface of heart 94

Base and diaphragmatic surface of heart 95

Right atrium 96

Right ventricle 97

Left atrium 98

Left ventricle 99

Aortic valve and cardiac skeleton 100

Cardiac chambers and heart valves 101

Coronary vessels 102

Coronary arteries and variations 103

Cardiac conduction system 105

Auscultation points and heart sounds 106

Cardiac innervation 107

Superior mediastinum: thymus 108

Superior mediastinum: veins and arteries 109

Superior mediastinum: arteries and nerves 110

Superior mediastinum: imaging 111

Superior mediastinum: veins and trachea 112

Mediastinum: imaging 113

Mediastinum: view from right 114

Mediastinum: imaging – view from right 115

Mediastinum: view from left 116

Mediastinum: imaging – view from left 117

Posterior mediastinum 118

Mediastinum: imaging 120

Transverse section: TVIII level 124

Dermatomes and cutaneous nerves 125

Visceral efferent (motor) innervation of the heart 126

Visceral afferents 127

Tables 128



Surface anatomy 134

Quadrants and regions 135

Abdominal wall 136

Muscles 138

Muscles: rectus sheath 141

Vessels of the abdominal wall 142

Arteries and lymphatics of the abdominal wall 143

Nerves of the abdominal wall 144

Dermatomes and cutaneous nerves 145

Inguinal region 146

Inguinal canal 148

Inguinal hernias 150

Anterior abdominal wall 151

Greater omentum 152

Abdominal viscera 153

Peritoneal cavity 154

Abdominal sagittal section 155

Abdominal coronal section 156

Arterial supply of viscera 157

Stomach 158

Spleen 159

Arteries of stomach and spleen 160

Duodenum 162

Small intestine 164

Large intestine 166

Ileocecal junction 168

Gastrointestinal tract: imaging 169

Mesenteric arteries 170

Liver 172

Vessels of the liver 174

Segments of the liver 175

Pancreas and gallbladder 176

Vasculature of pancreas and duodenum 179

Venous drainage of viscera 180

Portosystemic anastomoses 182

Posterior wall 183

Vessels of the posterior wall 184

Diaphragm 185

Kidneys 186

Gross structure of kidneys 188

Kidneys: imaging 189

Renal vasculature 190

Branches of the abdominal aorta 192

Inferior vena cava 193

Abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava: imaging 194

Lumbar plexus 196

Lumbar plexus: cutaneous distribution 197

Lymphatics 198

Abdominal innervation 199

Splanchnic nerves 200

Visceral efferent (motor) innervation diagram 201

Visceral afferent (sensory) innervation and referred pain diagram 202

Kidney and ureter visceral afferent (sensory) diagram 204 

Tables 206



Surface anatomy and articulated pelvis in men 212

Surface anatomy and articulated pelvis in women 214

Pelvic girdle 216

Pelvic girdle: imaging 217

Lumbosacral joint 218

Sacro-iliac joint 219

Pelvic inlet and outlet 220

Orientation of pelvic girdle and pelvic brim 221

Pelvic viscera and perineum in men 222

Pelvic viscera and perineum in men: imaging 223

Pelvic viscera and perineum in women 224

Pelvic viscera and perineum in women: imaging 225

Lateral wall of pelvic cavity 226

Floor of pelvic cavity: pelvic diaphragm 227

Rectum and bladder in situ 230

Rectum 231

Bladder in men 232

Bladder in women 233

Reproductive system in men 234

Prostate 235

Prostate and seminal vesicles 237

Scrotum 238

Testes 239

Penis 240

Reproductive system in women 241

Uterus and ovaries 242

Uterus 242

Uterus: imaging 243

Pelvic fascia 245

Arterial supply of pelvis 246

Venous drainage of pelvis 247

Vasculature of the pelvic viscera 248

Vasculature of uterus 249

Venous drainage of prostate and penis 250

Venous drainage of rectum 251

Sacral and coccygeal nerve plexuses 252

Pelvic nerve plexus 253

Hypogastric plexus 254

Surface anatomy of the perineum 255

Borders and ceiling of the perineum 258

Deep pouch and perineal membrane 259

Muscles and erectile tissues in men 260

Erectile tissue in men: imaging 261

Muscles and erectile tissues in women 262

Erectile tissue in women: imaging 263

Internal pudendal artery and vein 264

Pudendal nerve 265

Vasculature of perineum 266

Nerves of perineum 267

Lymphatics of pelvis and perineum in men 268

Lymphatics of pelvis and perineum in women 269

Lymphatics 270

Dermatomes 271

Innervation of reproductive system in men 272

Innervation of reproductive system in women 273

Innervation of bladder 274

Pelvic cavity imaging in men 275

Pelvic cavity imaging in women 278

Tables 284 



Surface anatomy 292

Bones of the lower limb 293

Pelvic bones and sacrum 294

Articulated pelvis 295

Proximal femur 296

Hip joint 297

Hip joint: structure and arterial supply 299

Gluteal region: attachments and superficial musculature 300

Gluteal region: superficial and deep muscles 301

Gluteal region: arteries and nerves 302

Distal femur and proximal tibia and fibula 304

Thigh: muscle attachments 305

Thigh: anterior superficial musculature 306

Thigh: posterior superficial musculature 307

Thigh: anterior compartment muscles 308

Thigh: medial compartment muscles 309

Femoral triangle 310

Anterior thigh: arteries and nerves 311

Anterior thigh: arteries 312

Thigh: posterior compartment muscles 313

Posterior thigh: arteries and nerves 314

Transverse sections: thigh 316

Knee joint 318

Ligaments of the knee 320

Menisci and cruciate ligaments 322

Knee: bursa and capsule 326

Knee surface: muscles, capsule, and arteries 327

Popliteal fossa 328

Tibia and fibula 329

Bones of the foot 330

Bones and joints of the foot 333

Talus and calcaneus 334

Ankle joint 335

Ligaments of the ankle joint 336

Leg: muscle attachments 339

Posterior leg: superficial muscles 340

Posterior compartment: deep muscles 341

Posterior leg: arteries and nerves 342

Lateral compartment: muscles 343

Anterior leg: superficial muscles 344

Anterior compartment: muscles 345

Anterior leg: arteries and nerves 346

Leg: cutaneous nerves 347

Transverse sections: leg 348

Foot: muscle attachments 350

Foot: ligaments 351

Dorsum of foot 353

Dorsum of foot: arteries and nerves 354

Plantar aponeurosis 356

Plantar region (sole) musculature: first layer 357

Plantar region (sole) musculature: second layer 358

Plantar region (sole) musculature: third layer 359

Plantar region (sole) musculature: fourth layer 360

Plantar region (sole): arteries and nerves 361

Dorsal hood and tarsal tunnel 363

Superficial veins of the lower limb 364

Lymphatics of the lower limb 365

Anterior cutaneous nerves and dermatomes of the lower limb 366

Posterior cutaneous nerves and dermatomes of the lower limb 367

Tables 368 



Surface anatomy 384

Bones of the upper limb 385

Bony framework of shoulder 386

Scapula 387

Clavicle: joints and ligaments 388

Proximal humerus 389

Glenohumeral joint 390

Muscle attachments 392

Pectoral region 394

Deep pectoral region 395

Walls of the axilla 396

The four rotator cuff muscles 398

Deep vessels and nerves of the shoulder 400

Axillary artery 401

Brachial artery 402

Brachial plexus 403

Medial and lateral cords 404

Posterior cord 405

Distal end of humerus and proximal end of radius and ulna 406

Muscle attachments 407

Anterior compartment: muscles 408

Anterior compartment: arteries and nerves 410

Veins of the arm 411

Posterior compartment: muscles 412

Posterior compartment: arteries and nerves 414

Lymphatics of the arm 415

Transverse sections: arm 416

Anterior cutaneous nerves of the arm 418

Posterior cutaneous nerves of the arm 419

Elbow joint 420

Elbow joint: capsule and ligaments 422

Cubital fossa 424

Radius and ulna 425

Bones of the hand and wrist joint 426

Imaging of the hand and wrist joint 427

Bones of the hand 428

Joints and ligaments of the hand 429

Muscle attachments of forearm 430

Anterior compartment of forearm: muscles 431

Anterior compartment of forearm: arteries and nerves 434

Posterior compartment of forearm: muscles 435

Posterior compartment of forearm: arteries and nerves 437

Transverse sections: forearm 438

Carpal tunnel 440

Muscle attachments of the hand 442

Superficial palmar region (palm) of hand 443

Tendon sheaths of hand 444

Lumbrical muscles 445

Intrinsic muscles of hand 446

Palmar region (palm) of hand: arteries and nerves 448

Arteries of the hand 450

Innervation of the hand: median and ulnar nerves 451

Dorsum of hand 452

Dorsal hoods 453

Dorsum of hand: arteries 454

Dorsum of hand: nerves 455

Anatomical snuffbox 456

Superficial veins and lymphatics of forearm 457

Anterior cutaneous nerves of forearm 458

Posterior cutaneous nerves of upper limb 459

Tables 460



Surface anatomy with bones 476

Bones of the skull 477

Skull: anterior view 478

Skull: lateral view 480

Skull: posterior view 482

Skull: superior view and roof 483

Skull: inferior view 484

Skull: cranial cavity 485

Ethmoid, lacrimal bone, inferior concha, and vomer 486

Maxilla and palatine bone 487

Skull: muscle attachments 488

Scalp and meninges 490

Dural partitions 491

Dural arteries and nerves 492

Dural venous sinuses 493

Brain 494

Brain: imaging 496

Cranial nerves 498

Arterial supply to brain 500

Cutaneous distribution of trigeminal nerve [V] 503

Facial muscles 504

Vasculature, facial nerve [VII] and lymphatics 506

Deep arteries and veins of parotid region 507

Bony orbit 508

Section through orbit and structures of eyelid 509

Eyelids and lacrimal apparatus 510

Innervation of the lacrimal gland 511

Muscles of the eyeball 512

Innervation of the orbit and eyeball 513

Eye movements 514

Vasculature of orbit 515

Eyeball 516

Eye imaging 517

Ear surface and sensory innervation 520

Ear 521

Middle ear 522

Internal ear 524

Ear imaging 525

Temporal and infratemporal fossae 526

Bones of the temporal and infratemporal fossae 527

Temporal and infratemporal fossae 528

Temporomandibular joint 530

Mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve [V] 531

Parasympathetic innervation 532

Arteries and veins of temporal and infratemporal fossae 533

Pterygopalatine fossa 534

Neck surface anatomy 536

Bones of the neck 537

Compartments and fascia of the neck 538

Superficial veins of the neck 539

Muscles of the neck 540

Nerves in the neck 542

Cranial nerves in the neck 543

Cervical plexus and sympathetic trunk 544

Arteries of the neck 546

Root of the neck: arteries 548

Lymphatics of the neck 550

Pharynx 552

Muscles of the pharynx 554

Innervation of the pharynx 556

Vasculature of the pharynx 557

Larynx 558

Laryngeal cavity 560

Muscles of the larynx 561

Innervation of the larynx 562

Thyroid gland 563

Vasculature of the thyroid gland 564

Nose and paranasal sinuses 566

Nasal cavity: bones 567

Nasal cavity: mucosal linings 568

Vasculature and innervation of the nasal cavity 569

Sinus imaging 570

Oral cavity: bones 572

Teeth 573

Teeth: imaging 574

Anatomy of teeth 575

Vessels and nerves supplying teeth 576

Innervation of teeth and gums 577

Muscles and salivary glands of the oral cavity 578

Vessels and nerves of the tongue 579

Tongue 580

Hard and soft palate 581

Palate 582

Innervation of oral cavity 583

Cranial nerves 584

Visceral motor pathways in the head 586

Tables 588



Gray’s Atlas of Anatomy, the companion resource to the popular Gray's Anatomy for Students, presents a vivid, visual depiction of anatomical structures. Newly updated with a wealth of material to facilitate study, this medical textbook demonstrates the correlation of structures with appropriate clinical images and surface anatomy — essential for proper identification in the dissection lab and successful preparation for course exams. Clinically focused, consistently and clearly illustrated throughout, and logically organized, Gray's Atlas of Anatomy makes it easier than ever to master the essential anatomy knowledge you need!

Key Features

  • Build on your existing anatomy knowledge with structures presented from a superficial to deep orientation, representing a logical progression through the body.
  • Identify the various anatomical structures of the body and better understand their relationships to each other with the visual guidance of nearly 1,000 exquisitely illustrated anatomical figures.
  • Visualize the clinical correlation between anatomical structures and surface landmarks with surface anatomy photographs overlaid with anatomical drawings.
  • Recognize anatomical structures as they present in practice through more than 270 clinical images — including laparoscopic, radiologic, surgical, ophthalmoscopic, otoscopic, and other clinical views — placed adjacent to anatomic artwork for side-by-side comparison.


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© Churchill Livingstone 2015
14th July 2014
Churchill Livingstone
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About the Authors

Richard Drake

Richard Drake, PhD, FAAA is a Director of Anatomy, Professor of Surgery in Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director of Anatomy, Professor of Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio

A. Wayne Vogl

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Adam Mitchell

Affiliations and Expertise

Consultant Radiologist, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Honorary Senior Lecturer, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom

Richard Tibbitts

Paul Richardson

Affiliations and Expertise

Cambridge, UK