Gray's Anatomy

Gray's Anatomy

The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice

First published on October 21, 2020

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  • Editor: Susan Standring
  • eBook ISBN: 9780702077074
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780702077050

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Description

Susan Standring, MBE, PhD, DSc, FKC, Hon FAS, Hon FRCS Trust Gray’s. Building on over 160 years of anatomical excellence In 1858, Drs Henry Gray and Henry Vandyke Carter created a book for their surgical colleagues that established an enduring standard among anatomical texts. After more than 160 years of continuous publication, Gray’s Anatomy remains the definitive, comprehensive reference on the subject, offering ready access to the information you need to ensure safe, effective practice.  This 42nd edition has been meticulously revised and updated throughout, reflecting the very latest understanding of clinical anatomy from the world’s leading clinicians and biomedical scientists. The book’s acclaimed, lavish art programme and clear text has been further enhanced, while major advances in imaging techniques and the new insights they bring are fully captured in state of the art X-ray, CT, MR and ultrasonic images. The accompanying eBook version is richly enhanced with additional content and media, covering all the body regions, cell biology, development and embryogenesis – and now includes two new systems-orientated chapters. This combines to unlock a whole new level of related information and interactivity, in keeping with the spirit of innovation that has characterised Gray’s Anatomy since its inception.   Each chapter has been edited by international leaders in their field, ensuring access to the very latest evidence-based information on topics Over 150 new radiology images, offering the very latest X-ray, multiplanar CT and MR perspectives, including state-of-the-art cinematic rendering  The downloadable Expert Consult eBook version included with your (print) purchase allows you to easily search all of the text, figures, references and videos from the book on a variety of devices  Electronic enhancements include additional text, tables, illustrations, labelled imaging and videos, as well as 21 specially commissioned ‘Commentaries’ on new and emerging topics related to anatomy  Now featuring two extensive electronic chapters providing full coverage of the peripheral nervous system and the vascular and lymphatic systems.  The result is a more complete, practical and engaging resource than ever before, which will prove invaluable to all clinicians who require an accurate, in-depth knowledge of anatomy.

Table of Contents

  • Instructions for online access
  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Book Team
  • Copyright
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • Contributors to the forty-second edition
  • Historical Introduction
  • Anatomical Nomenclature
  • Section 1. Cells, Tissues and Systems
  • Chapter 1. Basic structure and function of cells
  • Cell Structure
  • Cell Division and the Cell Cycle
  • Cell Polarity and Domains
  • Ageing, Cellular Senescence, Cancer and Apoptosis
  • Chapter 2. Integrating cells into tissues
  • Epithelia
  • Glands
  • Basement Membrane and Basal Lamina
  • Connective and Supporting Tissues
  • Transdifferentiation and Metaplasia
  • Mucosa (Mucous Membrane)
  • Mucus
  • Serosa (Serous Membrane)
  • Fascia
  • Chapter 3. Nervous system
  • Neurones
  • Central Glia
  • Peripheral Nerves
  • Dispersed Neuroendocrine System
  • Sensory Endings
  • Neuromuscular Junctions
  • CNS–PNS Transition Zone
  • Conduction of the Nervous Impulse
  • Chapter 4. Blood, lymphoid tissues and haemopoiesis
  • Cells of Peripheral Blood
  • Lymphoid Tissues
  • Haemopoiesis
  • Phagocytes and Antigen-Presenting Cells
  • Chapter 5. Functional anatomy of the musculoskeletal system
  • Cartilage
  • Bone
  • Joints
  • Muscle
  • Tendons and Ligaments
  • Biomechanics
  • Chapter 6. Smooth muscle and the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems
  • Smooth Muscle
  • Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems
  • Cardiac Muscle
  • Chapter 7. Skin and its appendages
  • Types and Functions of Skin
  • Microstructure of Skin and Skin Appendages
  • Vascular Supply, Lymphatic Drainage and Innervation
  • Development of Skin and Skin Appendages
  • Natural Skin Creases and Wrinkles
  • Cutaneous Wound Healing and Scarring
  • Skin Grafts and Flaps
  • Skin Stem Cells
  • Commentary 1.1. Fluorescence microscopy today: A perspective
  • Commentary 1.2. Electron microscopy in the twenty-first century
  • Introduction
  • EM in Pathology
  • Limitations of Traditional Processing Techniques and Current Protocols
  • Advances in Instrumentation and Detector Technology
  • Advances in the Scanning Electron Microscope
  • Commentary 1.3. Metaplasia
  • Commentary 1.4. Merkel cells
  • Commentary 1.5. The reaction of peripheral nerves to injury
  • Commentary 1.6. A critical evaluation of the current status of myofascial chains
  • Introduction
  • Myofascial Chains
  • Myofascial Force Transmission
  • Remote Exercise Effects and Non-Local Symptom Manifestations
  • The Role of Myofascial Chains in Musculoskeletal Disorders
  • Conclusion
  • Section 2. Embryogenesis and Development
  • Chapter 8. Preimplantation development
  • Staging of Embryos
  • Fertilization
  • Preimplantation Development
  • Formation of Extraembryonic Tissues
  • Chapter 9. Implantation and placentation
  • Implantation
  • Development of the Placenta
  • Fetal Membranes
  • Amniotic Fluid
  • Umbilical Cord
  • Chapter 10. Cell populations at gastrulation
  • Conceptus with a Bilaminar Embryonic Disc
  • Trilaminar Disc
  • Folding of the Embryo
  • Formation of the Intraembryonic Coelom
  • Embryonic Cell Populations at Gastrulation
  • Chapter 11. Overarching concepts in development
  • Genes in Development
  • Morphogenesis and Pattern Formation
  • Development of Hierarchical Ontologies and Computer Modelling of Development
  • Chapter 12. Cell populations at the start of organogenesis
  • Specification of the Body Axes and The Body Plan
  • Embryonic Cell Populations at the Start of Organogenesis
  • Chapter 13. Development of the heart and circulation
  • Formation of the Heart Tube
  • Compartments of the Heart
  • Septation of the Embryonic Cardiac Compartments
  • Cardiac Valve Development
  • Embryonic Blood, Blood Vessels and Early Circulation
  • Embryonic Lymphatic Vessels
  • Fetal Circulation
  • Chapter 14. Development of the nervous system
  • Neurulation
  • Early Brain Regions
  • Neural Crest
  • Ectodermal Placodes
  • Early Cellular Arrangement and Histogenesis of the Neural Tube
  • Peripheral Nervous System
  • Central Nervous System
  • Vascular Supply
  • The Neonatal Brain
  • Chapter 15. Development of the eye
  • Embryonic Components of the Eye
  • Differentiation of the Functional Components of the Eye
  • Differentiation of Structures Around the Eye
  • Chapter 16. Development of the ear
  • Inner ear
  • Middle Ear (Tympanic Cavity and Pharyngotympanic (Auditory) Tube)
  • External Ear
  • Hereditary deafness
  • Neonatal and infant ear
  • Chapter 17. Development of the head and neck
  • Embryonic Pharynx and Pharyngeal Arches
  • Face, Nasal Cavities, Palate and Mouth
  • Neck, Glands and Pharynx
  • Meninges and Venous Sinuses
  • Skull
  • Chapter 18. Development of the back
  • Segmentation of Paraxial Mesenchyme
  • Somite Development
  • Development of Sclerotomes
  • Development of dermomyotomes
  • Chapter 19. Development of the limbs
  • Overarching concepts
  • Development of Limb Tissues
  • Pectoral Girdle
  • Upper Limb
  • Neonatal Upper Limb
  • Developmental Anomalies of the Upper Limb
  • Pelvic Girdle
  • Lower Limb
  • Neonatal Lower Limb
  • Developmental Anomalies of the Lower Limb
  • Chapter 20. Development of the lungs, thorax and respiratory diaphragm
  • Development of the Respiratory Tree
  • Development of the Thoracic Wall and Respiratory Diaphragm
  • Chapter 21. Development of the peritoneal cavity, gastrointestinal tract and its adnexae
  • Postpharyngeal Foregut
  • Midgut
  • Primitive Hindgut
  • Peritoneal Cavity
  • Spleen
  • Postnatal Development of the Gut
  • Chapter 22. Development of the urogenital system
  • Development of the Posterior Coelom Wall
  • Urinary System
  • Suprarenal Glands
  • Reproductive System
  • Chapter 23. Pre- and postnatal growth and the neonate
  • Prenatal Stages
  • Growth
  • Transition to Extrauterine Life
  • Integration of Types of Growth During Development and Life
  • Commentary 2.1. Head–trunk interface in the vertebrate embryo
  • Section 3. Neuroanatomy
  • Chapter 24. Overview of the nervous system
  • Central Nervous System
  • Peripheral Nervous System
  • Autonomic Nervous System
  • Surface Anatomy
  • Chapter 25. Meninges and ventricular system
  • Dura Mater
  • Dural venous sinuses
  • Arachnoid and Pia Mater
  • Topography and Relationships of the Ventricular System
  • Choroid Plexus and Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • Pia Mater
  • Chapter 26. Vascular supply and drainage of the brain
  • Arteries of the Brain
  • Veins of the Brain
  • Chapter 27. Spinal cord
  • External Features and Relations
  • Internal Organization
  • Spinal Reflexes
  • Spinal Cord Lesions
  • Chapter 28. Brainstem
  • Overview of Cranial Nerves and Their Nuclei
  • Medulla Oblongata
  • Pons
  • Midbrain
  • Brainstem Lesions
  • View to the Future
  • Chapter 29. Cerebellum
  • External Features and Relations
  • Internal Organization
  • Cerebellar Functional Topography and Connectivity
  • Neuroimaging of Human Cerebellar Structure and Function
  • The Triad of Clinical Ataxiology in Relation to Neuroanatomy
  • Chapter 30. Diencephalon
  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamus
  • Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis)
  • Subthalamus
  • Epithalamus
  • Chapter 31. Basal ganglia
  • Corpus Striatum
  • Striatum
  • Globus Pallidus
  • Subthalamic Nucleus
  • Substantia Nigra
  • Pedunculopontine Nucleus
  • Pathophysiology of Basal Ganglia Disorders
  • Chapter 32. Cerebral hemispheres
  • Cerebral Hemisphere Surfaces, Sulci and GYRI
  • Neuronal Types in the Cerebral Cortex
  • Maps of the Human Cerebral Cortex
  • Transmitters in the Human Cerebral Cortex
  • Fundamental Segregation of Cortical Structures
  • White Matter of the Cerebral Hemispheres
  • Commentary 3.1. Comparative anatomy of the corticospinal system
  • Cortical Origin
  • Section 4. Head and Neck
  • Chapter 33. Head and neck: Overview and surface anatomy
  • Skin and Fascia
  • Bones and Joints
  • Muscles
  • Vascular Supply and Lymphatic Drainage
  • Innervation
  • Surface Anatomy
  • Head and neck
  • Chapter 34. The skull
  • Frontal (Anterior) View
  • Posterior View
  • Superior View
  • Lateral View
  • Inferior View
  • Internal Surface of Calvaria
  • Cranial Fossae (Anterior, Middle, Posterior)
  • Disarticulated Individual Bones
  • Joints
  • Neonatal, Paediatric and Senescent Anatomy
  • Identification From the Skull
  • Chapter 35. Neck
  • Skin
  • Bones, Joints and Cartilages
  • Triangles of the Neck
  • Cervical Fascia
  • Muscles
  • Vascular Supply and Lymphatic Drainage
  • Innervation
  • Viscera
  • Root of the Neck
  • Chapter 36. Face and scalp
  • Skin
  • Soft Tissue
  • Bones of the Facial Skeleton and Cranial Vault
  • Muscles of the Face
  • Vascular Supply and Lymphatic Drainage
  • Innervation
  • Parotid Salivary Gland
  • Upper aerodigestive tract
  • Chapter 37. Mouth
  • Cheeks
  • Lips
  • Oral Vestibule
  • Oral Mucosa
  • Oropharyngeal Isthmus
  • Floor of the Mouth
  • Palate
  • Tongue
  • Teeth
  • Salivary Glands
  • Tissue spaces around the jaws
  • Chapter 38. Infratemporal and pterygopalatine fossae and temporomandibular joint
  • Infratemporal Fossa
  • Temporomandibular Joint
  • Pterygopalatine Fossa
  • Chapter 39. Nose, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
  • Nose
  • External Nose
  • Nasal Cavity
  • Paranasal Sinuses
  • Chapter 40. Pharynx
  • Nasopharynx
  • Oropharynx
  • Laryngopharynx
  • Pharyngeal Fascia
  • Pharyngeal Tissue Spaces
  • Muscles of the Soft Palate and Pharynx
  • Pharyngeal Plexus
  • Anatomy of Swallowing (Deglutition)
  • Chapter 41. Larynx
  • Skeleton of the Larynx
  • Joints
  • Soft Tissues
  • Laryngeal Cavity
  • The Paediatric Larynx
  • Paralumenal Spaces
  • Muscles
  • Vascular Supply and Lymphatic Drainage
  • Innervation
  • Anatomy of Speech
  • Special senses
  • Chapter 42. External and middle ear
  • Temporal Bone
  • External Ear
  • Middle Ear
  • Chapter 43. Inner ear
  • Osseous (Bony) Labyrinth
  • Membranous Labyrinth
  • Vascular Supply
  • Innervation
  • Anatomy of Hearing
  • Chapter 44. Orbit and accessory visual apparatus
  • Bony Orbit
  • Orbital Connective Tissue and Fat
  • Extraocular Muscles
  • Vascular Supply and Lymphatic Drainage
  • Innervation
  • Eyelids, Conjunctiva and Lacrimal System
  • Chapter 45. Eye
  • Outer Coat
  • UVEA
  • Lens and humours
  • Retina
  • Visual Pathway
  • Section 5. Back
  • Chapter 46. Back
  • Skin
  • Fascial Layers
  • Bones
  • Ligaments of the Vertebral Column
  • Joints
  • Muscles
  • Movements of the Vertebral Column
  • Posture and Ergonomics
  • Surface Anatomy
  • Clinical Examination
  • Chapter 47. Spinal cord and spinal nerves: gross anatomy
  • Spinal Cord
  • Meninges
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Spinal Nerves
  • Vascular Supply of Spinal Cord, Roots and Nerves
  • The Effects of Injury
  • Clinical Procedures
  • Section 6. Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb
  • Chapter 48. Pectoral girdle and upper limb: Overview and surface anatomy
  • Bones and Joints
  • Skin and Fascia
  • Muscles
  • Vascular Supply and Lymphatic Drainage
  • Acute Ischaemia and Compartment Syndromes in the Upper Limb
  • Innervation
  • Clinical Diagnosis of Focal Nerve Lesions in the Upper Limb
  • Nerves at Risk From Musculoskeletal Injury
  • Thoracic Outlet Syndromes
  • Surface Anatomy
  • Chapter 49. Shoulder girdle and arm
  • Skin and Soft Tissues
  • Bones
  • Joints
  • Muscles
  • Vascular Supply and Lymphatic Drainage
  • Innervation
  • Axilla
  • Chapter 50. Elbow and forearm
  • Skin and Soft Tissues
  • Bones
  • Joints
  • Muscles of the Forearm
  • Vascular Supply and Lymphatic Drainage
  • Anatomical Considerations In Common Forearm and Elbow Injuries
  • Chapter 51. Wrist and hand
  • Skin and Soft Tissues
  • Bones
  • Joints
  • Muscles
  • Movements of the Hand
  • Vascular Supply
  • Innervation
  • Surface Anatomy of the Wrist And Hand
  • Commentary 6.1. Nerve biomechanics
  • Commentary 6.2. The anatomy and variation of the coracoid attachment of the subclavius muscle and its relation to the clavi-coraco-axillary aponeurosis
  • Commentary 6.3. Instability of the shoulder – a neurological disease
  • Section 7. Thorax
  • Chapter 52. Thorax: overview and surface anatomy
  • Musculoskeletal Framework
  • Thoracic Cavity
  • Vascular Supply and Lymphatic Drainage
  • Innervation
  • Surface Anatomy
  • Chapter 53. Chest wall and breast
  • Skin and Fascia
  • Bone and Cartilage
  • Joints
  • Muscles
  • Vascular Supply and Lymphatic Drainage of the Chest Wall
  • Innervation of the Chest Wall
  • Breast
  • Interventional Access to Thoracic Viscera
  • Lungs and respiratory diaphragm
  • Chapter 54. Pleura, lungs, trachea and bronchi
  • Pleura
  • Lungs
  • Trachea and Bronchi
  • Chapter 55. Respiratory diaphragm and phrenic nerves
  • Attachments and Components
  • Profile and Relations
  • Openings
  • Vascular Supply and Lymphatic Drainage
  • Innervation
  • Anatomy of Breathing
  • Heart and mediastinum
  • Chapter 56. Mediastinum
  • Subdivisions of the Mediastinum
  • Thoracic Duct
  • Right Lymphatic Trunk
  • Autonomic Nervous System
  • Thymus
  • Oesophagus
  • Mediastinal Imaging
  • Chapter 57. Heart
  • Pericardium
  • Heart
  • Chapter 58. Great vessels
  • Major Blood Vessels
  • Commentary 7.1. Breast cancer
  • Commentary 7.2. Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) of anomalous coronary vasculature
  • Section 8. Abdomen and Pelvis
  • Chapter 59. Abdomen and pelvis: Overview and surface anatomy
  • General Structure and Function of the Abdominopelvic Cavity
  • General Arrangement of Abdominopelvic Autonomic Nerves
  • General arrangement of abdominopelvic vascular supply
  • General Microstructure of the Wall of the Gastrointestinal Tract
  • Surface Anatomy of the Abdomen and Pelvis
  • Common Clinical Procedures
  • Chapter 60. Anterior abdominal wall
  • Skin and Soft Tissue
  • Muscles
  • Myofascial flaps and component separation
  • Hernias of the Anterior Abdominal Wall
  • Chapter 61. Posterior abdominal wall and retroperitoneum
  • Definitions, Boundaries and Contents
  • Skin and Soft Tissues
  • Bones
  • Muscles
  • Vascular Supply and Lymphatic Drainage
  • Innervation
  • Chapter 62. Peritoneum, mesentery and peritoneal cavity
  • Peritoneal Fluid
  • Peritoneal Attachments
  • General Arrangement of the Peritoneum
  • General Arrangement of the Peritoneal Cavity
  • Gastrointestinal tract
  • Chapter 63. Abdominal oesophagus and stomach
  • Abdominal Part of the Oesophagus
  • Stomach
  • Gastric Motility
  • Chapter 64. Small intestine
  • Overview
  • Duodenum
  • Jejunum
  • Ileum
  • Small Intestine Physiology
  • Microstructure
  • Chapter 65. Large intestine
  • Midgut-Derived Part of the Large Intestine
  • Hindgut-Derived Region of Large Intestine
  • Anal Canal
  • Anal continence and incontinence
  • Microstructure of the Large Intestine
  • Abdominal viscera
  • Chapter 66. Liver
  • Chapter 67. Gallbladder and biliary tree
  • Gallbladder
  • Intrahepatic Biliary Tree
  • Extrahepatic Biliary Tree
  • Vascular supply and lymphatic drainage
  • Innervation
  • Microstructure
  • Chapter 68. Pancreas
  • Chapter 69. Spleen
  • Chapter 70. Suprarenal gland
  • Urogenital system
  • Chapter 71. Lesser pelvis and perineum
  • Lesser Pelvis
  • Perineum
  • Chapter 72. Kidney and ureter
  • Kidney
  • Ureter
  • Chapter 73. Bladder, prostate and urethra
  • Urinary Bladder
  • Microstructure
  • Male Urethra
  • Female Urethra
  • Micturition and Urinary Continence
  • Prostate
  • Chapter 74. Male reproductive system
  • Testis and Epididymis
  • Ductus Deferens, Spermatic Cord and Ejaculatory Duct
  • Accessory Glandular Structures
  • External Genitalia
  • Chapter 75. Female reproductive system
  • Lower Genital Tract
  • Upper Genital Tract
  • Menstrual Cycle
  • Pregnancy and Parturition
  • Commentary 8.1. The mesentery and the mesenteric model of abdominal compartmentalization
  • Section 9. Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb
  • Chapter 76. Pelvic girdle and lower limb: Overview and surface anatomy
  • Bones and Joints
  • Skin and Fascia
  • Muscles
  • Vascular Supply and Lymphatic Drainage
  • Innervation
  • Gait
  • Surface Anatomy
  • Chapter 77. Pelvic girdle, hip, gluteal region and thigh
  • Skin and Soft Tissues
  • Bones
  • Joints
  • Muscles
  • Vascular Supply and Lymphatic Drainage
  • Innervation
  • Chapter 78. Knee and leg
  • Skin and Soft Tissues
  • Bones
  • Joints
  • Biomechanics of the Knee
  • Muscles
  • Vascular Supply and Lymphatic Drainage
  • Innervation
  • Chapter 79. Ankle and foot
  • Skin and Soft Tissues
  • Bones
  • Joints
  • Arches of the Foot
  • Muscles
  • Vascular Supply
  • Innervation
  • Biomechanics of the Foot
  • Commentary 9.1. Functional anatomy and biomechanics of the pelvis
  • Commentary 9.2. A proposed novel action of psoas minor
  • Commentary 9.3. Anterolateral ligament of the knee
  • Chapter 80. The anatomy of the peripheral nervous system
  • Cranial Nerves
  • Olfactory nerve
  • Optic Nerve
  • Oculomotor Nerve
  • Trochlear Nerve
  • Trigeminal Nerve
  • Abducens Nerve
  • Facial nerve
  • Vestibulocochlear Nerve
  • Glossopharyngeal Nerve
  • Vagus nerve
  • Accessory nerve
  • Hypoglossal Nerve
  • Spinal Nerves
  • Rami of the Spinal Nerves
  • Peripheral Nerve Plexuses
  • Autonomic Nervous System
  • Sympathetic Nervous System
  • Parasympathetic Nervous System
  • Autonomic Plexuses
  • Enteric Nervous System
  • Chapter 81. The anatomy of the vascular and lymphatic systems
  • Arterial Supply of the Head and Neck
  • Arterial Supply of the Brain and Meninges
  • Arterial Supply of the Spinal Cord, Roots and Nerves
  • Arterial Supply of the Thorax, Abdomen and Pelvis
  • Subclavian Artery and Arterial Supply of the Upper Limb
  • Venous Drainage of the Head and Neck
  • Venous Drainage of the Brain and Spinal Cord
  • Venous Drainage of the Vertebral Column
  • Venous Drainage of the Upper Limb
  • Venous Drainage of the Thorax
  • Venous Drainage of the Abdomen and Pelvis
  • Venous Drainage of the Lower Limb
  • Lymphatic Drainage
  • Lymphatic Drainage of the Head and Neck
  • Lymphatic Drainage of the Thorax
  • Lymphatic Drainage of the Abdomen and Pelvis
  • Lymphatic Drainage of the Vertebral Column
  • Lymphatic Drainage of the Limbs
  • Commentary I.1. A note on anatomy from an imaging perspective
  • Commentary I.2. Technical aspects and applications of diagnostic radiology
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Ultrasound
  • Nuclear Medicine
  • Angiography/Interventional Radiology
  • Computed Tomography
  • Commentary I.3. Imaging the ageing musculoskeletal system
  • Commentary I.4. Cinematic rendering offers entirely new possibilities for studying human anatomy
  • Eponyms
  • Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1606
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2020
  • Published: October 21, 2020
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780702077074
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780702077050

About the Editor

Susan Standring

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor of Anatomy, Head of Anatomy and Human Sciences, King's College London, London, UK

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