1. Anode Effect in Molten Fluoride Electrolysis. Overpotential for the discharge reaction of fluoride ions on a carbon electrode. Several factors influencing the anode effect. Graphite fluoride film on carbon electrodes. Effect of a trace of water and solid LiF on the anode effect. 2. Preparation, Stoichiometry and Structure of Graphite Fluoride. Preparative methods and apparatus. Fluorination reaction of graphite, stoichiometry and structure of graphite fluoride. Fluorination kinetics and mechanism of graphite fluoride formation. Fluorination of non-graphitizing carbons and resulting compounds. Fluorination of new forms of carbon; graphite fibers and activated carbon fibers. 3. Surface Properties of Graphite Fluorides. Heats of immersion, surface energy and water adsorption isotherms. Contact angles and surface free energies. 4. Chemical Properties of Graphite Fluorides. Reaction of graphite fluoride with alkali halides, potassium carbonate and hydrogen. Fluorine-adsorbed active carbon. Photochemical decomposition of (CF)n. Decomposition of graphite fluoride under chlorine. Thermal decomposition products of graphite fluoride, (CF)n. Rate of thermal decomposition of (CF)n in a vacuum. Thermal decomposition of (CF)n under oxygen and nitrogen gases. Thermal decomposition of graphite fluoride, (C2F)n in a vacuum. 5. Lithium-Graphite Fluoride Battery. Cathode preparation and cell construction. Discharge reaction of a Li-graphite fluoride battery. Electrode kinetics of a graphite fluoride cathode. The relation between cathode overpotential and crystallinity of graphite fluorides. Discharge characteristics of graphite fluoride prepared via graphite intercalation compounds. Discharge characteristics of (CF)n prepared from residual carbon obtained by thermal decomposition of graphite fluoride and graphite oxide. 6. Graphite Fluoride Film on Metallic Aluminum. Electrochemical fluorination in hydrogen fluoride solution. Fluorination by fluorine gas. Fluorination in the presence of graphite fluoride. 7. Lubricative Property of Graphite Fluoride. Graphite fluoride as a solid lubricant. Lubricity of (CF)n - co-deposited metal film. 8. Graphite Intercalation Compound of Fluorine. Preparative method of CxF. Stage and Composition of CxF. Chemical bonds between intercalated fluorine and carbon. Thermal stability of CxF. Electrical conductivity and air-stability. Electrochemical behavior of CxF. References. Index.
This volume reviews the preparation, structures, physicochemical properties and applications of graphite fluorides, mainly based on the results obtained by the authors. Their interest in graphite fluorides stemmed from research on the anode effect'', in electrolytic production of fluorine gas in KF.2HF melt using carbon electrodes.
The formation of a thin graphite fluoride film on carbon anodes made it difficult to continue the electrolysis of KF.2HF at a high current density. To elucidate this phenomenon studies on graphite fluoride were initiated. In the course of these systematic studies, the use of graphite fluoride in high-energy batteries became successful: a new graphite fluoride (C2F)n was found; and another fluorineographite intercalation compound with ionic bonding, CxF, was synthesized. During this research it was established that CxF is closely associated with the anode effect''.
The book will be of interest to all those involved in the study and research of graphite fluorides, particularly fluorine chemists, electrochemists, and fluorine and battery companies.
- © Elsevier Science 1988
- 1st January 1988
- Elsevier Science
- eBook ISBN:
Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan