COVID-19 Update: We are currently shipping orders daily. However, due to transit disruptions in some geographies, deliveries may be delayed. To provide all customers with timely access to content, we are offering 50% off Science and Technology Print & eBook bundle options. Terms & conditions.
Gorilla Pathology and Health - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128020395, 9780128020852

Gorilla Pathology and Health

1st Edition

With a Catalogue of Preserved Materials

Authors: John Cooper Gordon Hull
eBook ISBN: 9780128020852
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128020395
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 21st December 2016
Page Count: 666
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out Price includes VAT/GST
Price includes VAT/GST

Institutional Subscription

Secure Checkout

Personal information is secured with SSL technology.

Free Shipping

Free global shipping
No minimum order.


Gorilla Pathology and Health: With a Catalogue of Preserved Materials consists of two cross-referenced parts. The first, the book itself, is a review of pathological changes and tissue responses in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and G. beringei), with an emphasis on free-living animals, but also with reference to those in captivity. The comparative aspects are discussed, stressing the relevance of research to both gorillas and humans. What makes the publication truly unique, however, is the second part, a comprehensive descriptive catalogue of the location and nature of gorilla material in museums and scientific institutions throughout the world. This is of great consequence because free-living gorillas are strictly conserved with restricted access, so the location of a wealth of preserved tissues and other material that has been collected over the decades is a great benefit for research and study.

This book can, and should, be used to gain cardinal knowledge regarding the biology and pathology of this genus. The combination of book and catalogue in this extensive compilation makes it an invaluable tool for all those concerned with the health, welfare, and conservation of gorillas, one of our nearest living relatives.

Key Features

  • Brings together studies, data, and clinical practice from difficult-to-access or obscure journals and NGO reports, in different languages, for all interested parties and practitioners
  • Provides perspectives on existing research in gorilla pathology, both for those studying conservation practices and those seeking an understanding of comparable diseases in humans
  • Includes illustrative figures on gross and microscopic pathological changes, museum specimens, photos of field necropsy and techniques, and examples of laboratory tests
  • Features an extensive list of references and further reading, in different languages
  • Incorporates a comprehensive, descriptive catalogue of gorilla material from around the world


Primatologists / zoologists / biologists, conservation biologists, veterinarians and animal care staff in zoos and rehabilitation centres, comparative pathologists (from both the veterinary and medical professions), osteologists, comparative anatomists, biological anthropologists

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Quotations
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • About the Authors
  • About the Contributors
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Part I: Gorilla Pathology and Health
    • Chapter 1. The Genus Gorilla – Morphology, Anatomy and the Path to Pathology
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Primate and Comparative Anatomy
      • The Current Status of Anatomy
      • Terminology
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 2. The Growth of Studies on Primate Pathology
      • Abstract
      • Introduction – The Growth of Pathology
      • Studies on the Pathology of Primates
      • African Studies
      • The Importance of Comparative Pathology
      • Primates in Biomedical Research
      • Studies on Microscopic Anatomy and Cellular Pathology
      • The Continuing Relevance of Studies on Pathology
      • The Advantages and Dangers of Extrapolation
      • Access to Data
      • The Relevance of Pathology to Health
    • Chapter 3. Infectious Disease and Host Responses
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Disease and Death in Gorillas
      • The Aetiology of Disease
      • What Is ‘Pathology’?
      • Understanding Host Responses – A Comparative Approach
      • Endogenous Factors Influencing Host Responses
      • Discussion of Infectious and Noninfectious Diseases
      • Bacteria
      • Viruses
      • Parasites (By Ian Redmond)
      • Microbiota, Microbiome and Normal Flora
      • Emerging Diseases
    • Chapter 4. Noninfectious Disease and Host Responses
      • Abstract
      • Introduction – Noninfectious Conditions
      • Trauma – Causes and Pathogenesis
      • Specific Responses – Trauma
      • Fighting
      • Infected Wounds
      • Attacks on Humans
      • Wounds – General
      • Ageing of Wounds
      • Healing and Regeneration
      • Sepsis
      • Snares
      • Firearms, Exposure to Blasts, Explosions and Unexploded Ordnance
      • Predation
      • Exposure to Temperature Changes
      • Stress and Stressors
    • Chapter 5. Methods of Investigation – Observation, Clinical Examination and Health Monitoring
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Surveillance of Syndromes
      • Clinical Work With Gorillas
      • The Importance of Observation
      • Indicators of Ill Health
      • Restraint and Handling
      • Clinical Examination
      • Anaesthesia
      • Medical and Surgical Treatment
      • The Importance of Multidisciplinary Collaboration
      • Health Monitoring of Gorillas
      • Why Is Health Monitoring Important?
      • Health Monitoring Techniques
      • Some Conclusions
    • Chapter 6. Methods of Investigation – Postmortem Examination
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Nature and Role of the Postmortem Examination
      • Before Embarking on a Necropsy
      • Personnel and Training
      • Interdisciplinary Studies
      • Access to Material for Postmortem Examination
      • Postmortem Procedures
      • Equipment
      • Recording of Findings
      • Performance
      • External Examination and Sampling
      • Internal Examination and Sampling
      • Description of Lesions
      • Forensic Postmortem Examinations
      • Postmortem Changes and Determination of Time of Death/PMI
      • Causes of Death Diagnosis
    • Chapter 7. Methods of Investigation – Sampling and Laboratory Tests
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Sampling
      • Methods
      • Environmental Testing
      • Quality Control
      • Recording and Reporting of Findings
      • Personnel and Equipment
      • Safety in Laboratory Work
      • Storage of Samples and Reference Collections
    • Chapter 8. Nonspecific Pathology
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • General Considerations in Pathology, Not Related to Organ Systems
      • Age-Related Changes
      • Developmental Abnormalities
      • Genetic Anomalies
      • Behavioural Pathology
      • Aggression
      • Effects of Capture, Transportation and Captivity
      • Welfare
      • Pain
      • Neoplasia
      • Poisoning
    • Chapter 9. Skin and Integument
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Biology of the Skin
      • Investigative Methods
      • Diseases and Pathology of the Skin – General
      • Noninfectious Causes
      • Infectious Causes
      • Ectoparasites (By Ian Redmond)
      • Diseases of Uncertain Aetiology
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 10. Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Respiratory System
      • Lung Parasites (By Ian Redmond)
      • Investigation of the Respiratory Tract
      • Cardiovascular System
      • Investigation of the Cardiovascular System
      • Cardiovascular Disease
      • Research on Heart Disease in Great Apes, Including Gorillas
      • Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Disease
      • Other Pathology of the Vascular System
    • Chapter 11. Alimentary Tract and Associated Organs
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Oral Cavity
      • Dental Disease and Pathology
      • Some Specific Conditions and Their Pathogenesis
      • The Gastrointestinal Tract
      • Investigation of the Liver
      • Pathology and Pathogenesis of Hepatic Disorders
      • Investigation of the Biliary System
      • Investigation of the Exocrine Pancreas
    • Chapter 12. Lymphoreticular and Haemopoietic Systems and Allergic Conditions
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Lymphoreticular System
      • Immunity
      • Immunological Disorders
      • Hypersensitivities and Allergies
      • Immunodeficiency (by Geoffrey Pearson and John E. Cooper)
      • Blood and Bone Marrow
      • Blood Parasites (by Ian Redmond and John E. Cooper)
      • Neoplasia
    • Chapter 13. Urinary and Reproductive Systems
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Urinary System
      • Reproductive System
    • Chapter 14. Musculoskeletal System
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Movement Disorders
      • The Pathology of Bone
      • The Importance of the Skeleton
      • Skull
      • Vertebral Column
      • Joints
      • Investigation of Bones
      • Skeletal Disease and Pathology
      • Fractures and Their Repair
      • Specific Diagnosis of Diseases of the Skeleton
      • Muscle
      • Connective Tissue
      • Adipose Tissue
    • Chapter 15. Nervous System and Special Senses
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Psychological Studies on Gorillas
      • Studies on the Brain of Gorillas
      • Investigation of the Nervous System
      • Pathology and Diseases of the Nervous System
      • The Special Senses
    • Chapter 16. Endocrinological and Associated Conditions
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Endocrine System
      • Sleep
      • Stress
    • Chapter 17. Field Studies in Pathology and Health Monitoring
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Pre-release Health Considerations for Gorillas
      • Quarantine
      • Setting-Up Long-Term Health Monitoring Systems for Mountain Gorillas Using a One Health Approach
      • Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Helminths of Habituated Nyakagezi Mountain Gorilla Group in Mgahinga Gorilla National Park
      • Working With Great Apes During an Ebola Outbreak
    • Chapter 18. Legal Considerations
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • General
      • Free-Living Gorillas
      • Gorillas in Captivity
      • Other Relevant Law
    • Chapter 19. Pathology, Health and Conservation – The Way Forward
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Knowledge of the Genus and Its Biology
      • Threats to Survival
      • The Implications and Importance of Studies on Pathology and Health
      • Advances in Health Care
      • Collaboration and Sharing of Information
      • A Greater Role for Africa
      • Involvement of African Academic Institutions
      • Scientific Advances
      • Human Health
      • Attention to Welfare
      • Continued Search for Gorilla Material
      • Greater Dissemination of Information
      • Broadening the Holistic Approach
      • Concluding Remarks
  • Part II: A Catalogue of Preserved Materials
    • Introduction to the Catalogue
      • Scope and Method of Compilation
      • Layout
      • Gorilla History, Taxonomy and Synonymy
      • Hanno’s gorillai
      • Etymological Considerations
      • Behavioural Considerations
      • Correspondents
    • Catalogue of Preserved Gorilla Materials
      • Argentine Republic
      • Australia
      • Austria
      • Belgium
      • Brazil
      • Bulgaria
      • Canada
      • Central African Republic
      • Channel Islands
      • Chile
      • Cuba
      • Czech Republic
      • Denmark
      • Egypt
      • Finland
      • France
      • Germany
      • Hungary
      • India
      • Ireland
      • Israel
      • Italy
      • Japan
      • Kenya
      • Kuwait
      • Morocco
      • Netherlands
      • New Zealand
      • Norway
      • Poland
      • Portugal
      • Romania
      • Russian Federation
      • Slovenia
      • South Africa
      • Spain
      • Sweden
      • Switzerland
      • Uganda
      • United Kingdom
      • United States of America
      • Uruguay
      • Zimbabwe
  • Appendix 1. Glossary of Terms
    • Introduction
    • List of Terms and Meanings
  • Appendix 2. Protocols and Reports
    • Introduction
    • Postmortem Examination of Gorillas – Some Basic Rules
    • Nonhuman Primate Postmortem Examination
    • Cardiac Examination for Great Apes (and Other Primates In Which Cardiac Disease Is Present)
    • Postmortem Examination of Nonhuman Primate Fetuses and Neonates
    • Postmortem Examination of the Air Sacs of Orangutans and Other Nonhuman Primates
    • Gorilla Postmortem Examination
    • Cardiac Examination for Apes and Other Primates
    • Postmortem Examination of Primate Fetuses, Neonates and Placentas
    • Postmortem Examination of the Air Sacs of Gorillas and Other Apes
    • CNS/Musculoskeletal/Other
    • Guide to the Nonhuman Primate Postmortem Examination Tips for Tissue Collection During the Necropsy Examination
    • Great Ape Tag Placental Examination
    • Postmortem Examination of the Air Sacs of Apes
    • GAHP Recommended Cardiac Necropsy Prosection Guide
    • Ape Cardiac Necropsy Protocol
    • Decision Point
    • GAHP Recommended Cardiac Trimming Protocol for Pathologists
    • GAHP Cardiac Necropsy Check Sheet (Fillable PDF) – Pathologists: Please Submit With Report, Slide Key and Images
    • Skeletal Examination Form
  • Appendix 3. Field Pathology
    • Introduction
  • Appendix 4. Hazards, Including Zoonoses
    • Introduction
  • Appendix 5. Case Studies – Museums and Zoological Collections
    • Introduction
    • Studies on the Skeleton of ‘Guy’ at the NHM
    • Studies on Three Skeletons in the Osman Hill Collection
    • The Research Proposal
    • Initial Observations on the Specimens
    • Sampling
    • Processing the Samples for Histological Examination
    • Processing of Samples for DNA Testing
    • Results
    • Acknowledgements
    • Student Projects, Bristol, United Kingdom, 2015
    • Project 1: A Review of the Data Relating to the Animal Management and Welfare of Gorillas at Bristol Zoo Gardens From 1930 to 2015
    • Project 2: The Development of Osteoarthritis in Captive Primates
    • Acknowledgements
  • Appendix 6. Scientific Names of Species and Taxa Mentioned in Text
  • References and Further Reading
    • References
  • Appendix CA1. Use of Collections and Handling of Biological Material
    • Introduction
    • The Needs Pertaining to Museums and Collections
    • The Rise and Fall of Collections
    • The Need for Pathology-Based Studies
    • Working in Collaboration With Museums
    • Making Maximum Use of Material in Museums
    • Handling Preserved Material
  • Appendix CA2. Retrieval, Preparation and Storage of Skeletal and Other Material
    • Introduction
    • Skeleton
    • Soft Tissue Preservation
    • Skins
    • The Recovery and Preparation of Skeletal Remains
    • Invited Contribution – Skeletal Remains: Recovery, Preparation and Preservation
    • Purposes of Recovery and Preservation of Skeletons
    • Recovery of Skeletons From Fleshed Animals
    • Preparation, Preservation and Storage of Recovered Skeletons
    • Factors Affecting the Preservation of Material
    • Comments on Postmortem Change
  • Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2017
21st December 2016
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:

About the Authors

John Cooper

Professor Cooper has been associated with the Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology (DICE) at University of Kent, UK, since its inception and is now an honorary, visiting, member of its staff. He has lived and worked for nearly twenty years in Africa, Arabia and the Caribbean. In 2009 Professor Cooper returned to Britain after almost seven years as Professor of Veterinary Pathology at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad. He is primarily involved in teaching, diagnostic pathology, comparative medicine, and the veterinary care of wildlife and "exotic" species. With his wife, a lawyer, he teaches at universities in the UK, East Africa and elsewhere overseas and is active in forensic work and consultancies. Professor Cooper is an author/editor of many books and papers.

Affiliations and Expertise

Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology (DICE), The University of Kent, United Kingdom

Gordon Hull

Gordon Hull is an amateur naturalist with a keen interest in primates and certain other mammals. He has specialised in the study of gorillas over many years, during which time he has amassed a great deal of technical and historical information about specimens in zoos, museums, and other institutions throughout the world.

Affiliations and Expertise

Gorilla Pathology Study Group, London, United Kingdom


"For veterinarians, and, in particular, veterinary pathologists, it gives an impression about special requirements when working with gorillas under field conditions. As a reference source, the catalogue may be the most-comprehensive data collection on gorilla material in the wild." --Journal of Wildlife Diseases

"This impressive resource has been compiled by John Cooper and Gordon Hull over the course of many years and not only are specimens listed, their collection and/or acquisition data are also reported...also offered suggestions for use of specimens in collections as well as guidance on the different types of preservation available and how they can be achieved. This only forms part of the book, with the first section more concerned with the health and conservation of these impressive animals." --Natural Sciences Collection Association blog

"...a monumental achievement…an absolutely indispensible source for all medical and veterinary practitioners working with gorillas, both in the wild and in zoos." --Gorilla Journal

Ratings and Reviews