Gold Ore Processing - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780444636584, 9780444636706

Gold Ore Processing, Volume 15

2nd Edition

Project Development and Operations

Editors: Mike Adams
eBook ISBN: 9780444636706
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444636584
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 17th May 2016
Page Count: 1040
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Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Preface to Second Edition
  • Preface to First Edition
  • Acknowledgments
  • List of Acronyms
  • List of Mineral Formulae
  • Chapter 1. Gold – An Historical Introduction
    • 1. Gold in Ancient Egypt
    • 2. Early Gold-Mining Centers
    • 3. Gold and Alchemy
    • 4. Uses of Gold
    • 5. Occurrence of Gold
    • 6. Processing of Gold Ores
    • 7. Gold Standards and Assaying
    • 8. Gold in Currency
    • 9. Banks
    • 10. Gold Museums
  • Part I. Project Development
    • Economic Evaluation of Gold Projects
      • Chapter 2. Overview of the Gold Mining Industry and Major Gold Deposits
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Gold Discovery and Deposits
        • 3. Gold Production
      • Chapter 3. Evaluation and Funding of Capital Projects in Mining
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Evaluation of Capital Projects in Mining
        • 3. Principles of Project Financials and Assessment
        • 4. Common Errors
        • 5. Project Risk
        • 6. Financing of the Project
    • Feasibility Study Management
      • Chapter 4. Sampling Procedures
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Sampling Basics
        • 3. Components of Sampling Error
        • 4. Percussion Hole Sampling
        • 5. Blast-Hole Sampling
        • 6. Plant Sampling
        • 7. Sampling from Stationary Situations
        • 8. Sample Preparation
        • 9. Conclusions
      • Chapter 5. Mineralogical Investigation of Gold Ores
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Gold Mineralogy
        • 3. Process Mineralogy of Gold
        • 4. Methodology for Studying Gold Minerals
        • 5. Instrumental Analysis for Gold
        • 6. Concluding Remarks
      • Chapter 6. Geometallurgical Characterization and Automated Mineralogy of Gold Ores
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Geometallurgy Overview
        • 3. Geometallurgical Characterization of Gold Ores
        • 4. Automated Mineralogy of Gold Ores
        • 5. Summary and Conclusions
      • Chapter 7. Process Flowsheet Selection
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Comminution Process Options
        • 3. Free-Milling Ore Process Options
        • 4. Complex Ore Process Options
        • 5. Refractory Ore Process Options
        • 6. Refractory Process Selection
        • 7. Factors for Consideration in Refractory Gold Process Selection
        • 8. Discussion
        • 9. Recent Commercial-Scale Technical Developments
      • Chapter 8. Metallurgical Test Work: Gold Processing Options, Physical Ore Properties, and Cyanide Management
        • 1. Background
        • 2. Ore Preparation and Assessment
      • Chapter 9. Process Simulation and Modeling
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Benefits of Simulation
        • 3. Classification of Simulation Models
        • 4. Steady-State Continuous Simulation
        • 5. Dynamic Continuous Simulation
        • 6. Dynamic Discrete Simulation
        • 7. Computational Fluid Dynamics
        • 8. Selecting a Good Simulation Package
        • 9. Comminution and Size-Separation Simulations
        • 10. Gold Extraction Simulations
        • 11. The Future of Process Simulation
      • Chapter 10. Feasibility Study Plant Design
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. General Site Issues
        • 3. Crushing and Ore Storage
        • 4. Grinding
        • 5. Gravity Concentration
        • 6. Leaching and Adsorption
        • 7. Cyanide Detoxification and Tailings Disposal
        • 8. Elution and Gold Room
        • 9. Flotation
        • 10. Refractory Ore Processing
        • 11. Services and Utilities
        • 12. Special Issues for Large Facilities
        • 13. Constructability
        • 14. Pitfalls in Feasibility Design
    • Commissioning
      • Chapter 11. Commissioning
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. An Overview
        • 3. Impact of Project Size, Contracting Strategy, and Process Complexity
        • 4. Commissioning Planning
        • 5. Precommissioning
        • 6. Process Commissioning
        • 7. Performance Verification and Testing
        • 8. Postcommissioning Optimization
        • 9. Definitions
    • Safety, Process Control and Environmental Management
      • Chapter 12. The International Cyanide Management Code: Ensuring Best Practice in the Gold Industry
        • 1. Background
        • 2. Continuing Code Development 2002–2005
        • 3. The Cyanide Code
        • 4. The Cyanide Code's Evolution
        • 5. Is the Cyanide Code a Success?
        • 6. Benefits and Costs
        • 7. Challenges
      • Chapter 13. Approaches to Cyanide Code Compliance for Tailings Storage Facilities
        • 1. Background
        • 2. The International Cyanide Management Code
        • 3. Tailings Storage Facilities
        • 4. Moving Toward Compliance with the Code
        • 5. Conclusions
      • Chapter 14. Process Control
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Measurements
        • 3. Basics of Process Control
        • 4. Advanced Control and Optimization
    • Closure and Rehabilitation
      • Chapter 15. Closure and Rehabilitation of Gold-Processing Plants
        • 1. Process Closure and Clean-up
        • 2. Relocation and Sale – Owners' Perspectives
        • 3. Relocation and Sale – The Marketing Manager's Perspectives
        • 4. Scrap, Recycle, and Reuse
        • 5. Consideration of Heritage Values Before Closure and Decommissioning
        • 6. Infrastructure Removal and Site Decommissioning
        • 7. Closure Plant Sites – Contamination and Risk
        • 8. Final Land Use and Rehabilitation – Plant Sites
      • Chapter 16. Closure and Rehabilitation of Gold Mines with a Focus on Tailings Storage Facilities
        • 1. Standards and Closure Criteria
        • 2. Closure Preparation, Provisioning, and Planning
        • 3. Stakeholder Engagement and Acceptance of Plans
        • 4. Decommission Planning, Rehabilitation, and Closure
        • 5. Postclosure Management, Monitoring, and Relinquishment
        • 6. Conclusions
  • Part II. Unit Operations
    • Comminution and Solid-LiquidSeparation
      • Chapter 17. Comminution Circuits for Gold Ore Processing
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Comminution Circuit Design Considerations
        • 3. Mining Factors
        • 4. Primary Crushing, and Stockpile Management
        • 5. Primary Milling
        • 6. Secondary Milling
        • 7. Gold Recovery in Comminution Circuits
        • 8. Alternative Grinding Technologies
        • 9. Ore Sorting
      • Chapter 18. Liquid–Solid Separation in Gold Processing
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Sedimentation
        • 3. Filtration
        • 4. Conclusions
    • Concentration
      • Chapter 19. Advances in Gravity Gold Technology
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Centrifuge Units
        • 3. Gold Rooms: Tabling and Intensive Cyanidation
        • 4. Measuring Metallurgical Performance
        • 5. Conclusions and Future Trends
      • Chapter 20. Flotation of Gold and Gold-Bearing Ores
        • 1. Background
        • 2. Collectorless Flotation of Naturally Occurring Gold
        • 3. Collectors in Gold Flotation
        • 4. Frothers in Gold Flotation
        • 5. Activators in Gold Flotation
        • 6. Depression of Gold in Flotation
        • 7. Flotation of Gold and Gold-Bearing Minerals
        • 8. Influence of Conditions on Gold Flotation
        • 9. Flotation Circuits
        • 10. Flotation Practice
    • Oxidation of Sulfide Ores and Concentrates
      • Chapter 21. Pressure Oxidation Overview
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Gold Pressure Oxidation
        • 3. Acidic Pressure Oxidation – Whole Ore
        • 4. Alkaline Pressure Oxidation–Whole Ore
        • 5. Acid and Alkaline Autoclave–Comparison
        • 6. Acidic Pressure Oxidation–Concentrate
        • 7. Pressure-Oxidation Summary
      • Chapter 22. Bacterial Oxidation of Refractory Gold Concentrates
        • 1. Introduction and Background
        • 2. Bacterial-Oxidation Plant Design and Practice
        • 3. Comparison of Bacterial Oxidation with Process Alternatives
      • Chapter 23. Roasting Developments – Especially Oxygenated Roasting
        • 1. Rabble Roasters
        • 2. Fluidized-Bed Roasters
        • 3. CFB Roasters
        • 4. Oxygenated Roasters
        • 5. Oxygenated Roasting
      • Chapter 24. Roasting of Gold Ore in the Circulating Fluidized-Bed Technology
        • 1. History of Gold Ore Circulating Fluidized-Bed Roasting Technology
        • 2. Fluid-Dynamic Background of Roasting and Pilot Testing
        • 3. Some Advanced Metallurgical and Mineral Applications
        • 4. Performance of Existing CFB Gold Roasters
        • 5. Conclusions
    • Leaching
      • Chapter 25. Heap Leaching of Gold and Silver Ores
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Factors Influencing Heap Leach Efficiency
        • 3. Design
        • 4. Conclusions
      • Chapter 26. Advances in the Cyanidation of Gold
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Mechanism of Cyanidation
        • 3. Control Strategy for Cyanide, Oxygen, and Lead Nitrate
        • 4. Applications
        • 5. Conclusions
      • Chapter 27. Alternative Lixiviants to Cyanide for Leaching Gold Ores
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Thiosulfate Leaching
        • 3. Thiourea Leaching
        • 4. Halide Leaching
        • 5. Oxidative Chloride Leach Processes
        • 6. Sulfide/Bisulfide/Sulfite Leaching
        • 7. Ammonia Leaching
        • 8. Bacterial and Natural Acid Leaching
        • 9. Thiocyanate Leaching
        • 10. Recovery Processes
        • 11. Economic Evaluation
        • 12. Environmental Concerns
        • 13. Conclusions
      • Chapter 28. Thiosulfate as an Alternative Lixiviant to Cyanide for Gold Ores
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Thiosulfate Leaching Chemistry
        • 3. Copper Ammoniacal Thiosulfate System
        • 4. Influence of Mineralogy on Thiosulfate Leaching
        • 5. Impact of Certain Cations and Anions Species on Precious Metal Dissolution and Thiosulfate Degradation
        • 6. Alternative Oxidant Thiosulfate Systems
        • 7. Recovery Processes
        • 8. Application of Thiosulfate to Treatment of Ores
        • 9. Economic Considerations
        • 10. Environmental Issues
        • 11. Summary and Conclusions
      • Chapter 29. Chloride as an Alternative Lixiviant to Cyanide for Gold Ores
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Chloride-Based Processes for Gold Leaching
        • 3. Commercial Chlorination Leaching Plants
        • 4. Outlook for Direct Choride-Based Leaching of Gold
    • Gold Recovery
      • Chapter 30. Carbon-in-Pulp
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Activated Carbon
        • 3. Modeling CIP Circuits
        • 4. Circuit Design and Carbon Management Considerations
        • 5. Conclusions
      • Chapter 31. Zinc Cementation
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Chemistry
        • 3. History
        • 4. Application
        • 5. Basic Flowsheet
        • 6. Equipment
        • 7. Design Criteria
        • 8. Operations
        • 9. Advances
      • Chapter 32. Resin-in-Pulp and Resin-in-Solution
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Solution Chemistry of Cyanided Gold Pulps
        • 3. Development of Gold-Selective Resins
        • 4. Elution of Different Resin Types
        • 5. Resin Evaluation Techniques
        • 6. Relative Cost Comparison of RIP versus CIP
        • 7. Recovery of Gold from Preg-Robbing Ores
        • 8. Resin-in-Solution
        • 9. RIP Plants
        • 10. Conclusions
      • Chapter 33. Electrowinning
        • 1. Background
        • 2. Historical Developments
        • 3. Electrowinning Cell Design
        • 4. Special Applications
        • 5. Key Aspects of Electrowinning Cell Design and Operation
      • Chapter 34. Refining of Gold- and Silver-Bearing Doré
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Industry Structure and the Gold and Silver Refining Business
        • 3. Gold and Silver Doré
        • 4. Refining of High-Gold Doré Materials
        • 5. Refining of High-Silver Doré Materials
        • 6. Deleterious Elements in Refining of Gold and Silver Doré
        • 7. Future Developments in Doré Refining
    • Disposal of Residues
      • Chapter 35. Cyanide Treatment: Physical, Chemical, and Biological Processes
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Cyanide Management Plan
        • 3. Analysis of Cyanide
        • 4. Biological Cyanide Destruction Processes
        • 5. Chemical Treatment Processes
        • 6. Natural Cyanide Attenuation
        • 7. Treatment of Cyanide-Related Compounds
        • 8. Effluent and Discharge Strategies
        • 9. Summary
      • Chapter 36. Cyanide Recovery
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Theoretical Background
        • 3. Practical Considerations
        • 4. Process Alternatives
        • 5. Environmental, Social, Health, and Safety Benefits of Cyanide Recycling
        • 6. Conclusions
      • Chapter 37. Tailings Storage Facilities
        • 1. Evolution of Tailings Management
        • 2. Past Failures
        • 3. Constraints and Drivers
        • 4. Tailings Characterization
        • 5. Risk-Based Design
        • 6. Recent Advances
        • 7. Tailings Water Management
        • 8. TSF Closure and Completion
        • 9. Future Possibilities
      • Chapter 38. Water Management in Gold Ore Processing
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Characterization of Predevelopment Conditions
        • 3. Water Supply
        • 4. Tailing Hydrology
        • 5. Heap-Leach Hydrology
        • 6. Site-Wide Water Balance
        • 7. Discharge of Excess Water from the Site
        • 8. Stormwater Management
        • 9. Surface Water and Groundwater Protection
        • 10. Summary and Conclusions
      • Chapter 39. Retreatment of Gold Residues
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Evaluation Phases
        • 3. Sampling and Metallurgical Testwork
        • 4. Evaluation
        • 5. Operational Phase
        • 6. Metallurgical Treatment
        • 7. Environmental Rehabilitation
        • 8. Process Flowsheets
      • Chapter 40. Practical Considerations in the Hydro Re-Mining of Gold Tailings
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Reclamation Methods
        • 3. Starting Up an Re-Mining Site
        • 4. Hydraulic Re-Mining
        • 5. Conclusions
      • Chapter 41. Developments in Arsenic Management in the Gold Industry
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Chemistry and Precipitation of Arsenic
        • 3. Stabilization Processes
        • 4. Stability Testing and Regulatory Requirements
        • 5. Conclusions
      • Chapter 42. Mercury in Gold Processing
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Mercury Deportment in Gold Processing
        • 3. Mercury in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining
        • 4. Mercury Analysis
        • 5. Mercury Control Technologies for Gaseous Streams
        • 6. Legal Framework
        • 7. Stabilization of Elemental Mercury
        • 8. Above-Ground Storage of Elemental Mercury
        • 9. Disposal – Underground
        • 10. Conclusions
  • Part III. Case Study Flowsheets
    • Polymetallic Ores
      • Chapter 43. Gold-Copper Ores
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Chemistry of Copper Cyanides
        • 3. Gold Recovery
        • 4. Processes for Treating High-Copper Gold Ores
        • 5. Copper and Cyanide Recovery Processes
        • 6. Cyanide Recovery from Copper Cyanide
        • 7. Alternative Lixiviants
      • Chapter 44. Case Study Flowsheets: Copper–Gold Concentrate Treatment
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Background of Sulfide Leaching
        • 3. Copper–Gold Concentrate Treatment Processes
        • 4. Conclusions
      • Chapter 45. Processing of High-Silver Gold Ores
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Fundamentals
        • 3. Flow Sheet Selection
        • 4. Indicative Plant Design Criteria
        • 5. Conclusions
      • Chapter 46. Recovery of Gold as By-Product from the Base-Metals Industries
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Recovery of Gold in Copper Smelters
        • 3. Recovery of Gold as a Byproduct from Nickel Sulfide Ores
        • 4. Recovery of Gold in Zinc Smelters
        • 5. Recovery of Gold from Lead Concentrates
        • 6. Recovery of Gold from Cobalt Concentrates
        • 7. Recovery of Gold from the Recycling of Electronic Scrap
        • 8. Direct Leaching of Gold and PGMs from Ores or Concentrates
        • 9. Conclusions
      • Chapter 47. Extraction of Gold from Platinum Group Metal Ores
        • 1. Primary Extraction Circuits
        • 2. Gold Extraction from Secondary Sources
        • 3. Hydrometallurgical Gold Processes in Precious Metal Refineries
        • 4. Conclusions
    • Refractory Ores
      • Chapter 48. Refractory Sulfide Ores—Case Studies
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Sansu Project, Ashanti Goldfields Corporation (Ghana)
        • 3. Kanowna Belle Project (Western Australia)
        • 4. Macraes Gold Project (New Zealand)
      • Chapter 49. Preg-Robbing Gold Ores
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Carbonaceous Matter and Gold Adsorption
        • 3. Treatment of Carbonaceous Ore
        • 4. Noncarbonaceous Preg-Robbing
        • 5. Examples of Plant Practice
        • 6. Practical Ore Characterization
      • Chapter 50. Double-Refractory Carbonaceous Sulfidic Gold Ores
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Processing Alternatives
        • 3. Process Facilities in Nevada
      • Chapter 51. Treatment of Gold–Telluride Ores
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Historical Treatment Methods
        • 3. Modern Developments
      • Chapter 52. Treatment of Antimonial Gold Ores
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Fundamentals
        • 3. Commercial Operations
        • 4. New Plant Design
    • Other Gold-Bearing Materials
      • Chapter 53. Gold – A Key Enabler of a Circular Economy: Recycling of Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment
        • 1. A Circular Economy – Gold's Key Role
        • 2. Product-Centric Recycling of Gold – Enabling a Circular Economy
        • 3. Opportunities and Limits of Recycling of Gold From WEEE
        • 4. Designing a CE – Quantifying the Resource Efficiency of Figure 53.1
        • 5. Conclusion: Enabling System-Integrated Metal Production of the CE
        • Glossary
    • Summary of Gold Plants and Processes, Emerging and Transformational Technologies
      • Chapter 54. Summary of Gold Plants and Processes
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Summary of Gold Plants and Processes
        • 3. Conclusions
      • Chapter 55. Emerging and Transformational Gold Processing Technologies
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Moore's Law and Gold Processing Technologies
        • 3. Cyanide: A Sustainable Future in Gold Ore Processing?
        • 4. Fire and Water: Will Hydroprocessing Supersede Smelting?
        • 5. In Situ and Solution Mining
        • 6. Gold Demand: Future Uses for Gold Products
        • 7. Gold Supply: Nontraditional Sources
        • 8. Outlook for Transformative Gold Processing
  • Appendix
  • Index

Description

Gold Ore Processing: Project Development and Operations, Second Edition, brings together all the technical aspects relevant to modern gold ore processing, offering a practical perspective that is vital to the successful and responsible development, operation, and closure of any gold ore processing operation. This completely updated edition features coverage of established, newly implemented, and emerging technologies; updated case studies; and additional topics, including automated mineralogy and geometallurgy, cyanide code compliance, recovery of gold from e-waste, handling of gaseous emissions, mercury and arsenic, emerging non-cyanide leaching systems, hydro re-mining, water management, solid–liquid separation, and treatment of challenging ores such as double refractory carbonaceous sulfides. Outlining best practices in gold processing from a variety of perspectives, Gold Ore Processing: Project Development and Operations is a must-have reference for anyone working in the gold industry, including metallurgists, geologists, chemists, mining engineers, and many others.

Key Features

  • Includes several new chapters presenting established, newly implemented, and emerging technologies in gold ore processing
  • Covers all aspects of gold ore processing, from feasibility and development stages through environmentally responsible operations, to the rehabilitation stage
  • Offers a mineralogy-based approach to gold ore process flowsheet development that has application to multiple ore types

Readership

Gold industry, metallurgists, geologists, chemists, mining engineers, managers, financiers – operations, projects, research staff.


Details

No. of pages:
1040
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9780444636706
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444636584

About the Editors

Mike Adams Editor

Mike Adams is an experienced metallurgist and applied chemist with over 30 years in the minerals industry, covering management of a variety of bankable-level pilot test work projects, resource process development projects and metallurgical laboratories. He is the author of over 60 peer-reviewed papers, editor of two books (including Advances in Gold Ore Processing, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2005) and serves on the Editorial Board of the international journals Minerals Engineering (2002-present) and Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review (1994-2001). He is currently Associate Editor with Hydrometallurgy Journal (2013-present).

Affiliations and Expertise

Fugue Pte Ltd, Singapore