Goal-Directed Decision Making - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128120989

Goal-Directed Decision Making

1st Edition

Computations and Neural Circuits

Editors: Richard Morris Aaron Bornstein Amitai Shenhav
Paperback ISBN: 9780128120989
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st September 2018
Page Count: 600
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Description

Neuroscientists now know that all of our decisions arise from multiple, separately identifiable systems within the brain—and there is one that exemplifies truly purposive, goal-directed decision making. Goal-directed decisions are those that are guided by their consequences rather than by external stimuli or by habit, and they are based on two criteria: a belief that our decision will led to a specific outcome, and our desire for that outcome. In the past decades, empirical tests of these criteria have been developed to identify and measure goal-directed behavior, which has shifted research from a focus on stimulus response to motor-routine learning, allowing researchers to establish a framework that proposes unique neural mechanisms and novel computations underlying goal-directed decisions. At the same time, the broader field of decision making has expanded to incorporate ideas related to flexible behaviors such as cognitive control, economic choice, and Bayesian inference, as well as the influences that motivation, context, and cues have on behavior and decision making. Within this context, Goal-Directed Decision Making examines the role of goal-directed choice. It begins with an examination of the computations performed by the associated circuits, and moves on to provide in-depth examinations into how goal-directed learning interacts with other forms of choice and response selection, as well as coverage of how our goal-directed decision making changes in light of cognitive and behavioral disorders and other scenarios. Goal-Directed Decision Making is the only book available that embraces the multidisciplinary nature of this area of decision making, integrating our knowledge of goal-directed decision making from basic, computational, clinical, and ethology research into a single resource that will be invaluable for neuroscientists, psychologists, and computer scientists alike.

Key Features

  • Details the neural circuits functionally involved in goal-directed decision making and the computations these circuits perform
  • Discusses changes in goal-directed decision making spurred by development and disorders, and within real-world applications, including social contexts and addiction
  • Synthesizes neuroscience, psychology, and computer science research to offer a unique perspective on the central and emerging issues in goal-directed decision making

Readership

Advanced students and researchers in behavioral neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, social neuroscience, computational neuroscience, and neuropsychology; secondarily, computer scientists and psychologists interested in decision-making processes

Table of Contents

1. Actions and Habits: Psychological Issues in Dual Process Theory

Computations
2. Instrumental Divergence and Goal-Directed Choice
3. Temporal Dynamics of Goal-Directed Decision Making
4. Episodic Memory Influences on Goal-Directed Decision Making
5. Structure Learning
6. Simulation and Evaluation in Deliberative Decision Making
7. Competition and Cooperation between Multiple RL Systems

Neuroscience
8. Cortical Determinants of Goal-Directed Action
9. Distinct Functional Microcircuits in the Nucleus Accumbens Underlying Goal-Directed Decision Making
10. Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons and Goal-Directed Learning
11. Dopaminergic Prediction Errors and the Acquisition of Model-Based Behavior
12. The Role of the Orbitofrontal Cortex in Reinforcement Learning and Goal-Directed Decision Making

Applications
13. The Development of Goal-Directed Decision Making
14. Social Behavior
15. Goal-Directed Deficits in Psychosis
16. Goal-Directed Action in Disorders of Compulsivity
17. Drug Addiction: Augmented Habit Learning or Failure of Goal-Directed Control?
18. Alpha-Go

Open Questions
19. Realigning Models of Habitual and Goal-Directed Decision Making
20. Motivations of Action and Reward

Details

No. of pages:
600
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2019
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
Paperback ISBN:
9780128120989

About the Editor

Richard Morris

Dr Richard W. Morris has studied learning and decision-making in multiple species, including rodents, monkeys and humans. He has distinguished novel computational mechanisms in the brain during goal-directed learning in humans and revealed a novel source of goal-directed deficits in psychosis. He completed his PhD in Psychology at the University of New South Wales, and since then his work has been supported by NARSAD, the Australian NHMRC and the Schizophrenia Research Institute. His research has been featured in top ranked journals including Molecular Psychiatry and Nature Communications, as well as numerous mainstream media, including Australia’s national broadcaster (ABC Science), ScienceDaily, and Motherboard Vice.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Postdoctoral Fellow, University of New South Wales, Australia

Aaron Bornstein

Dr Aaron M. Bornstein was trained in mathematics and computer science before obtaining his PhD in Cognition & Perception from New York University. His work has helped us understand how decision-making can be understood in computational terms, merging ideas from computational reinforcement learning with the rich understanding of learning and memory systems in the brain to investigate multiple forms of goal-directed choice. Beginning at NYU and continuing into his current position at the Princeton Neuroscience Institute, he has distinguished important cortical and subcortical contributions to learning and decision-making and his reviews have helped forge a rapprochement across the disparate fields of psychology, neuroscience and computer science.

Affiliations and Expertise

Postdoctoral Research Associate, Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, USA

Amitai Shenhav

Amitai Shenhav earned a B.A. in Cognitive Science from UC Berkeley in 2005 and a Ph.D. in Psychology from Harvard University in 2012. After completing his graduate work, he was a C.V. Starr Postdoctoral Fellow at Princeton University before arriving at Brown. His research investigates neural and computational mechanisms at the intersection of decision-making and cognitive control.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, Department of Cognitive, Linguistic and Psychological Sciences, Brown University

Ratings and Reviews