Glucose Homeostatis and the Pathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus

Glucose Homeostatis and the Pathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus

1st Edition - December 24, 2013

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  • Editor: Ya-Xiong Tao
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128001011
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128002940

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Description

Diabetes mellitus is a disease with tremendous health and economic burden. A better understanding of how normal glucose homeostasis is maintained and the pathogenesis is important to identify new ways for diabetes treatment. This book addresses multiple aspects of this area of research.

Key Features

  • Written by experts in the field
  • Informs on important topics related to the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, a field of intense research interest

Readership

Researchers, professors and graduate students in biochemistry, chemistry, molecular biology, biotechnology, and medicine, biomedical scientists and clinicians.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors

    Preface

    Chapter One. G Protein-Coupled Receptors as Regulators of Glucose Homeostasis and Therapeutic Targets for Diabetes Mellitus

    Abstract

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis by GPCRs in the Central Nervous System

    3 Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis by GPCRs for Peptides from Endocrine Pancreas

    4 Regulation of Insulin Secretion by GPCRs

    5 Regulation of Incretin Secretion by GPCRs

    6 Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis by Orphan GPCRs

    7 Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter Two. Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis by GLP-1

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 GLP-1 Biosynthesis, Secretion, and Degradation

    3 Insulinotropic and Growth Factor Properties of GLP-1

    4 Molecular Basis of GLP-1 Receptor Activation

    5 Control of Pancreatic β-Cell Insulin Secretion by GLP-1

    6 Altered GLP-1 Action in a Rodent Model of Insulin Resistance

    7 Glucoregulatory Properties of GLP-1 Mediated by the Nervous System

    8 GLP-1 Receptor Agonists

    9 DPP-IV Inhibitors

    10 GLP-1-Based Strategies for the Treatment of T2DM

    11 Improved Glucoregulation After Bariatric Surgery

    12 Safety Considerations for GLP-1-Based Therapeutics

    13 Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter Three. Physiology and Therapeutics of the Free Fatty Acid Receptor GPR40

    Abstract

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 Molecular Cloning and Tissue Distribution of GPR40

    3 Physiology of GPR40

    4 Pharmacology of GPR40

    5 Pathophysiology of GPR40

    6 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter Four. Targeting GPR119 for the Potential Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Abstract

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 Molecular Cloning and Localization of GPR119

    3 Physiology of GPR119

    4 Pharmacology of GPR119

    5 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter Five. Enhanced Skeletal Muscle for Effective Glucose Homeostasis

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Skeletal Muscle and Glucose Homeostasis

    3 Skeletal Muscle Formation

    4 Myogenic Regulatory Factors

    5 Postnatal Development of Skeletal Muscle

    6 Myostatin and Skeletal Muscle Mass

    7 Enhanced Muscle Growth for Preventing Diabetes

    8 Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter Six. Factors Affecting Insulin-Regulated Hepatic Gene Expression

    Abstract

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 Insulin Secretion, Its Signaling Pathways, and Its Regulated Hepatic Gene Expression

    3 Effects of Hormone and Nutrient on Insulin-Regulated Hepatic Gene Expression

    4 Drugs and Phytochemicals Affecting Hepatic Insulin Action

    5 Perspectives and Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter Seven. The Roles of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in the Metabolic Syndrome

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Tissue Distribution of PPARs Suggests Key Role in Lipid and Glucose Metabolism

    3 Prototypic Nuclear Receptor Domains of PPARs

    4 PPAR Ligands (Endogenous and Synthetic) and Coregulators

    5 Key Target Genes of PPARs Related to the Metabolic Syndrome

    6 Lessons Learned from Clinical Use of TZD Class of Antidiabetic Drugs

    7 New, Novel PPAR Ligands for Treatment of the Metabolic Syndrome

    8 Summary

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter Eight. Free Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance

    Abstract

    1 Historic Overview of the Scientific Understanding of Insulin Resistance

    2 Lipids and Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance

    3 Saturated Versus Unsaturated FFAs and Insulin Resistance

    4 Additional Insights Into Mechanisms Involved Into FFA-Induced Muscle Insulin Resistance

    5 FFAs, Mitochondrial Function, and Insulin Resistance

    6 Is FFA-Induced Insulin Resistance a Cellular Adaptation Process?

    7 Clinical Perspectives and Therapeutic Implications

    8 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter Nine. Adiponectin Signaling and Metabolic Syndrome

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Metabolic Syndrome and the Limitation of Current Treatment

    3 Adiponectin and Adiponectin Receptors

    4 Adiponectin Signaling in Key Metabolic Cells/Tissues Related to Metabolic Syndrome

    5 Summary

    References

    Chapter Ten. Regulation of Pancreatic Islet Beta-Cell Mass by Growth Factor and Hormone Signaling

    Abstract

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 GH, PRL, and Their Receptor Signaling and Actions in Beta Cells

    3 IGF-1 and Its Receptor Signaling and Actions in Beta Cells

    4 GH–IGF-1 Signaling Cross Talk and Collaborative Roles in Regulation of Beta-Cell Mass

    5 Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter Eleven. The Impact of Dietary Methionine Restriction on Biomarkers of Metabolic Health

    Abstract

    Abbreviations

    1 Rationale for Study of Dietary Methionine Restriction

    2 Origins of Dietary Methionine Restriction as an Experimental Approach to Increase Longevity

    3 Anti-Inflammatory Responses to Dietary Methionine Restriction and Longevity

    4 Effects of Dietary MR on Energy Intake and Adiposity

    5 Effects of Dietary MR on Energy Expenditure

    6 Effects of Dietary MR on Fuel Selection and Metabolic Flexibility

    7 Effects of Dietary MR on Hepatic Lipid Metabolism: Transcriptional Mechanisms

    8 Transcriptional Effects of Dietary MR on Adipose Tissue

    9 Sensing of Dietary MR

    10 Perspectives and Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter Twelve. Carbohydrate Metabolism and Pathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus in Dogs and Cats

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 The Dog

    3 The Cat

    References

    Chapter Thirteen. Impaired Insulin Signaling and Mechanisms of Memory Loss

    Abstract

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 Diabetes and Cognitive Deficits

    3 Central Insulin Regulation

    4 Insulin Resistance and Hallmarks of Neurodegeneration

    5 Common Mediators of Insulin Resistance and Cognitive Dysfunction

    6 Insulin Resistance and Hippocampal Dysfunction

    7 Role of IGF in Cognitive Function

    8 Animal Models of Insulin Signaling Deficits

    9 Role of Antidiabetes Drugs in the Treatment of Cognitive Dysfunction

    10 Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter Fourteen. The Role of PPARδ Signaling in the Cardiovascular System

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Expression of PPARδ in the Cardiovascular System

    3 The Role of PPARδ in Regulating the Function of Endothelial Cells

    4 The Roles of PPARδ in the Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    5 The Role of PPARδ in Regulating Macrophage Function

    6 The Role of PPARδ in Fibroblast Proliferation

    7 Roles of PPARδ in Myocardial Oxidative Metabolism

    8 Anti-inflammatory Effect of PPARδ in Cardiomyocytes

    9 Conclusions and Perspectives

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 536
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
  • Published: December 24, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128001011
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128002940

About the Serial Editor

Ya-Xiong Tao

Dr. Ya-Xiong Tao is currently Professor of Physiology at Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine in Auburn, Alabama, USA. He has been working on several G protein-coupled receptors, including gonadotropin receptors regulating reproduction, and melanocortin receptors regulating energy and glucose homeostasis. He has published extensively in peer-reviewed biomedical journals and obtained funding for his research from National Institutes of Health, American Diabetes Association and American Heart Association, among others. He has delivered numerous lectures at universities and research institutes in USA, Canada, China, India, and Mexico. He has edited ten volumes, including seven volumes in Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science. He teaches several courses, including Physiology, Receptorology, Genomics and Personalized Medicine, and Molecular Endocrinology, for veterinarian, graduate, and undergraduate Honors students.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL, USA

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