Global Safety of Fresh Produce - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781782420187, 9781782420279

Global Safety of Fresh Produce

1st Edition

A Handbook of Best Practice, Innovative Commercial Solutions and Case Studies

Editors: Jeffrey Hoorfar
eBook ISBN: 9781782420279
Hardcover ISBN: 9781782420187
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 9th December 2013
Page Count: 472
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Table of Contents

  • Contributor contact details
  • Editorial advisors
  • Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition
  • Preface
  • Foreword
  • Part I: Farm-level production and regulation of fresh produce
    • Chapter 1: Best practice in large-scale production of fresh produce
      • Abstract:
      • 1.1 Introduction
      • 1.2 Risk assessment at the farm level
      • 1.3 Following the steps in the production chain
      • 1.4 Conclusion
    • Chapter 2: Niche farm fresh products
      • Abstract:
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Human pathogen contamination of ‘niche products’
      • 2.3 The difference in contamination risk for ‘niche products’
      • 2.4 Conclusion
      • 2.5 Questions for discussion
      • 2.6 Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 3: Guidelines and protocols for safe practice in fresh produce production: FDA legislation
      • Abstract:
      • 3.1 Introduction: a new strategy is tested
      • 3.2 Early produce safety policy
      • 3.3 Challenges in good agricultural practices (GAPs) implementation
      • 3.4 What more can we do?
      • 3.5 A pivotal outbreak prompts a policy shift
      • 3.6 New mandates: modernization of food safety
      • 3.7 Future trends: back to the call
      • 3.8 Questions for discussion
      • 3.9 Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 4: Issues surrounding the European fresh produce trade: a global perspective
      • Abstract:
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Challenges involved in the fresh produce trade
      • 4.3 Regulatory and economic aspects
      • 4.4 Best practice in agriculture
      • 4.5 Troubleshooting approaches
      • 4.6 Conclusion and future trends
      • 4.7 Questions for discussion
      • 4.8 Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 5: Zoonotic transfer of pathogens from animals to farm products
      • Abstract:
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Zoonotic foodborne pathogenic bacteria in animals: prevalence estimates in food animal species
      • 5.3 Survival, spread and transmission
      • 5.4 How to stop pathogen transfer from and between live animals
      • 5.5 Pathogen control strategies in live animals: novel solutions
      • 5.6 Conclusion
      • 5.7 Questions for discussion
  • Part II: Environmental issues impacting the potential safety of fresh produce
    • Chapter 6: Postharvest washing as a critical control point in fresh produce processing: alternative sanitizers and wash technologies
      • Abstract:
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 When postharvest washing goes wrong
      • 6.3 Approved sanitizers for fresh-cut processing
      • 6.4 Current postharvest decontamination methods
      • 6.5 Best practices in postharvest washing
      • 6.6 Future trends
      • 6.7 Conclusion
      • 6.8 Questions for discussion
      • 6.9 Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 7: Preventing cross-contamination during produce wash operations
      • Abstract:
      • 7.1 Introduction: commercial produce wash operation, water quality and sanitizer concentration
      • 7.2 Changes in sanitizer concentration during wash
      • 7.3 Factors affecting pathogen survival and cross-contamination during wash
      • 7.4 Common industrial practices: process flow and re-wash
      • 7.5 Conclusion
      • 7.6 Questions for discussion
    • Chapter 8: Organic environmental chemical contaminants in fresh produce and fruits
      • Abstract:
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Regulatory aspects
      • 8.3 Modelling of uptake
      • 8.4 Contaminated sites and risk assessments
      • 8.5 Conclusion and future trends
      • 8.6 Questions for discussion
    • Chapter 9: Water: waste, recycling and irrigation in fresh produce processing
      • Abstract:
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.2 Technological challenges
      • 9.3 Significant factors in environmental challenges to food safety
      • 9.4 Regulatory and economic aspects
      • 9.5 Market issues
      • 9.6 Critical factors in using irrigation water
      • 9.7 Troubleshooting and best practice
      • 9.8 Conclusion and future trends
      • 9.9 Questions for discussion
    • Chapter 10: Maintaining sustainable and environmentally friendly fresh produce production in the context of climate change
      • Abstract:
      • 10.1 Introduction
      • 10.2 Experimental design
      • 10.3 Soil content in the organic and conventional farming systems
      • 10.4 Soil organic matter and biodiversity
      • 10.5 Conclusion
    • Chapter 11: Reducing waste in fresh produce processing and households through use of waste as animal feed
      • Abstract:
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Legal aspects for using food waste and byproducts for animal feed
      • 11.3 Feedstuffs from catering waste
      • 11.4 Feedstuffs from the processing of fruits and vegetables
      • 11.5 Feedstuffs from other food processing systems
      • 11.6 Conclusion
      • 11.7 Questions for discussion
    • Chapter 12: Risk assessment of microbial and chemical contamination in fresh produce
      • Abstract:
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 The frequency with which bacterial pathogens contaminate fresh produce
      • 12.3 How bacterial pathogens contaminate fresh produce
      • 12.4 How bacterial pathogens respond on fresh produce
      • 12.5 Future trends
      • 12.6 Questions for discussion
      • 12.7 Acknowledgements
  • Part III: Commercial solutions for fresh produce safety
    • Chapter 13: Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh produce
      • Abstract:
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Challenges of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) storage
      • 13.3 Regulatory aspects, economic aspects and market issues
      • 13.4 Novel trends in modified atmosphere packaging
      • 13.5 Troubleshooting approaches
      • 13.6 Future trends
      • 13.7 Questions for discussion
      • 13.8 Sources of further information and advice
    • Chapter 14: Biocontrol of Listeria monocytogenes on fresh produce
      • Abstract:
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 Outbreaks and control of Listeria monocytogenes on fresh produce
      • 14.3 Opportunities for biocontrol
      • 14.4 Conclusion
      • 14.5 Acknowledgements
    • Chapter 15: Commercial and novel solutions for fresh produce safety
      • Abstract:
      • 15.1 Introduction
      • 15.2 Sanitizers used in fresh-cut processing
      • 15.3 Use of novel processing technologies
      • 15.4 Conclusion
    • Chapter 16: Ionizing irradiation for phytosanitary applications and fresh produce safety
      • Abstract:
      • 16.1 Introduction
      • 16.2 Technology
      • 16.3 Pathogen issues in fresh produce
      • 16.4 Regulatory aspects and consumer acceptance
      • 16.5 Challenges facing food irradiation
      • 16.6 Conclusion and future trends
      • 16.7 Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 17: Edible coatings for fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables
      • Abstract:
      • 17.1 Introduction: development of edible coatings
      • 17.2 Types of edible coatings
      • 17.3 Antimicrobial properties of edible films
      • 17.4 Challenges for ecology
      • 17.5 Consumer perceptions
      • 17.6 Regulatory and economic aspects
      • 17.7 Production and market issues
      • 17.8 Further developments
      • 17.9 Questions for discussion
  • Part IV: Laboratory testing for fresh produce safety
    • Chapter 18: Pathogen testing in fresh produce: Earthbound Farm
      • Abstract:
      • 18.1 Introduction
      • 18.2 The investigation
      • 18.3 A multi-hurdle approach to food safety
      • 18.4 Testing is not the only answer
      • 18.5 Examining the data
      • 18.6 Lessons learned
      • 18.7 Conclusion
      • 18.8 Questions for discussion
    • Chapter 19: Capacity building of legislative fresh produce testing in China
      • Abstract:
      • 19.1 Introduction
      • 19.2 General situation of the Chinese legislative testing system for agro-product quality and safety
      • 19.3 Challenges in building capability of legislative testing
      • 19.4 Regulations and policies for legislative testing
      • 19.5 The role of legislative testing in agricultural economy development
      • 19.6 The role played by legislative testing in production and trade
      • 19.7 Achievements in capacity building of legislative testing for agro-product quality and safety
      • 19.8 Future trends
    • Chapter 20: Bottlenecks and limitations in testing for pathogens in fresh produce
      • Abstract:
      • 20.1 Introduction
      • 20.2 Logistics in sample preparation
      • 20.3 Logistics in field testing
      • 20.4 Logistics in product testing
      • 20.5 Conclusion
      • 20.6 Questions for discussion
      • 20.7 Acknowledgements
    • Chapter 21: New developments in safety testing of soft fruits
      • Abstract:
      • 21.1 Introduction
      • 21.2 Soft fruit
      • 21.3 Microbial pathogens of safety concern in soft fruits
      • 21.4 Methods for evaluation of microbial safety in soft fruit
      • 21.5 Conclusion and future trends
      • 21.6 Questions for discussion
    • Chapter 22: Cases of public emetic events caused by foodborne viruses and potential issues for fresh produce
      • Abstract:
      • 22.1 Introduction
      • 22.2 Challenges in containing virus spread
      • 22.3 Significant factors affecting outbreaks
      • 22.4 Regulatory and economic aspects
      • 22.5 Production and market issues
      • 22.6 Troubleshooting approaches and laboratory methods
      • 22.7 Future trends
      • 22.8 Conclusion
      • 22.9 Questions for discussion
      • 22.10 Acknowledgments
  • Part V: Case studies in real-life situations
    • Chapter 23: Sprout-associated outbreaks and development of preventive controls
      • Abstract:
      • 23.1 Introduction
      • 23.2 Initial sprout safety concerns and recommendations
      • 23.3 Challenges in sprout safety
      • 23.4 Knowledge and research needs
      • 23.5 Further developments in sprout safety hazards
      • 23.6 Addressing sprout safety hazardss
      • 23.7 Conclusion
      • 23.8 Questions for discussion
    • Chapter 24: Leafy greens: the case study and real-life lessons from a Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O145 outbreak in romaine lettuce
      • Abstract:
      • 24.1 Introduction
      • 24.2 Challenges faced by the experts involved
      • 24.3 Significance of the pathogen that caused the case
      • 24.4 Geographical and climate factors
      • 24.5 Regulatory and economic aspects
      • 24.6 Industry and market aspects
      • 24.7 Addressing the outbreak
      • 24.8 Troubleshooting approaches and laboratory methods
      • 24.9 Future trends
      • 24.10 Questions for discussion
      • 24.11 Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 25: The case of the European Escherichia coli outbreak from sprouts
      • Abstract:
      • 25.1 Introduction: investigation of foodborne disease outbreaks in Germany
      • 25.2 The German E. coli outbreak from detection to highly likely clarification
      • 25.3 Challenges encountered during the clarification of this outbreak
      • 25.4 Significance of the pathogen that caused the case
      • 25.5 Burden of disease and geographical and regional significance
      • 25.6 Regulatory aspects
      • 25.7 Market and economic issues
      • 25.8 The second E. coli O104:H4 outbreak in France
      • 25.9 Conclusion
      • 25.10 Questions for discussion
      • 25.11 Sources of further information and advice
    • Chapter 26: Case study on the safety and sustainability of fresh bottled coconut water
      • Abstract:
      • 26.1 Introduction
      • 26.2 Safety control challenges and foodborne outbreaks
      • 26.3 Sustainability aspects
      • 26.4 Economic issues
      • 26.6 Technical control strategies
      • 26.7 Conclusion and future trends
      • 26.8 Questions for discussion
      • 26.9 Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 27: Control of fresh produce safety in Denmark
      • Abstract:
      • 27.1 Introduction
      • 27.2 Inspection principles
      • 27.3 How foodservice and food establishments are controlled
      • 27.4 How Denmark controls fruit and vegetable safety
      • 27.5 Lessons from the Danish control model
      • 27.7 Appendix: the largest outbreak
    • Chapter 28: Mushroom production in China: the illegal use of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) and related outbreaks
      • Abstract:
      • 28.1 Introduction
      • 28.2 Contamination of mushrooms with fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs)
      • 28.3 Significant factors affecting the outbreak
      • 28.4 Regulatory and economic aspects
      • 28.5 Production and market issues and further developments
      • 28.6 Troubleshooting approaches and laboratory methods
      • 28.7 Future trends
      • 28.8 Acknowledgements
    • Chapter 29: The case of lemons in caves: a sustainable storage system for Turkish lemons
      • Abstract:
      • 29.1 Introduction
      • 29.2 Microbiological problems during storage
      • 29.3 Troubleshooting approaches
      • 29.4 Challenges for lemon storage
      • 29.5 Geographical and regional significance, climate and general consumer perceptions
      • 29.6 Regulatory aspects
      • 29.7 Economic aspects
      • 29.8 Production and market issues
      • 29.9 Further developments
      • 29.10 Research and training needs
      • 29.11 Questions for discussion
  • Index

Description

Continuing food poisoning outbreaks around the globe have put fresh produce safety at the forefront of food research. Global Safety of Fresh Produce provides a detailed and comprehensive overview of best practice for produce safety throughout the food chain, and unique coverage of commercial technologies for fresh produce safety.

Part one covers the production and regulation of fresh produce on the agricultural level, including issues of niche farm fresh products, FDA regulation, and zoonotic transfer of pathogens from animals to farm products. Part two moves on to look at safety and environmental issues surrounding fresh produce processing, such as postharvest washing, alternative sanitizers, and using produce waste as animal feed. Part three focuses on current and emerging commercial solutions for fresh produce safety, like ionizing radiation and edible coatings, and part four covers methods of laboratory testing and related legislation. The final section of the book covers a series of case studies of fresh produce safety breaches, including European E. coli outbreaks in sprouts and leafy greens, and the illegal use of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) in China.

This book is an essential text for R&D managers in the fresh produce industry, quality control professionals working with fresh produce throughout the food chain, postgraduate students, and academic researchers with an interest in fresh produce safety.

Key Features

  • Provides a comprehensive overview of best practice for produce safety
  • Examines the production and regulation of fresh agricultural produce
  • Looks at safety and environmental issues surrounding fresh produce processing

Readership

R&D managers in the fresh produce industry; Quality control professionals working with fresh produce throughout the food chain; Food Science academics and researchers


Details

No. of pages:
472
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9781782420279
Hardcover ISBN:
9781782420187

About the Editors

Jeffrey Hoorfar Editor

Jeffrey Hoorfar is a Professor and Research Manager at the Technical University of Denmark.

Affiliations and Expertise

Technical University of Denmark, Denmark