Global Ecology focuses on the perception of the biosphere or the ecosphere as a unified cooperative system with numerous synergistic effects, which describe the distinctive properties of this sphere. This book is subdivided into five parts dealing with diverse aspects in global ecology. The first part of the book provides comprehensive description of the biosphere, including its unique characteristics and evolution. This part also describes various spheres in the biosphere, such as the hydrosphere, noosphere, and pedosphere as well as their composition. The next part focuses on the global cycles, including calcium, carbon, iron, microbial nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and water cycles. In addition, global balances and flows are explained. Presented in the third part are the results of the global cycles and flows as well as the patterns of the climatic factors and marine currents. There is also a part discussing the climate interactions, climatic changes, and its effect on the living organisms. The book concludes by covering the application of stoichiometry in the biosphere and in ecosystems. The book offers a comprehensive view of global ecology and ecological stoichiometry, which will aid in the processes of global ecology.

Key Features

- Provides an overview of the theory and application of global ecology

- International focus and range of ecosystems makes Global Ecology an indispensable resource to scientists

- Based on the bestselling Encyclopedia of Ecology

- Full-color figures and tables support the text and aid in understanding


Ecologists and Ecological Engineers

Table of Contents

Contents List of Contributors Preface Part A: Global Ecology, The Biosphere and its Evolution     Introduction     Abiotic and Biotic Diversity in the Biosphere     Anthropospheric and Antropogenic Impact on the Biosphere     Astrobiology     Biogeocoenosis as an Elementary Unit of Biogeochemical Work in the Biosphere     Biosphere. Vernadsky’s Concept     Deforestation     Environmental and Biospheric Impacts of Nuclear War     Evolution of Oceans     Evolution of ‘Prey–Predator’ Systems     Fungi and Their Role in the Biosphere     Gaia Hypothesis     Hydrosphere     Noosphere     Pedosphere     Phenomenon of Life: General Aspects     Structure and History of Life Part B: Global Cycles, Balances and Flows     Calcium Cycle     Carbon Cycle     Energy Balance     Energy Flows in the Biosphere     Entropy and Entropy Flows in the Biosphere     Information and Information Flows in the Biosphere     Iron Cycle     Matter and Matter Flows in the Biosphere     Microbial Cycles     Nitrogen Cycle     Oxygen Cycle     Phosphorus Cycle     Radiation Balance and Solar Radiation Spectrum     Radionuclides: Their Biochemical Cycles and the Impacts on the Biosphere     Sulphur Cycle     Water Cycle     Xenobiotics Cycles Part C: Global Patterns and Processes     Agriculture     Material and Metal Ecology     Methane in the Atmosphere     Monitoring, Observations, and Remote Sensing – Global Dimensions     Ocean Currents and Their Role in the Biosphere     Precipitation Pattern     Temperature Patterns     Urbanization as a Global Process     Weathering Part D: Climate Change     Climate Change 1: Short-Term Dynamics     Climate Change 2: Long-Term Dynamics     Climate Change 3: History and Current State     Coevolution of the Biosphere and Climate     Global Change Impacts on the Biosphere Part E: Ecological Stoichiometry     Ecological Stoichiometry: Overview     Ecosystem Patterns and Processes     Evolutionary and Bi


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About the editor

Sven Erik Jørgensen

Sven Erik Jørgensen was the professor emeritus in environmental chemistry at the University of Copenhagen. He received a master of science in chemical engineering from the Danish Technical University (1958), a doctor of environmental engineering (Karlsruhe University) and a doctor of science in ecological modelling (Copenhagen University). He was the honourable doctor at Coimbra University, Portugal and at Dar es Salaam University (Tanzania). In 1975 he founded the journal Ecological Modelling and in 1978 the ISEM (International Society of Ecological Modelling). He has received several awards, the Ruder Boskovic Medal, the Prigogine Prize, the Pascal Medal, the Einstein professorship at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Santa Chiara Prize for multidisciplinary teaching and the very prestigious Stockholm Water Prize. He has published 366 papers of which 275 were published in peer-reviewed international journals and he has edited or authored 76 books, of which several have been translated to other languages (Chinese, Russian, Spanish and Portuguese). He has authored a successful textbook in ecological modelling “Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling”, which was published as a fourth edition together with Brian Fath in 2011. It has been translated into Chinese and Russian (third edition). He authored a well received textbook in system ecology entitled “Introduction to Systems Ecology”. It was published as an English edition in 2012 and as a Chinese edition in 2013. He was editor in chief of the Encyclopedia of Ecology, published in 2008, and of the Encyclopedia of Environmental Management, published in December 2012. He has taught courses in ecological modelling in 32 different countries. He is the editorial board member of 18 international journals in the fields of ecology and environmental management. He was the president of ISEM and he also was elected member of the European Academy of Sciences, for which he was the chairman of the Section for Environmental Scienc

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, Copenhagen University, Denmark