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Geothermal Reservoir Engineering - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123838803, 9780123838810

Geothermal Reservoir Engineering

2nd Edition

Authors: Malcolm Grant Paul Bixley
Paperback ISBN: 9780128103753
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123838803
eBook ISBN: 9780123838810
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 22nd February 2011
Page Count: 378
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As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.

For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.

This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The book focuses particularly on the evaluation of potential sites and provides detailed guidance on the field management of the power plants built on them.

With over 100 pages of new material informed by the breakthroughs of the last 25 years, Geothermal Reservoir Engineering remains the only training tool and professional reference dedicated to advising both new and experienced geothermal reservoir engineers.

Key Features

  • The only resource available to help geothermal professionals make smart choices in field site selection and reservoir management
  • Practical focus eschews theory and basics- getting right to the heart of the important issues encountered in the field
  • Updates include coverage of advances in EGS (enhanced geothermal systems), well stimulation, well modeling, extensive field histories and preparing data for reservoir simulation
  • Case studies provide cautionary tales and best practices that can only be imparted by a seasoned expert


Geothermal reservoir engineers; geothermal professionals (engineers, scientists, managers). Petroleum engineering and ground water professionals interested in geothermal energy, earth scientists, geoscientists

Table of Contents


Preface to the Second Edition


Chapter 1. Geothermal Reservoirs

1.1 Introduction

1.2 The Development of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering

1.3 Definitions

1.4 Organization of this Book

1.5 References and Units

Chapter 2. Concepts of Geothermal Systems

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Conductive Systems

2.3 Convective Systems: Liquid Dominated

2.4 Convective Systems: Vapor Dominated

2.5 Concepts of Changes Under Exploitation

2.6 Conclusions

Chapter 3. Simple Quantitative Models

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Simplifications and Concepts of Storage

3.3 Pressure Transient Models

3.4 Simple Lumped-Parameter Models

3.5 Steam Reservoir with Immobile Water

3.6 Reserves

3.7 Fractured Media

3.8 Chemical Flow Models

3.9 Applicability of the Models

Chapter 4. Interpretation of Downhole Measurements

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Objectives of the Well Testing Program

4.3 Well Models

4.4 Some Basic Well Profiles

4.5 Gas Pressure at Wellhead

4.6 Unusual or Misleading Well Profiles

Chapter 5. Downhole Measurement

5.1 Instruments

5.2 Geothermal Well Design

5.3 Temperature-Pressure Instruments

5.4 Downhole Flow Measurements

5.5 Sources of Error in Downhole Measurements

5.6 Designing a Downhole Measurement Program

5.7 Spinner Measurements

Chapter 6. Measurements During Drilling

6.1 General

6.2 Pressure

6.3 Significance of Drilling Losses

6.4 Temperature

6.5 Stage Testing

6.6 The Drilling of RK22

Chapter 7. Well Completion and Heating

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Quantifying Reservoir Parameters

7.3 Wellbore Heat Transfer

7.4 Heating

7.5 Injection Performance

7.6 Vapor-Dominated Systems

Chapter 8. Production Testing

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Starting discharge

8.3 Production Testing Methods

8.4 Single-Phase Fluid

8.5 Two-Phase Flow Measurement Methods

8.6 Cycling Wells

8.7 Accuracy of Flow Measurements

8.8 Calculating Well Performance

8.9 Interpretation of Output Data

Chapter 9. Case Study: A History of Well BR2, Ohaaki

9.1 Introduction

9.2 The Drilling and Testing Period: May–August 1966

9.3 The Discharge Period: 1966–1971

9.4 Shutdown and Pressure Recovery: 1971–1988

9.5 Production: 1988–1997

9.6 Conclusions

Chapter 10. Conceptual Modeling and Simple Inferences

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Mapping the Reservoir

10.3 Temperature Profiles

10.4 Pressure

10.5 Exploited Fields

10.6 Summary

Chapter 11. Simulation

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Input Data

11.3 Conceptual Model

11.4 Natural State

11.5 Well Specification

11.6 History Matching

11.7 Dual Porosity

11.8 Validation of the Simulation Process

11.9 Ngatamariki

Chapter 12. Field Examples

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Wairakei

12.3 The Geysers

12.4 Svartsengi

12.5 Balcova-Narlidere

12.6 Palinpinon

12.7 Awibengkok (Salak)

12.8 Patuha and Other Hybrid Fields

12.9 Mak-Ban

Chapter 13. Field Management

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Decline and Lumped Parameter Models

13.3 Deviations from Trend

13.4 Tracer Testing

13.5 Incorporation in Simulation

13.6 Surface Effects

13.7 Subsidence

13.8 Injection Management

Chapter 14. Well Stimulation and Engineered Geothermal Systems

14.1 Introduction: Fracturing Rock

14.2 Thermal Stimulation

14.3 Acid Stimulation

14.4 Stimulating Existing Reservoirs: Deep Sedimentary Aquifers

14.5 EGS: Creating a Reservoir

Appendix 1. Pressure Transient Analysis

A1.1 Introduction

A1.2 Basic Solution

A1.3 Wellbore Storage and Skin

A1.4 Injection

A1.5 Two-Phase Flow

A1.6 Pseudopressure

A1.7 Variable Flow Rate

A1.8 Fractured Media

A1.9 Wellbore Thermal and Flow Effects

A1.10 Barometric, Tidal, and Other Effects

A1.11 Temperature Transients

A1.12 Conversion of Groundwater Units

Appendix 2. Gas Correction for Flow Measurements

A2.1 Effect of Noncondensable Gas

A2.2 Gas Correction for the Separator Method

A2.3 Gas Correction for the Lip Pressure Method

Appendix 3. Equations of Motion and State

A3.1 Introduction

A3.2 Conservation Equations

A3.3. Darcy’s Law

A3.4 Constitutive Relations

A3.5 Boiling-Point for Depth Model

Appendix 4. Geothermal Fields

List of Symbols






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© Academic Press 2011
22nd February 2011
Academic Press
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About the Authors

Malcolm Grant

Dr. Grant holds a doctoral degree in applied mathematics from MIT, has participated in various research and management projects, and has worked as a private consultant since 1994. He has been involved in assessment and development of 76 geothermal fields in 14 countries. Dr. Grant is among the most prestigious scientists in the field of geothermal reservoir engineering and has published many papers in that field in leading journals such as Geothermics.

Affiliations and Expertise

MAGAK, Auckland, New Zealand

Paul Bixley

Qualifications BSc(hons) Victoria University of Wellington , Geothermal reservoir engineer with more than 40 year’s experience in exploration, development and production operations in high temperature liquid dominated geothermal resources. Currently employed as Technical Advisor with Contact Energy geothermal operations based at Wairakei. Specialist skills in well testing and field performance monitoring and data interpretation. Although based in New Zealand, he has spent several years providing onsite advice for geothermal projects in Asia, Pacific rim and Africa. Qualifications BSc(hons) Victoria University of Wellington

Affiliations and Expertise

Technical Advisor, Contact Energy Ltd., geothermal operations, Wairakei, Wellington, New Zealand

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