Geothermal Power Generation - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780081003374, 9780081003442

Geothermal Power Generation

1st Edition

Developments and Innovation

Editors: Ron DiPippo
eBook ISBN: 9780081003442
Hardcover ISBN: 9780081003374
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 8th June 2016
Page Count: 854
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Description

Geothermal Power Generation: Developments and Innovation provides an update to the advanced energy technologies that are urgently required to meet the challenges of economic development, climate change mitigation, and energy security.

As geothermal resources are considered renewable and can be used to generate baseload electricity while producing very low levels of greenhouse gas emissions, they can play a key role in future energy needs.

This book, edited by a highly respected expert, provides a comprehensive overview of the major aspects of geothermal power production. The chapters, contributed by specialists in their respective areas, cover resource discovery, resource characterization, energy conversion systems, and design and economic considerations.

The final section provides a range of fascinating case studies from across the world, ranging from Larderello to Indonesia. Users will find this to be an essential text for research and development professionals and engineers in the geothermal energy industry, as well as postgraduate researchers in academia who are working on geothermal energy.

Key Features

  • Provides readers with a comprehensive and systematic overview of geothermal power generation
  • Presents an update to the advanced energy technologies that are urgently required to meet the challenges of economic development, climate change mitigation, and energy security
  • Edited by a world authority in the field, with chapters contributed by experts in their particular areas
  • Includes comprehensive case studies from across the world, ranging from Larderello to Indonesia

Readership

Research and development professionals and engineers in the geothermal energy industry as well as postgraduate researchers in academia working on geothermal energy.

Table of Contents

  • Related titles
  • Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
  • Author biographies
  • Preface
  • 1. Introduction to geothermal power generation
  • Part One. Resource exploration, characterizationand evaluation
    • 2. Geology of geothermal resources
      • 2.1. Introduction
      • 2.2. Heat flow and plate tectonics
      • 2.3. Geologic techniques
      • 2.4. Hydrothermal alteration
      • 2.5. Volcanic-hosted systems
      • 2.6. Sediment-hosted geothermal systems
      • 2.7. Extensional tectonic geothermal systems
      • 2.8. Unconventional geothermal resources
      • 2.9. Conclusions
    • 3. Geophysics and resource conceptual models in geothermal exploration and development
      • 3.1. Introduction
      • 3.2. Geophysics in the context of geothermal decision risk assessment
      • 3.3. Geothermal resource conceptual models
      • 3.4. Geothermal resource models with elements that differ from those in Fig. 3.1
      • 3.5. Formation properties and geophysical methods
      • 3.6. Choosing geophysical methods and designing surveys for geothermal applications
      • 3.7. Resistivity methods
      • 3.8. MT surveys
      • 3.9. TEM resistivity sounding for correction of MT static distortion
      • 3.10. Awibengkok MT model and validation
      • 3.11. Using MT to build conceptual models and define resource areas and targets
      • 3.12. Deep low-resistivity zones
      • 3.13. Gravity methods for exploration and development
      • 3.14. Magnetic methods
      • 3.15. Seismic monitoring
      • 3.16. Reflection/refraction seismic methods
      • 3.17. Borehole wireline logs
      • 3.18. SP method
      • 3.19. Geophysics management issues
    • 4. Application of geochemistry to resource assessment and geothermal development projects
      • 4.1. Introduction
      • 4.2. Early-phase resource assessment
      • 4.3. Contributions to conceptual models
      • 4.4. Geochemical contributions to geothermal power project design
      • 4.5. Geochemical tools for geothermal reservoir operation and maintenance
      • 4.6. Summary
    • 5. Geothermal well drilling
      • 5.1. Introduction
      • 5.2. Getting started
      • 5.3. Casing design
      • 5.4. Mud program
      • 5.5. Directional program
      • 5.6. Wellhead design and blow-out preventer systems
      • 5.7. Cementing program
      • 5.8. Cement placement
      • 5.9. Hydraulic and bit program
      • 5.10. Drilling curve
      • 5.11. Mud logging
      • 5.12. Drilling rig selection and special considerations
      • 5.13. Cost estimate
    • 6. Characterization, evaluation, and interpretation of well data
      • 6.1. Upward convective flow in reservoirs
      • 6.2. Pressure and temperature profile analysis
      • 6.3. Injection testing
      • 6.4. Discharge tests
      • 6.5. Pressure transient tests
      • 6.6. Wellbore heat loss
      • 6.7. Summary
    • 7. Reservoir modeling and simulation for geothermal resource characterization and evaluation
      • 7.1. Review of resource estimation methods
      • 7.2. Computer modeling methodology
      • 7.3. Computer modeling process
      • 7.4. Recent modeling experiences
      • 7.5. Current developments and future directions
  • Part Two. Energy conversion systems
    • 8. Overview of geothermal energy conversion systems: Reservoir-wells-piping-plant-reinjection
      • 8.1. Introduction
      • 8.2. It begins with the reservoir
      • 8.3. Getting the energy out of the reservoir
      • 8.4. Connecting the wells to the power station
      • 8.5. Central power station
      • 8.6. Geofluid disposal
      • 8.7. Conclusions and a look ahead
    • 9. Elements of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer applied to geothermal energy conversion systems
      • 9.1. Introduction
      • 9.2. Definitions and terminology
      • 9.3. First law of thermodynamics for closed systems
      • 9.4. First law of thermodynamics for open steady systems
      • 9.5. First law of thermodynamics for open unsteady systems
      • 9.6. Second law of thermodynamics for closed systems
      • 9.7. Second law of thermodynamics for open systems
      • 9.8. Exergy and exergy destruction
      • 9.9. Thermodynamic state diagrams
      • 9.10. Bernoulli equation
      • 9.11. Pressure loss calculations
      • 9.12. Principles of heat transfer applied to geothermal power plants
      • 9.13. Example analyses for elements of geothermal power plants
      • 9.14. Conclusions
      • Sources of further information
    • 10. Flash steam geothermal energy conversion systems: Single-, double-, and triple-flash and combined-cycle plants
      • 10.1. Flash steam cycles
      • 10.2. Mixed and combined cycles
      • 10.3. Cogeneration and coproduction from flashed brines
      • 10.4. Equipment research and development
      • 10.5. Summary
    • 11. Direct steam geothermal energy conversion systems: Dry steam and superheated steam plants
      • 11.1. Introduction
      • 11.2. Power cycle
      • 11.3. Steam quality
      • 11.4. Steam systems
      • 11.5. Turbine-generators
      • 11.6. Condensers
      • 11.7. Gas removal systems
      • 11.8. Cooling systems
      • 11.9. Plant auxiliaries
      • 11.10. Engineering materials
      • 11.11. Summary
    • 12. Total flow and other systems involving two-phase expansion
      • 12.1. Total flow
      • 12.2. Alternative systems for power recovery based on two-phase expansion
    • 13. Binary geothermal energy conversion systems: Basic Rankine, dual–pressure, and dual–fluid cycles
      • 13.1. Introduction
      • 13.2. Binary power cycle
      • 13.3. Binary cycle performance
      • 13.4. Types of binary cycles
      • 13.5. Selection of working fluid
      • 13.6. Cycle performance comparison
      • 13.7. Design considerations
      • 13.8. Economic considerations
    • 14. Combined and hybrid geothermal power systems
      • 14.1. Introduction and definitions
      • 14.2. General thermodynamic considerations
      • 14.3. Combined single- and double-flash systems
      • 14.4. Combined flash and binary systems
      • 14.5. Geothermal-fossil hybrid systems
      • 14.6. Geothermal-solar hybrid systems
      • 14.7. Conclusions
      • Nomenclature
  • Part Three. Design and economic considerations
    • 15. Waste heat rejection methods in geothermal power generation
      • 15.1. Introduction: overview and scope
      • 15.2. Condensers in geothermal power plants
      • 15.3. Water-cooled condensers
      • 15.4. Air-cooled condensers
      • 15.5. Evaporative (water- and air-cooled) condensers
      • 15.6. Concluding summary and future trends
    • 16. Silica scale control in geothermal plants—historical perspective and current technology
      • 16.1. Introduction
      • 16.2. Geochemistry of silica
      • 16.3. Thermodynamics of silica solubility
      • 16.4. Silica precipitation kinetics
      • 16.5. Silica scaling experience in geothermal power production
      • 16.6. Historical techniques for silica/silicate scale inhibition
      • 16.7. Current scale control techniques at high supersaturation
      • 16.8. Case study for scale control in a combined-cycle plant design
      • 16.9. Pilot-plant testing for bottoming cycle optimization
      • 16.10. Guidelines for optimum pH-mod system design
      • 16.11. Summary
    • 17. Environmental benefits and challenges associated with geothermal power generation
      • 17.1. Introduction
      • 17.2. Environmental, social, and cultural benefits and challenges of geothermal power generation
      • 17.3. Developing an environmentally sound and socially responsible project
      • 17.4. Geothermal energy in the context of sustainable development
      • 17.5. Conclusions
    • 18. Project permitting, finance, and economics for geothermal power generation
      • 18.1. Introduction
      • 18.2. Finance background
      • 18.3. Recent evidence in geothermal drilling and construction
      • 18.4. Cost and financing issues
      • 18.5. Permitting land use and interconnection
      • 18.6. Long-term economic and financing security
      • 18.7. Conclusions
  • Part Four. Case studies
    • 19. Larderello: 100years of geothermal power plant evolution in Italy
      • Prologue: historical outline on geothermal development in Italy up to 1960, with particular reference to the boraciferous region
      • 19.1. Introduction: background of geothermal power generation
      • 19.2. 1900–1910: first experiments of geo-power generation and initial applications
      • 19.3. 1910–1916: first geothermal power plant of the world, experimental generation, and start of geo-power production at the commercial scale
      • 19.4. 1917–1930: consolidation of geoelectric power production at the industrial scale and start of a new technology: the direct-cycle geo-power units
      • 19.5. 1930–1943: toward a balanced economic importance of chemical production and geo-power generation
      • 19.6. 1944–1970: destruction, reconstruction, relaunching, and modification of the geo-power system
      • 19.7. 1970–1990: from reinjection of spent fluids and processing of steam to the renewal of all power units and remote control of the whole generation system
      • 19.8. 1990–2014: recent technological advancements, with special regard to the “AMIS Project,” new materials, and environmental acceptability
      • 19.9. Other geothermal areas
    • 20. Fifty-five years of commercial power generation at The Geysers geothermal field, California: The lessons learned
      • 20.1. Introduction
      • 20.2. Background
      • 20.3. The fledgling years (1960–69)
      • 20.4. Geothermal comes of age (1969–79)
      • 20.5. The geothermal rush (1979–86)
      • 20.6. The troubled era (1986–95)
      • 20.7. The watershed years (1995–98)
      • 20.8. Stability at last (1998–2004)
      • 20.9. Renewed optimism (2004–15)
      • 20.10. The future (beyond 2015)
      • 20.11. Lessons learned
    • 21. Indonesia: Vast geothermal potential, modest but growing exploitation
      • 21.1. Introduction
      • 21.2. Geological background
      • 21.3. Vast geothermal potential
      • 21.4. History of geothermal development in Indonesia
      • 21.5. Geothermal law and other geothermal regulations
      • 21.6. National energy condition and policy
      • 21.7. Geothermal energy role in the National Energy Mix
      • 21.8. Geothermal development plan
      • 21.9. Geothermal exploitation growth
      • 21.10. Challenges in geothermal development
      • 21.11. Future planning of geothermal development
      • 21.12. Conclusions
    • 22. New Zealand: A geothermal pioneer expands within a competitive electricity marketplace
      • 22.1. Reform of the NZ electricity generation and supply industry
      • 22.2. Geothermal resource management
      • 22.3. Geothermal: a Maori treasure being actively and innovatively used
      • 22.4. Geothermal developments—2000 to 2015
      • 22.5. Field review of geothermal power, tourism, and direct use developments
      • 22.6. Geothermal outlook
    • 23. Central and South America: Significant but constrained potential for geothermal power generation
      • 23.1. Central America
      • 23.2. South America
      • 23.3. Final remarks
    • 24. Mexico: Thirty-three years of production in the Los Azufres geothermal field
      • 24.1. Geothermal power in Mexico
      • 24.2. Main features of the Los Azufres field
      • 24.3. Geothermal production
      • 24.4. Power plants and output
      • 24.5. Perspectives
    • 25. Enhanced geothermal systems: Review and status of research and development
      • 25.1. Introduction
      • 25.2. Characterization of geothermal energy systems
      • 25.3. Reservoir types applicable for EGS development
      • 25.4. Treatments to enhance productivity of a priori low-permeable rocks
      • 25.5. Environmental impact of EGS treatments
      • 25.6. Sustainable operation
      • 25.7. Outlook
    • 26. Geothermal energy in the framework of international environmental law
      • 26.1. Introduction
      • 26.2. Environmental international law and geothermal energy
      • 26.3. Environmental features in public and private companies developing geothermal projects; green sells
      • 26.4. Global interest in geothermal energy
      • 26.5. Conclusion
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
854
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780081003442
Hardcover ISBN:
9780081003374

About the Editor

Ron DiPippo

Dr. Ron DiPippo is a world authority and consultant on Geothermal Power Plants. He is Chancellor Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering, former Associate Dean of Engineering at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth (UMD), a visiting Research Professor and Visiting Lecturer at Brown University in Providence, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), as well as a visiting lecturer at the School for Renewable Energy Science at the University of Akureyri, Iceland.

Affiliations and Expertise

Chancellor Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering and the former Associate Dean of Engineering, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth (UMD), MA, USA