Geomorphological Processes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780408107358, 9781483192406

Geomorphological Processes

1st Edition

Studies in Physical Geography

Authors: E Derbyshire K. J. Gregory J. R. Hails
Editors: K. J. Gregory
eBook ISBN: 9781483192406
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st January 1979
Page Count: 316
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Description

Geomorphological Processes describes land forms and land form changes, particularly regarding the rates of operation of these events. This book describes the mechanics of the geomorphological processes; the text also shows the application of an equation to explain trends in geomorphology that involves land forms (or results, a dependent variable), processes, and materials (both independent variables). The authors explain endogenetic and exogenetic processes, as well as the control systems approach. They explain the drainage basin processes which collect, concentrate, and promote water mobility and sedimentation. They also discuss the coastal processes concerning waves, tidal variations, sediment budgets, hydrodynamics of near-shore zones; the book also addresses shoreline configuration, planning, and coastal protection. The authors analyze the cryonival and glacial process such as the formation of ice in the landscape, glacial erosion, debris entrainment, meltwater erosion, and glaci-aquatic sedimentation. The text shows the difficulty of measuring the parameters in the relationship between water action and sediment movement. This book is intended for first or second year students in geology, hydrology, and those whose majors are in meteorology. It can also benefit readers whose interest lie with the environment or with the general earth sciences.

Table of Contents


Preface

List of Illustrations

List of Tables

1 Introduction

1.1 A Geomorphological Equation

1.2 Earth Materials

1.3 Endogenetic Processes

1.4 Exogenetic Processes

1.4a Weathering Processes

1.4b Climate and Surface Processes

1.5 Processes and Systems

2 Drainage Basin Processes

2.1 Perspectives on the Drainage Basin

2.1a Drainage Basin Studies

2.1b Slope Studies

2.1c The Geomorphological Equation Applied to the Drainage Basin

2.1d Types of Model

2.2 Processes in the Drainage Basin

2.2a Water Movement

2.2b Mass Movement

2.2c Sediment and Solutes in Water

2.2d Water and Sediment in River Channels

2.3 Principles Applied to the Drainage Basin

2.3a Particles on Slopes

2.3b Fluids in Channels

2.3c Equilibrium Concepts

2.3d Utilization of Models

2.4 Patterns of Process

2.4a Temporal Patterns and Sequences

2.4b Measuring Process Rates

2.4c Some Controls of Spatial Patterns

2.5 Prospects in the Drainage Basin

3 Coastal Processes

3.1 Waves

3.1a Wave Propagation Velocity

3.1b Wave Types

3.1c Waves Generated by the Wind

3.1d Wave Attenuation: Shoaling Transformation

3.1e Wave Energy

3.1f Breaking Waves

3.1g Surf Beat

3.1h Long Period Waves

3.1i Wave Refraction

3.1j Wave Refraction Diagrams

3.1k Wave Reflection

3.1l Wave Diffraction

3.1m Wave Direction

3.1n Edge Waves

3.2 Tides and Variations in Mean Sea Level

3.3 Nearshore Sediment Budget

3.3a Fluvial Sediment Discharge

3.3b Estuaries

3.4 Hydrodynamics of the Nearshore Zone

3.4a Longshore Currents

3.4b Rip Currents: Nearshore Cell Circulation

3.4c Longshore Sediment Transport

3.5 Estimates of Sediment Transport from Tracer Dispersal Studies

3.6 Beach Processes and Monitoring Techniques

3.6a Beach Profiles

3.6b Effects of Swash Percolation and Groundwater Flow on Beach Profiles

3.6c Beach Gradients

3.6d Ridge and Runnel Profiles

3.6e Summary Comments

3.7 Rhythmic Shoreline Features

3.8 Textural Parameters of Shoreline Sediments

3.8a Changes Normal to the Shoreline

3.8b Changes Parallel to the Shoreline

3.9 Shoreline Configuration: Beaches in Plan

3.10 Planning and Coast Protection

3.10a Beach Nourishment

3.10b Coast Protection Schemes

3.10c Dredging Offshore Banks

3.11 Concluding Remarks and Suggestions for Future Research

4 Aeolian Processes

4.1 Entrainment and Transport: Threshold Speed and Grain Size

4.1a Grain Size

4.2 Abrasion and Deflation

4.2a Surface Roughness

4.2b Ventifact Formation and Deflation

4.3 Bedforms

4.3a Sand Ripples and Ridges

4.3b Seif or Longitudinal Dunes

4.3c Barchan Dunes

4.3d Ergs

4.4 Loess

4.5 Conclusions and Prospects

5 Cryonival and Glacial Processes

5.1 Forms of Ice in the Landscape

5.1a Ground and Soil Ice

5.1b Snow and Firn

5.1c Glacier Ice

5.2 Some Properties of Massive Ice

5.3 Cryonival Processes

5.3a Rock Disruption

5.3b Soil Disruption

5.3c Contraction Cracking

5.3d Degradation of Permafrost

5.3e Nivation

5.3f Rock Glacier Flow

5.4 Glacial Erosional Processes

5.4a The Preparatory Processes

5.4b Processes of Glacial Erosion

5.5 Debris Entrainment by Glaciers

5.6 Glacial Depositional Processes

5.6a Glacigenic Sediments

5.6b Lodgement

5.6c Meltout, Flow and Sliding

5.7 Meltwater Erosion and Glaci-Aquatic Sedimentation

5.7a Meltwater Erosion

5.7b Glaci-Aquatic Sedimentation

5.8 Post-Depositional Processes Affecting Glacial Sediments

5.9 Landform and Sediment Associations in Space and Time

5.10 Prospects for Cold Climate Process Studies

6 Conclusion: A Postscript

Bibliography

Subject Index

Geographical Index

Details

No. of pages:
316
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1979
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483192406

About the Author

E Derbyshire

K. J. Gregory

J. R. Hails

About the Editor

K. J. Gregory