Geology - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780434985715, 9781483183190

Geology

2nd Edition

The Made Simple Series

Authors: William H. Matthews
eBook ISBN: 9781483183190
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st January 1983
Page Count: 320
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Description

Geology gives a detailed study of rock-forming minerals and the rocks that are formed by it. The text analyses the forces which act on and within rocks. This subject belongs to physical geology. Historical geology is also covered in the book. This study explores the fossil content of the rock and reconstructs the earth’s history over the past million years. The subjects encourage the reader to go out and examine his surroundings.
First chapter of the book focuses on the description of earth. Topics such as the shape, size, and motions of the earth are discussed. The second chapter of the text covers the chemical composition of minerals. Crystal system, crystallography, and crystal habits are included in the chapter. The physical properties and different types of minerals are also analyzed. Volcanism and all aspects of volcanoes are reviewed. The formation of soil and weathering is the topic of another chapter.
The book will provide useful information to geologists, mineralogists, volcanologists, students and researchers of geology.

Table of Contents


Foreword

Part One—Physical Geology

Chapter One This Earth of Ours

(1) The Nature and Scope of Geology

(2) The Geology Around Us

(3) Studying Geology

(4) Physical Geology

(5) Historical Geology

(6) The Earth In Space

(7) Shape, Size, and Motions of the Earth Shape of the Earth; Size of the Earth; Earth Motions; Rotation of the Earth; Revolution of the Earth

(8) Principal Divisions of the Earth The Atmosphere; The Hydrosphere; The Lithosphere

(9) Major Physical Features of the Earth The Continental Masses; The Ocean Basins

(10) Geologic Forces Gradation; Tectonism; Volcanism

Chapter Two Minerals

(1) Chemical Composition of Minerals

(2) Crystals Crystal Systems; Crystallography; Crystal Habits

(3) Physical Properties of Minerals Hardness; Color; Streak; Luster; Cleavage and Fracture; Tenacity; Taste; Odor; Feel; Other Physical Properties

(4) The Petrological Microscope

(5) Amorphous Minerals

(6) Rock-Forming Minerals Feldspars; Quartz; Mica; Pyroxenes; Amphiboles; Calcite; Dolomite; Fluorite; Aragonite; Gypsum; Anftydrite; Halite; Kaolin; Serpentine; Chlorite

(7) Metallic or Ore Minerals Aluminum; Copper; Gold; Lead; Mercury; Silver; Tin; Zinc; Iron; Nickel; Cobalt; Chromium; Manganese; Magnesium; Uranium

(8) Non-metallic or Industrial Minerals

Chapter Three Igneous Rocks and Volanism

(1) Intrusive or Plutonic Rocks Granite; Gabbro; Peridotite; Syenite; Diorite

(2) Extrusive or Volcanic Rocks Felsite; Basalt; Pumice; Obsidian

(3) Texture of Igneous Rocks

(4) Chemical Composition of Igneous Rocks; High-Silica-Content or Acidic Igneous Rocks; Low-Silica-Content or Basic Igneous Rocks

(5) Igneous Rock Formations Dykes; Sills; Laccoliths; Batholiths; Stocks; Volcanic Neck

(6) Volcanoes Distribution of Volcanoes; Activity of Volcanoes

(7) Volcanic Products Gases; Liquids; Solids

(8) Volcanic Eruptions

(9) Types of Volcanoes Pelean; Vulcanian; Strombolian; Hawaiian

(10) Land Forms Produced by Volcanic Activity Plateau Basalts or Lava Plains; Volcanic Mountains; Explosion Cones; Composite or Strato- Volcanoes; Lava Domes or Shield Volcanoes; Volcanic Craters; Calderas

(11) Sources of Volcanic Heat The Pressure Release Theory; The Frictional Heat or Compression Theory; The Radioactivity Theory

(12) Fumaroles, Hot Springs, and Geysers Fumaroles; Hot Springs; Geysers

(13) Recent Volcanic Activity

Chapter Four Sedimentary Rocks

(1) Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Shale; Sandstone; Grits; Greywackes; Quartzites; Conglomerate

(2) Chemical Sedimentary Rocks

(3) Physical Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks Stratification; Texture; Ripple Marks; Mud Cracks; Concretions; Geodes; Color; Fossils

Chapter Five Methamorphism and Crustal Deformation

(1) Contact Metamorphism

(2) Dynamic (or Kinetic) Metamorphism

(3) Effects and Products of Metamorphism Foliated Metamorphic Rocks; Non-foliated Metamorphic Rocks

(4) Crustal Movements: Tectonism Epeirogenic Movements; Orogenic Movements

(5) Rock Structures Produced by Tectonism Warping: Folding: Fracturing: Faults

(6) Evidence of Crustal Movements

(7) Causes of Crustal Movements

Chapter Six Weathering and Soil Formation

(1) Physical Weathering Frost Action: Alternate Heating and Cooling: Organic Activities

(2) Chemical Weathering Oxidation: Hydrat ion: Carbonation: Solution

(3) Rates of Weathering Composition of the Rock: Physical Condition of the Rock: Climatic Conditions: Topography: Structures

(4) Effects of Weathering Differential Weathering: Exfoliation: Spheroidal Weathering; Talus or Screes

(5) Soils,Soil Profiles

(6) Classification of Soils

Chapter Seven Geologic Agents: Water

(1) The Hydrologic Cycle

(2) Drainage Patterns and River Types Drainage Patterns: River Types

(3) The Work of Rivers

(4) River Erosion Abrasion or Corrasion: Solution or Corrosion; Hydraulic Plucking or Quarrying; Attrition

(5) Rate of Erosion Stream Size; Gradient and Velocity; Nature of the Load

(6) Effects of River Erosion Stream-cut Valleys and Gullies; Rapids and Waterfalls; Pot-holes; River Capture; Meanders and Ox-bow Lakes; Braided Streams

(7) Transportational Work of Rivers Dissolved Load; Suspended Load; Bed Load

(8) Deposition Alluvial Fans and Alluvial Cones; Deltas; Flood Plains; River Terraces; Natural Levees

(9) Cycles of Erosion

(10) River-Valley Erosion Cycle Youthful Stage ; Mature Stage; Old-Age Stage; Interruption of the River-Valley Cycle

(11) Regional Erosional Cycle mYouthful Stage; Mature Stage; Old-Age Stage; Interruption of the Regional Erosional Cycle

(12) Ground Water

(13) The Water Table

(14) Forms of Ground Water Wells; Springs

(15) Erosion by Ground Water Caverns; Sink-holes; Natural Bridges

(16) Deposition by Ground Water Spring Deposits; Cavern Deposits; Cementation; Concretions; Geodes; Fissure Deposits or Veins; Replacement or Petrification

(17) Ground Water and Man

(18) Rain

Chapter Eight Geologic Agents: Glaciers, Wind and Gravity

(1 ) Origin of Glaciers

(2) Types of Glaciers Valley Glaciers; Piedmont Glaciers; Ice Sheets or Continental Glaciers

(3) Movement of Glaciers

(4) Glacial Erosion Erosion by Valley Glaciers; Erosion by Ice Sheets

(5) Glacial Transportation

(6) Glacial Deposition Till or Unstratified Deposits; Outwash or Stratified Deposits

(7) Causes of Glacial Periods

(8) Work of the Wind

(9) Wind Erosion Deflation; Abrasion

(10) Transportation by the Wind

(11) Wind Deposition Dunes; Migration of Dunes; Types of Dunes; Loess

(12) Mass Movement of Rocks and Soils Water; Freezing and Thawing; Undercutting; Organic Activities; Shock Waves

(13) Rapid Movements Scree; Landslides; Mudflows; Earthflows

(14) Slow Movements Soil Creep; Solifluction

Chapter Nine Oceans and Shorelines

(1) Division of the Oceans

(2) Depth of the Oceans

(3) Composition of Ocean Water

(4) Life in the Ocean

(5) The Ocean Floor Continental Shelf; Continental Slope; Deep-sea Floor or Abyssal Zone

(6) Movements of the Sea Tides; Currents; Waves

(7) Marine Erosion Processes of Marine Erosion; Features Formed by Marine Erosion

(8) Marine Transportation

(9) Marine Deposition Features Formed by Marine Deposition

(10) Shoreline Development Johnson's Classification; Shepard's Classification

(11) Coral Reefs

Chapter Ten Lakes and Swamps

(1) Origin of Lake Basins Crustal Movements; Volcanic Activity; Glaciation; Mass Movements or Gravity; Rivers; Ground Water; Waves and Currents; Other Causes

(2) Types of Lakes Fresh-water Lakes; Saline or Salt Lakes; Playa Lakes

(3) Destruction of Lakes

(4) Swamps

Chapter Eleven Earthquakes and the Interior of the Earth

(1) Causes of Earthquakes

(2) Distribution of Earthquakes

(3) Effects of Earthquakes

(4) Historic Earthquakes

(5) Detecting and Recording Earthquakes Locating Earthquakes

(6) Size of Earthquakes Intensity; Magnitude

(7) Interior of the Earth Crust; Mantle; Core

Chapter Twelve Plains, Plateaus and Mountains

(1) Plains, Marine or Coastal Plains; Lake Plains; Alluvial Plains;Glacial Plains; Lava Plains

(2) Some British Plains

(3) Plateaus,Fault Plateaus; Warped Plateaus; Lava Plateaus

(4) Mountains

(5) Origin of Mountains, Volcanic Mountains; Folded Mountains; Fault or Block Mountains; Complex Mountains

(6) Erosional Remnants

Chapter Thirteen Geology and Man

(1) Fossil Fuels Coal; Petroleum

(2) Metallic Minerals

(3) Non-metallic or Industrial Rocks and Minerals

(4) Engineering Geology

(5) Man, The Geologic Agent

Part Two—Historical Geology

Chapter Fourteen The Origin and Age of the Earth

(1) The Origin of the Earth; The Nebular Hypothesis; The Planetesimal Hypothesis; The Tidal or Gaseous Hypothesis ; Recent Advances in Cosmology

(2) The Age of the Earth

(3) The Geologic Column and the Geologic Time Scale;Units of the Time Scale; Units of Rocks

(4) Measuring Geologic Time; Salinity of the Sea; Rate of Sedimentation; Radioactive Methods

Chapter Fifteen The Records of the Rocks

(1) Keys to the Past; The Doctrine of Uniformitarianism; The Law of Superposition; Relative Age of Igneous Rocks; The Law ofFaunal Succession; Correlation; Unconformities; Palaeogeography

(2) Fossils: The Record of Life on Earth

(3) The Divisions of Palaeontology

(4) How Fossils Are Formed; Requirements of Fossilization

(5) Gaps in the Fossil Record

(6) The Different Kinds of Fossil Remains

Original Soft Parts of Organisms; Original Hard Parts of Organisms; Altered Hard Parts of Organisms; Traces of Organisms

(7) The Classification of Fossils

(8) Units of Classification

(9) How Fossils are Used

Chapter Sixteen Life of Past Ages

(1) Plant Classification; Sub-kingdom Thallophyta; Sub-kingdom Embryophyta

(2) Animal Classification; Phylum Protozoa; Phylum Porifera; Phylum Coelenterata; Worms; Phylum Bryozoa; Phylum Brachiopoda; Phylum Mollusca; Phylum Annelida; Phylum Arthropoda; Phylum Echlnodermata; Phylum Chor data

Chapter Seventeen Evolution: Changing Life

(1) Theories of Evolution; Theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics; Theory Natural Selection; The Mutation Theory

(2) Evidence of Evolution; Evidence from Comparative Anatomy; Evidence from Embryology; Evidence from Classification; Evidence from Genetics; Evidence from Geographic Distribution; Evidence from Palaeontology

Chapter Eighteen Earth History

(1) The Pre-cambrian Eras

(2) The Pre-cambrian of Britain

(3) The Palaeozoic Era

(4) The Cambrian Period

(5) The Ordovician Period

(6) The Silurian Period

(7) The Devonian Period

(8) The Carboniferous Period

(9) The Permian Period

(10) The Mesozoic Era

(11) The Triassic Period

(12) The Jurassic Period

(13) The Cretaceous Period

(14) The Cainozoic Era

(15) The Tertiary Period

(16) The Quaternary Period

Chapter Nineteen The Geologic History of Man

(1) The First Primates

(2) The Manlike Apes

(3) From Prehistoric to Modern Man; East Africa Man; Java Ape Man; Peking Man; Heidelberg Man; Neanderthal Man; Modern Man

Chapter Twenty Plate Tectonics

(1) Continental Drift Mid-Ocean Ridges

(2) Seafloor Spreading Trenches

(3) Plate Tectonics

Chapter Twenty-One Geological Maps

Appendixes

Appendix A—Physical Properties of Minerals Described in Chapter Two

Appendix B—Where and How to Collect Rocks, Minerals, and Fossils

Appendix C—Synopsis of Plant and Animal Kingdoms

Appendix D—Glossary of Terms used in Geology

Appendix E—Suggested Further Reading

Index

Teaching Aids


Details

No. of pages:
320
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1983
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483183190

About the Author

William H. Matthews