Geographic Information Systems for Geoscientists - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080418674, 9781483144948

Geographic Information Systems for Geoscientists

1st Edition

Modelling with GIS

Authors: Graeme F. Bonham-Carter
eBook ISBN: 9781483144948
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1994
Page Count: 416
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Description

Geographic Information Systems for Geoscientists: Modelling with GIS provides an introduction to the ideas and practice of GIS to students and professionals from a variety of geoscience backgrounds. The emphasis in the book is to show how spatial data from various sources (principally paper maps, digital images and tabular data from point samples) can be captured in a GIS database, manipulated, and transformed to extract particular features in the data, and combined together to produce new derived maps, that are useful for decision-making and for understanding spatial interrelationship. The book begins by defining the meaning, purpose, and functions of GIS. It then illustrates a typical GIS application. Subsequent chapters discuss methods for organizing spatial data in a GIS; data input and data visualization; transformation of spatial data from one data structure to another; and the combination, analysis, and modeling of maps in both raster and vector formats. This book is intended as both a textbook for a course on GIS, and also for those professional geoscientists who wish to understand something about the subject. Readers with a mathematical bent will get more out of the later chapters, but relatively non-numerate individuals will understand the general purpose and approach, and will be able to apply methods of map modeling to clearly-defined problems.

Table of Contents


Foreword

Preface

1 Introduction to GIS

What is GIS?

Purpose of GIS

Organization

Visualization

Spatial Query

Combination

Analysis

Prediction

GIS and Related Computer Software

Computer Aided Drawing

Image Processing Systems

3-D GIS

Database Management Systems

Desktop Mapping Systems

Contouring and Surface Mapping Packages

Geostatistics Programs

Mathematical Morphology Programs

Other Software

Custodial Versus Project-Related GIS

Geological Application of GIS

Mineral Potential Mapping

References

2 Spatial Data Models

Introduction

Spatial Objects

Sampling-Limited Spatial Objects

Definition-Limited Spatial Objects

Irregular Imposed Spatial Objects

Regular Imposed Spatial Objects

Raster and Vector Spatial Data Models

Raster Model

Vector Model

Attribute Data

Spatial Attributes

Nonspatial Attributes

Measurement Scales

Attribute Tables

The Relational Model

References

3 Spatial Data Structures

Introduction

Raster Structures

Full Raster Structure

Attribute Classification

Run-Length Encoding

Scan Order for Rasters

Region Quadtrees and Octrees

Lines and Points in Raster

Vector Data Structures

Spaghetti Structure

Topological Data Structures

Vector Structures for Surfaces

References

4 Spatial Data Input

Introduction

Data Sources

Primary Data

Secondary Data

Map Projections

Geographic Coordinates

Plane Coordinates

Geometric Distortions

Figure of the Earth

Developable Surfaces

Digitizing

Manual Digitizing

Raster Scanning

Coordinate Conversion

Vector Conversion

Raster Conversion

References

5 Visualization and Query of Spatial Data

Introduction

Display of Cartographic Images

Components of a Cartographic Image

Resolution, Scale and Metafiles

Display Hardware for Digital Images

Color

Color Lookup Tables

Hardcopy Devices

Visualization of Surfaces

Dynamically-Linked Data Views

Spatial Query

Query by Spatial Attributes

Query by Nonspatial Attributes

References

6 Spatial Data Transformations

Introduction

Point-to-Area Conversions

Density Mapping

Methods for Point Samples

Dilation of Spatial Objects

Dilating Linear Features

Mathematical Morphology Operations

Sampling Transformations

Areas-to-Points

Area-to-Area

Raster-to-Vector-to-Raster

References

7 Tools for Map Analysis: Single Maps

Introduction

Examples of Applying Analytical Operations to Single Maps

Data Analysis and Modeling

Map Reclassification

Classification Tables Using Breakpoints

Operations on Attribute Tables

Adding New Fields

Spatial, Topological, and Geometrical Modeling

Aggregation Operations on Tables

Operations on Spatial Neighborhoods

Smoothing or Low-Pass Filters

High-Pass Filters for Edge Detection

Directional Filters

Hill Shading

Texture Filters

Join-Count Statistics

References

8 Tools for Map Analysis: Map Pairs

Introduction

Two-Map Overlays and Map Modeling

Map Modeling with Attribute Tables

Map Overlays and Overlay Tables

Correlation between Two Maps

Area Cross-Tabulations

Nominal Scale Data

Binary Maps

Interval and Ratio Scale Maps

Ordinal Scale Data

Other Topics

Summary

References

9 Tools for Map Analysis: Multiple Maps

Introduction

Types of Models

Modeling with GIS

Interchange of Map Data Files with External Software

Modeling Applications

Boolean Logic Models

Landfill Site Selection

Mineral Potential Evaluation

Index Overlay Models

Binary Evidence Maps

Index Overlay with Multi-Class Maps

Comments on Index Overlays

Fuzzy Logic Method

Combining Fuzzy Membership Functions

Comments on the Fuzzy Logic Method

Bayesian Methods

Favorability and Conditional Probability

Odds Formulation

Combining Datasets

Numerical Example

Conditional Independence

Application of Weights of Evidence to Mineral Potential Mapping

Discussion of Weights of Evidence

Prospector Model

Summary

References

Appendix I - Syntax for Modeling Pseudocode

Appendix II - Fortran Program for Calculating Weights of Evidence

Appendix III - Glossary of GIS Terms

Appendix IV - GIS Acronyms

Index

Details

No. of pages:
416
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1994
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483144948

About the Author

Graeme F. Bonham-Carter