Developments in Microthermometry, Spectroscopy, Thermodynamics, and Stable Isotopes

1st Edition - May 14, 2015

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  • Authors: Vratislav Hurai, Monika Huraiová, Marek Slobodník, Rainer Thomas
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128032411
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128032428

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Geofluids: Developments in Microthermometry, Spectroscopy, Thermodynamics, and Stable Isotopes is the definitive source on paleofluids and the migration of hydrocarbons in sedimentary basins—ideal for researchers in oil and gas exploration. There’s been a rapid development of new non-destructive analytical methods and interdisciplinary research that makes it difficult to find a single source of content on the subject of geofluids. Geoscience researchers commonly use multiple tools to interpret geologic problems, particularly if the problems involve fluid-rock interaction. This book perfectly combines the techniques of fluid inclusion microthermometry, stable isotope analyses, and various types of spectroscopy, including Raman analysis, to contribute to a thorough approach to research. Through a practical and intuitive step-by-step approach, the authors explain sample preparation, measurements, and the interpretation and analysis of data related to thermodynamics and mineral-fluid equilibria.

Key Features

  • Features working examples in each chapter with step-by-step explanations and calculations
  • Broad range of case studies aid  the analytical and experimental data
  • Includes appendices with equations of state, stable isotope fractionation equations, and Raman identification tables that aid in identification of fluid inclusion minerals
  • Authored by a team of expert scientists who have more than 60 years of related experience in the field and classroom combined


Researchers and geoscience specialists working with fluids and fluid flow in the Earth crust and mantle: magmatic and metamorphic petrologists, mineralogists, economic geologists engaged in the analysis of ore and non-ore hydrothermal deposits, basin evolution and hydrocarbon migration

Table of Contents

    • Preface
    • List of Abbreviations
      • Constants:
    • Chapter 1: General Characteristics of Geofluids
      • Abstract
      • 1.1 Brief History of Geofluid Observation and Research
      • 1.2 Entrapment of Fluids in Minerals
      • 1.3 Basic State Properties of Geofluids
      • 1.4 Changes in Fluid Inclusions
    • Chapter 2: Phase Diagrams
      • Abstract
      • 2.1 Unary Systems
      • 2.2 Properties of Water
      • 2.3 Aqueous Systems with Salts
      • 2.4 Aqueous Systems with Gases
      • 2.5 Gas Mixtures
      • 2.6 Hydrocarbons
      • 2.7 Silicate Melt
    • Chapter 3: Equations of State
      • Abstract
      • 3.1 Behavior of Ideal Gas
      • 3.2 Equations of State for Geofluids
    • Chapter 4: Fluid and Melt Inclusion Microthermometry
      • Abstract
      • 4.1 Observation and Imaging
      • 4.2 Sample Handling and Storage
      • 4.3 Calculating Volumetric Phase Ratios
      • 4.4 Calculating Fluid Inclusion Volumes
      • 4.5 Evaluating Trapping Modes of Fluid Inclusions
      • 4.6 Measuring Temperatures of Phase Transitions
      • Suggested Further Reading
    • Chapter 5: Interpretation of Microthermometric Data
      • Abstract
      • 5.1 Calculating Densities and Isochores
      • 5.2 Calculating Fluid and Melt Viscosities
      • 5.3 PT Estimates
      • 5.4 Calculating Depths and Geothermal Gradients
      • 5.5 Trend Analysis
      • Suggested Further Reading
    • Chapter 6: Fluid Thermodynamics
      • Abstract
      • 6.1 Thermodynamic Laws
      • 6.2 Free Energy of Reaction
      • 6.3 Gas Fugacity
      • 6.4 Calculating the Fluid Composition from Thermodynamic Data
      • 6.5 Calculating Phase Diagrams and Mineral-Fluid Equilibria
    • Chapter 7: Raman and Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis
      • Abstract
      • 7.1 Fundamentals
      • 7.2 Gases and Their Mixtures
      • 7.3 Aqueous Fluids
      • 7.4 Graphite and Carbonaceous Substances
      • 7.5 Petroleum and Bitumen
      • 7.6 Silicate Melts
      • 7.7 Magmatic Volatiles and Fluxing Species
      • 7.8 Raman Mapping and Modeling
    • Chapter 8: Miscellaneous Spectrometric and Chromatographic Methods
      • Abstract
      • 8.1 Crush-Leach Analysis of Aqueous Inclusions
      • 8.2 Bulk Gas Analysis
      • 8.3 Laser Ablation Analysis
      • 8.4 Selected Applications
      • Suggested Further Reading
    • Chapter 9: Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Geofluids
      • Abstract
      • 9.1 Terminology and Principles
      • 9.2 Stable Isotope Composition of Geofluid Reservoirs
      • 9.3 Stable Isotopes in Fluid Inclusions
      • 9.4 Stable Isotope Thermometry
      • 9.5 Isotope Fractionation in Open and Closed Systems
      • 9.6 Magmatic Devolatilization–Crystallization
      • 9.7 Hydrothermal Devolatilization–Precipitation
      • 9.8 Fluid–Rock Interaction
      • 9.9 Hydrothermal Alteration
      • 9.10 Fluid Mixing and Infiltration
      • 9.11 Isotope Fractionation Trends in Natural Hydrothermal Carbonates
      • 9.12 Interpretation of Stable Isotopes and Fluid Inclusions in Siderite and Magnesite Deposits of Western Carpathians
      • Suggested Further Reading
    • Appendix I: Eutectic and Peritectic Points of Aqueous Systems with Salts
    • Appendix II: Selected Equations of State
      • H2O
      • CO2
      • CH4
      • H2O–NaCl
      • H2O–NaCl–KCl
      • H2O–NaCl–KCl–CaCl2
      • H2O–CH4
      • H2O–CO2–NaCl
      • CO2–CO–CH4–H2–H2S–N2
    • Appendix III: Optical Properties of Fluid Inclusion Phases
    • Appendix IV: Stable Isotope Fractionation Factors
    • Appendix V: Raman Bands Sorted by Vibrations
    • Appendix VI: Raman Bands Sorted by Name
    • Appendix VII: Data Sources, Computer Programs, Websites
    • References
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 504
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2015
  • Published: May 14, 2015
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128032411
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128032428

About the Authors

Vratislav Hurai

Vratislav Hurai
Vratislav Hurai obtained his master's degree in mineralogy, geochemistry and economic geology (1979), his PhD. (1989), and his Habilitation (2003) at Comenius University in Bratislava, where he worked in 1980-1994 and 2001-2006 in various full-time positions and till 2012 under part-time contracts. In 1994-2000, he joined the Laboratory of Isotope Geology at the Geological Survey of Slovak Republic in Bratislava. Since 2006, he is a senior researcher at the Geological Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences, where he received his DrSc. degree in 2009. In 1990-1991 and 1996 he was a post-doctoral research fellow of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation at the Georg-August University of Göttingen in Germany. While being assistant and associate professor at the Department of Mineralogy and Petrology of Comenius University, he taught courses on Isotope Geology, Genetic Mineralogy, Fluids in Geological Processes, Heavy and Accessory Minerals. Since his university studies, Hurai is engaged in the study of fluids in all geologic environments, including siderite, magnesite and polymetallic deposits, hydrocarbon prospects, deep mantle and crust, and high-grade metamorphic rocks. Hurai is author or co-author of 43 research articles published in impacted SCI journals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Head Scientist, Geological Institute, Slovak Academy of Science, Slovakia

Monika Huraiová

Monika Huraiová
Monika Huraiová received her master's degree in petrology (1989), her PhD. (2000), and her Habilitation (2004) at Comenius University in Bratislava, when she has been working at the Department of Mineralogy and Petrology up to present. She has been teaching courses on Optical Mineralogy, Fluid inclusion microthermometry, Applied Thermodynamics, Petrology of Magmatic Rocks, and Stable Isotopes. In 1998 she joined for 5 months the GeoforschungsZentrum in Potsdam, Germany, as a post-doctoral research fellow of the Deutsche Akademische Austauschdienst, where she worked together with R. Thomas on fluid and melt inclusions in xenoliths in alkali basalts.

Affiliations and Expertise

Head Researcher, Geofluids Research Laboratory, Comenius University, Slovakia

Marek Slobodník

Marek Slobodník
Marek Slobodník received his master's degree (1981), PhD (1990) and habilitation (2001) at the Masaryk University in Brno, Czech republic. He spent 8 months at the Katholieke Universiteit in Leuven, Belgium, where he studied fluid flows in sedimentary basins within the scope of postdoctoral sholarship funded by a bilateral cultural agreement between Czech Republic and Belgium. Since 90’s he has been investigating fluids in various geological environments and mineral deposits of European Variscides. He applied fluid inclusion methods in investigation of provenance of rock and crystal artefacts with the focus on the Central European region in the last decade. He is currently a head of geofluid lab at the Institute of Geological Sciences of the Masaryk University.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, Institute of Geological Science, Masaryk University, Czech Republic

Rainer Thomas

Rainer Thomas
Rainer Thomas received his master's degree in mineralogy, his PhD., and his Habilitation at Freiberg University of Mining and Technology (Germany). He worked in the semiconductor industry from 1969 to 1988, where he carried out research on crystal growth by chemical transport reactions, developed polishing technologies for silicon wafers, and performed X-ray studies on crystals using single- and double-crystal topographic techniques and multiple-diffraction measurements. He was head of the X-ray fine structure laboratory for 15 years while in the semiconductor industry. Dr. Thomas began work as a research scientist in 1988 at the Central Institute of Physics of the Earth in Potsdam, and then joined the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam in 1992, where he remained until his retirement in 2007. Throughout his career, Dr. Thomas has studied all aspects of fluid and melt inclusions in minerals and has used Raman microspectrometry for the characterization of inclusions and other geomaterials. He is also recognized for developing a Raman spectroscopic method for measuring trace to major amounts of water in glasses and melt inclusions. A main focus of his research has been the genesis of pegmatites using melt and fluid inclusions. In 2009, he was awarded the Hawley medal from the Mineralogical Association of Canada as co-author of a research article published in the Canadian Journal of Mineralogy. Thomas is author or co-author of more than 80 articles published in impacted SCI journals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Researcher, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Germany

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