Geochemical Studies - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444414021, 9780444599421

Geochemical Studies, Volume 2

1st Edition

Authors: Author Unknown
eBook ISBN: 9780444599421
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 1st January 1976
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Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Minor Elements in Metal Deposits in Sedimentary Rocks - A Review of the Recent Literature

Introduction

Classification of Deposits

Minor-Element Data Compilation

Stratabound Galena-Shalerite in Carbonates

Stratiform Massive Sulphide Deposits

Stratabound Cu-U-V Deposits in Arenaceous Rocks

Significance of Minor Elements

Discussion of Ore Genesis

Stratabound Lead-Zinc in Carbonates

Stratiform Massive Sulphides

Metal Deposits in Argillaceous Rocks

Stratabound Cu-U-V Deposits in Arenaceous Rocks

Modern Metalliferous Sediments

Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 2. Principles of Diffusion in Sedimentary Systems

Introduction

Theory of Diffusion

Facets of Diffusion in Sediments and Solid Systems

Free Path

Interface Surface Action, Viscosity and Zeta Potential

Temperature

Pressure

Compaction

Diffusion and Side Reactions

Diffusion in Solid Media

Field Observations as Related to Diffusion

Conclusions

References

Chapter 3. Hydrogeochemical Aspects of Mineral Deposits in Sedimentary Rocks

Introduction

Hydrodynamics

Hydrochemistry

Applications

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 4. Fluid-Inclusion Evidence on the Genesis of Ores in Sedimentary and Volcanic Rocks

Introduction

Literature Sources

Assumptions on which Fluid-Inclusion Data are Based

Classification of Inclusions

Laboratory Technique

Sample Selection

Cutting and Polishing

Choice of Inclusions and Problems in Microscopy

Heating Stages and their Operation

Cooling Stages

Types of Data Available - Mississippi Valley-Type Deposits

Density

Rate of Movement

Pressure

Temperature

Gross Salinity

pH

Noncondensable Gases and Organic Matter

Isotopic Ratios

Nonvolatile Ions (i.e., "Salts") in Solution

Comparison of Fluid-Inclusion Data from Mississippi Valley-Type Deposits with those from Magmatic Hydrothermal Deposits

Data from Other than Mississippi Valley-Type Deposits

Suggestions for Future Work

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 5. The Significance of Organic Matter in Ore Genesis

Introduction

Concentration of Metals

Metal-Organic Compounds

Physical Adsorption

Chemical Precipitation

Generation of Sulphide

Stages of Sedimentary Ore Formation

Laboratory Studies

Artificial Diagenesis

Isolation of Organic Matter in Ores

Conclusion

References

Chapter 6. Microbiological Processes in Relation to Ore Genesis

Introduction

Accumulation of Mineral-Forming Elements

Modification of Physico-Chemical Environment

Generation of Organic Matter

Transformation by Metabolism

Sulphide Mineralization

Mineral Synthesis by Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

Pyritic Framboids

Isotopic Evidence

Sulphur Deposits

Phosphorite Deposits

Biological Precipitation of Manganese

Microbial Precipitation of Iron

Concluding Remarks

Note Added in Proof

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 7. Oxygen and Carbon Isotopes in Ore Deposits in Sedimentary Rocks

Introduction

Environmental Abundances of 13C and 18O

18O and 13C in Hydrothermal Systems

Theoretical Considerations

Oxygen-18, 195 -Carbon-13, 198 18O in Active Geothermal Systems

18O in Gangue Minerals and Mineralizing Fluids

13C in Carbonate Gangue Minerals

18O and 13C as a Guide to Ore

Summary and Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 8. Sulphur and Lead Isotopes in Strata-Bound Deposits

Introduction

Sulphur Isotopes

General Theory

Abundance

Fractionation of Sulphur Isotopes

Influence of Sulphur Species on Sulphur Isotopic Abundances

Sulphur Isotopes in Strata-Bound Deposits

Deposits Enclosed in Marine Host Rocks

Discussion

Deposits Enclosed in Rocks of Continental or Near Continental Origin

Deposits of the Conglomerate-U (-Au) Type

Lead Isotopes

General Theory

Lead Isotopes in Strata-Bound Sulphide Deposits

Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide Deposits

Carbonate-Hosted Lead- Zinc Deposits

Discussion

References

Chapter 9. Uranium-, Thorium- and Lead-Isotope Studies of Strata-Bound Ores

Introduction

Age Deteminations: Radioactive Decay

The U-Pb and Th-Pb Method

Common Lead

The Lead Growth Curve of Conformable Ores

(Anomalous) Lead Lines, Multi-Stage Leads

Case Histories

Mississippi Valley Lead-Zinc Deposits

Other Lead-Zinc Deposits in Carbonate Rocks

Broken Hill Lode

Archean Greenstone Belts of the Eastern Transvaal

Geological Setting

Lead-Isotope Data

Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 10. Sedimentary, Geochemistry and Mineralogy of the Sulfides of Lead, Zinc, Copper and Iron and their Occurrence in Sedimentary Ore Deposits

Introduction

Aspects of Pb, Zrr, Cu, and Fe Chemistry and Geochemistry

Lead

Zinc

Copper

Iron

Crystal-Field Theory and the Geochemistry of Fe and Cu

Distribution of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Fe in the Earth

Pb, Zn, Cu, anf Fe Sulfide Minerals of Sedimentary Association

Structures and Compositions of the Major Minerals

Forms and Textures of the Minerals

Mineral Composition as an Indication of Formation Conditions

Pb, Zn, Cu, and Fe Sulfides in Aqueous Systems

Eh - pH and Partial Pressure Diagrams

Equilibria Amongst Lead Compounds

Equilibria Amongst Zinc Compounds

Equilibria Amongst Copper and Copper-Iron Compounds

Equilibria Amongst Iron Compounds

Transport and Depositional Phenomena Involving Pb, Zn, Cu, and Fe Sulfides

Solubilities and Complex Formation

Depositional Reactions, Depositional Systems, and Surface Phenomena

Examples of Sedimentary Environments Containing Pb, Zn, Cu, and Fe Sulfides

Modern Environments

Copper and Iron Sulfide Concentrations in Sedimentary Environments

Lead-Zinc Sulfide Ores

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgements

References

Description

Geochemical Studies is a collection of papers dealing with ore petrology, particularly on the genesis of ores found in sediments. One paper describes the minor elements in metal deposits in sedimentary rocks, focusing on geochemical work on certain classes of ores in sediments and on the theories of origin of the deposits. With better techniques of microprobe analysis of trace elements, the paper notes that ore deposits in sedimentary rocks can be characterized by their minor element suites. One paper points out that large ore deposits cannot possibly be formed by a migration of substances (known as "negative" diffusion). The paper estimates that the quantities of material that can be accumulated in a sediment horizon with a great affinity for these materials, say in a period of one billion years, will still not be sufficient to produce a large ore deposit. The paper estimates the necessary diffusion coefficients that occur in deep structures, where increased mobilities of various substances occur. Geologists, geochemists, and engineers working with fossil fuels will find the collection highly significant.


Details

Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 1976
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9780444599421

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About the Authors

Author Unknown Author