Geochemical Studies

Geochemical Studies

1st Edition - January 1, 1976

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  • Author: Author Unknown
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444599421

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Geochemical Studies is a collection of papers dealing with ore petrology, particularly on the genesis of ores found in sediments. One paper describes the minor elements in metal deposits in sedimentary rocks, focusing on geochemical work on certain classes of ores in sediments and on the theories of origin of the deposits. With better techniques of microprobe analysis of trace elements, the paper notes that ore deposits in sedimentary rocks can be characterized by their minor element suites. One paper points out that large ore deposits cannot possibly be formed by a migration of substances (known as "negative" diffusion). The paper estimates that the quantities of material that can be accumulated in a sediment horizon with a great affinity for these materials, say in a period of one billion years, will still not be sufficient to produce a large ore deposit. The paper estimates the necessary diffusion coefficients that occur in deep structures, where increased mobilities of various substances occur. Geologists, geochemists, and engineers working with fossil fuels will find the collection highly significant.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. Minor Elements in Metal Deposits in Sedimentary Rocks - A Review of the Recent Literature


    Classification of Deposits

    Minor-Element Data Compilation

    Stratabound Galena-Shalerite in Carbonates

    Stratiform Massive Sulphide Deposits

    Stratabound Cu-U-V Deposits in Arenaceous Rocks

    Significance of Minor Elements

    Discussion of Ore Genesis

    Stratabound Lead-Zinc in Carbonates

    Stratiform Massive Sulphides

    Metal Deposits in Argillaceous Rocks

    Stratabound Cu-U-V Deposits in Arenaceous Rocks

    Modern Metalliferous Sediments




    Chapter 2. Principles of Diffusion in Sedimentary Systems


    Theory of Diffusion

    Facets of Diffusion in Sediments and Solid Systems

    Free Path

    Interface Surface Action, Viscosity and Zeta Potential




    Diffusion and Side Reactions

    Diffusion in Solid Media

    Field Observations as Related to Diffusion



    Chapter 3. Hydrogeochemical Aspects of Mineral Deposits in Sedimentary Rocks







    Chapter 4. Fluid-Inclusion Evidence on the Genesis of Ores in Sedimentary and Volcanic Rocks


    Literature Sources

    Assumptions on which Fluid-Inclusion Data are Based

    Classification of Inclusions

    Laboratory Technique

    Sample Selection

    Cutting and Polishing

    Choice of Inclusions and Problems in Microscopy

    Heating Stages and their Operation

    Cooling Stages

    Types of Data Available - Mississippi Valley-Type Deposits


    Rate of Movement



    Gross Salinity


    Noncondensable Gases and Organic Matter

    Isotopic Ratios

    Nonvolatile Ions (i.e., "Salts") in Solution

    Comparison of Fluid-Inclusion Data from Mississippi Valley-Type Deposits with those from Magmatic Hydrothermal Deposits

    Data from Other than Mississippi Valley-Type Deposits

    Suggestions for Future Work



    Chapter 5. The Significance of Organic Matter in Ore Genesis


    Concentration of Metals

    Metal-Organic Compounds

    Physical Adsorption

    Chemical Precipitation

    Generation of Sulphide

    Stages of Sedimentary Ore Formation

    Laboratory Studies

    Artificial Diagenesis

    Isolation of Organic Matter in Ores



    Chapter 6. Microbiological Processes in Relation to Ore Genesis


    Accumulation of Mineral-Forming Elements

    Modification of Physico-Chemical Environment

    Generation of Organic Matter

    Transformation by Metabolism

    Sulphide Mineralization

    Mineral Synthesis by Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Pyritic Framboids

    Isotopic Evidence

    Sulphur Deposits

    Phosphorite Deposits

    Biological Precipitation of Manganese

    Microbial Precipitation of Iron

    Concluding Remarks

    Note Added in Proof



    Chapter 7. Oxygen and Carbon Isotopes in Ore Deposits in Sedimentary Rocks


    Environmental Abundances of 13C and 18O

    18O and 13C in Hydrothermal Systems

    Theoretical Considerations

    Oxygen-18, 195 -Carbon-13, 198 18O in Active Geothermal Systems

    18O in Gangue Minerals and Mineralizing Fluids

    13C in Carbonate Gangue Minerals

    18O and 13C as a Guide to Ore

    Summary and Conclusions



    Chapter 8. Sulphur and Lead Isotopes in Strata-Bound Deposits


    Sulphur Isotopes

    General Theory


    Fractionation of Sulphur Isotopes

    Influence of Sulphur Species on Sulphur Isotopic Abundances

    Sulphur Isotopes in Strata-Bound Deposits

    Deposits Enclosed in Marine Host Rocks


    Deposits Enclosed in Rocks of Continental or Near Continental Origin

    Deposits of the Conglomerate-U (-Au) Type

    Lead Isotopes

    General Theory

    Lead Isotopes in Strata-Bound Sulphide Deposits

    Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide Deposits

    Carbonate-Hosted Lead- Zinc Deposits



    Chapter 9. Uranium-, Thorium- and Lead-Isotope Studies of Strata-Bound Ores


    Age Deteminations: Radioactive Decay

    The U-Pb and Th-Pb Method

    Common Lead

    The Lead Growth Curve of Conformable Ores

    (Anomalous) Lead Lines, Multi-Stage Leads

    Case Histories

    Mississippi Valley Lead-Zinc Deposits

    Other Lead-Zinc Deposits in Carbonate Rocks

    Broken Hill Lode

    Archean Greenstone Belts of the Eastern Transvaal

    Geological Setting

    Lead-Isotope Data

    Summary and Conclusions


    Chapter 10. Sedimentary, Geochemistry and Mineralogy of the Sulfides of Lead, Zinc, Copper and Iron and their Occurrence in Sedimentary Ore Deposits


    Aspects of Pb, Zrr, Cu, and Fe Chemistry and Geochemistry





    Crystal-Field Theory and the Geochemistry of Fe and Cu

    Distribution of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Fe in the Earth

    Pb, Zn, Cu, anf Fe Sulfide Minerals of Sedimentary Association

    Structures and Compositions of the Major Minerals

    Forms and Textures of the Minerals

    Mineral Composition as an Indication of Formation Conditions

    Pb, Zn, Cu, and Fe Sulfides in Aqueous Systems

    Eh - pH and Partial Pressure Diagrams

    Equilibria Amongst Lead Compounds

    Equilibria Amongst Zinc Compounds

    Equilibria Amongst Copper and Copper-Iron Compounds

    Equilibria Amongst Iron Compounds

    Transport and Depositional Phenomena Involving Pb, Zn, Cu, and Fe Sulfides

    Solubilities and Complex Formation

    Depositional Reactions, Depositional Systems, and Surface Phenomena

    Examples of Sedimentary Environments Containing Pb, Zn, Cu, and Fe Sulfides

    Modern Environments

    Copper and Iron Sulfide Concentrations in Sedimentary Environments

    Lead-Zinc Sulfide Ores

    Concluding Remarks



Product details

  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 1976
  • Published: January 1, 1976
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444599421

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